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The Old Corner Book 

Store, Inc. 
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NEW ENGLAND AVIATORS 

IN TWO VOLUMES 
Volume II 

■ 



DAVID ENDICOTT PUTNAM 



EW ENGLAND AVIATORS 
1914-1918 

THEIR PORTRAITS AND THEIR RECORDS 

WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY ''' ' £ , 

A. LAWRENCE LOWELL 
Volume II i 




BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 

THE RIVERSIDE PRESS CAMBRIDGE 



DAVID END1COTT PUTNAM 



NEW ENGLAND AVIATORS 
1914-1918 



THEIR PORTRAITS AND THEIR RECORDS 



WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY 

A. LAWRENCE LOWELL 



Volume II 



BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 

THE RIVERSIDE PRESS CAMBRIDGE 
1920 



COPYRIGHT, 1920, BY HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



THIS EDITION CONSISTS OF ONE THOUSAND COPIES 
PRINTED AT THE RIVERSIDE PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, 
MASSACHUSETTS, FOR THE PUBLISHING COMMITTEE 
OF THE NEW ENGLAND AVIATORS 



t> 

bO<b 

^ CONTENTS 

Soldiers of the Wooden Cr jss. By Rt. Rev. Charles Henry Brent, D.D. . 2 

The Second Pursuit Group. By Lieutenant Earle F. Richards ... 3 

The Third Pursuit Group. By Lieutenant Chester E. Wright ... 35 

Detachment of Fifteen Aviators, A 274 

Winged Forces of the U.S. Navy. By Lieutenant Clifford A. Tinker . . 276 
Lighter-than-Air Construction in the United States. By Lieutenant 

Donald T. Hood 285 

David Putnam. By Richard D. Ware 478 

Abbreviations 479 

Aviators 

Adams, James Greenleaf, First Lieutenant 164 

*Aldrich, Perry Henry, First Lieutenant 49 

Alexander, Frank Emmons, First Lieutenant 258 

Allard, John Stetson, Jr., Second Lieutenant 450 

Alvord, Lincoln, Second Lieutenant 442 

Ames, Charles Burton, Second Lieutenant 452 

Ames, Lawrence Coffin, Second Lieutenant 452 

Amory, Walter, First Lieutenant . .118 

Anderson, George Dana, Lieutenant (j.g.) 288 

Appleton, William Channing, Jr., Second Lieutenant .... 37 

Aspinwall, George Lowell, Second Lieutenant 470 

Ayer, Carleton Sprague, Second Lieutenant 162 

Bailey, Morris Hall, Lieutenant (j.g.) 390 

Baker, George F., Ensign 432 

Baker, John Hopkinson, First Lieutenant 228 

Baker, Theodore Edward, First Lieutenant 448 

Baker, William Frank, Jr., First Lieutenant 468 

Barnes, Dwight Fletcher, Second Lieutenant 258 

Barnes, Ray A., First Lieutenant 226 

*Beane, James Dudley, First Lieutenant 14 

*Beauton, Joseph Emmett, First Lieutenant 22 

Benedict, George W., Jr., First Lieutenant 172 

Bingham, Hiram, Lieutenant-Colonel . . . . . . . . 214 

Blair, John Kent, First Lieutenant 98 

*Bliss, Carlton Merrill, Second Lieutenant 220 

Boutwell, Louis Evans, Second Lieutenant 18 

*Bowen, Joseph Brown, Second Lieutenant 84 

Bowen, Robert Sidney, Jr., Second Lieutenant 90 

Bowman, Marvin Somersett, Second Lieutenant 180 

Boynton, Alan Henry, First Lieutenant 122 

Brackett, Edward Tappan, Second Lieutenant 184 

Brewer, Arthur Douglas, Lieutenant 292 

Brewer, Edward Slocum, Lieutenant 354 

Bridgman, Hugh, First Lieutenant 32 

[ v ] 



CONTENTS 



Brooks, Arthur Raymond, Captain 11 

*Brown, Edwin Arnold, First Lieutenant 144 

Brown, John Freeman, Jr., First Lieutenant 194 

Brown, Ray Baxter, Second Lieutenant 410 

*Brown, Stafford Leighton, First Lieutenant 132 

Brown, Waldo Hayward, Ensign 432 

*Buchanan, John Squire, Second, Lieutenant (j.g.) 322 

Bundy, Mahlon Cook, Second Lieutenant 464 

Burleigh, Lewis A., Jr., Ensign 428 

Burnham, Addison C, Jr., Ensign . 430 

Cabot, Godfrey Lowell, Lieutenant 154 

Cabot, James Jackson, First Lieutenant 156 

Cabot, Thomas Dudley, Second Lieutenant 158 

Carret, Philip L., First Lieutenant 230 

Cauchon, Leo Bernard, First Lieutenant 56 

*Chapman, Elwin F., Cadet 140 

Chase, Chester I., Cadet 378 

Cheney, Philip L., Ensign 320 

Church, George, Chief Quartermaster 308 

*Clapp, Howard R., First Lieutenant 8 

Clark, Arthur L., First Lieutenant 54 

Clark, Leland V., First Lieutenant 208 

Clark, Wilder Crawford, Second Lieutenant 442 

Clayton, Henry Comyn, Ensign ........ 374 

Cohen, Harold, First Lieutenant 216 

Cole, Melvin W., First Lieutenant 234 

Comstock, Herbert Franklin, Second Lieutenant 206 

Conant, William M., Jr., Major 170 

Cooley, Richard L., Lieutenant (j.g.) 298 

Coolidge, Roger, First Lieutenant 204 

Copland, Harry Depew, First Lieutenant 96 

Craig, John W., Second Lieutenant 198 

Craighead, Philip Brooks, Second Lieutenant 412 

Craigie, Karl Harrold, Second Lieutenant 186 

Crane, Joshua, Jr., Lieutenant (j.g.) 394 

Crimmin, Royce B., Cadet 254 

Crocker, Frank Weyman, Ensign 424 

*Crosscup, Woldemar E., Ensign 268 

Curtis, Laurence, Lieutenant 394 

Curtis, Thomas Carson, Second Lieutenant 444 

Cutts, George B., Second Lieutenant 466 

Daiger, C. Vincent, Second Lieutenant 462 

Dana, Duncan, Captain 238 

Davis, Allan Nichols, Second Lieutenant 420 

*Delehanty, Michael Joseph, Ensign 370 

Dillaway, Manson McKown, Second Lieutenant 384 

[ vi ] 



CONTENTS 



*Dix, Roger S., Jr., Second Lieutenant 142 

Dole, Harold Sanford, First Lieutenant 440 

Doolin, Paul Rice, Second Lieutenant . 253 

*Dunham, Marbel Lester, Second Lieutenant ... . . 472 

Dttrfee, Thomas, Lieutenant (j.g.) • 330 

Early, Lawrence, Second Lieutenant 260 

Eaton, Albion Keith, Lieutenant (j.g.) 356 

Edwards, John Richard, Jr., First Lieutenant 64 

Elliott, Stuart Ellis, First Lieutenant 30 

Emery, Leland H., Second Lieutenant 190 

Emmons, George Beale, Jr., Second Lieutenant 182 

Estey, R. Noble, First Lieutenant .70 

Evans, Brice S., Private 256 

Fallon, Nugent, Lieutenant-Commander ....... 333 

Falvey, Wallace J., Lieutenant (j.g.) 434 

Farnsworth, Augustus Page, Second Lieutenant 152 

Fearing, George Richmond, Jr., Lieutenant-Commander .... 310 

Fenton, Paul Edwin, Second Lieutenant 248 

Ferrone, Frank Nichols, Ensign 270 

Fisher, Robert Lewis, Second Lieutenant 196 

Fitz Gerald, William J., Second Lieutenant 444 

Forster, Henry, Ensign 312 

Forsyth, Ralph E., Second Lieutenant 456 

Foss, Alden S., Second Lieutenant 450 

Francis, James Dwight, First Lieutenant 28 

Francis, Thayer, Second Lieutenant 408 

Freeman, Harry Boit, First Lieutenant 19 

Fuller, T. J. Duncan, First Lieutenant 52 

Fuller, Willard Perrin, Captain 232 

Galloupe, Chauncey A., Ensign 424 

Gardiner, Chandler Brewer, Second Lieutenant 454 

Gardiner, Charles Morris, Ensign 454 

*Gardiner, Edward Hooper, Second Lieutenant 130 

Gaston, William, Lieutenant (j.g.) 124 

Gibson, James Wallace, First Lieutenant 466 

Gioiosa, Ernest A., Cadet 48 

Giroux, Archie R., Second Lieutenant 42 

*Giroux, Ernest A., First Lieutenant. 40 

Gordon, David W., Second Lieutenant 262 

Gould, Richard H., Second Lieutenant ........ 420 

Gozzaldt, Richard de, Second Lieutenant 474 

Grant, Patrick, Second, Flight Cadet 122 

* Graves, Edmund Pike, First Lieutenant 114 

Greely, Benjamin M., Jr., Ensign 400 

Greene, Gardiner Frank, First Lieutenant 236 

Greenough, Charles White, Lieutenant (j.g.) 458 

[ vii ] 



CONTENTS 



Grosvenor, Theodore Phinney, Lieutenant (j.g.) . . . . . 392 

Hale, David Clendon, Observer 100 

Hall, George Lin wood, Seco?id Lieutenant 376 

Hallett, Joseph C, Ensign 362 

Hambleton, Harold Towle, Second Lieutenant 222 

*Hamilton, Lloyd Andrews, First Lieutenant . ... . . .126 

Hanks, Stedman, Major 224 

Harris, Harold Cobb, Lieutenant (j.g.) 372 

Hastings, Edward Rogers, Jr., Seco?id Lieutenant 308 

Hawks, Horace G., Second Lieutenant 416 

Hellier, Edward Whittier, First Lieutenant 396 

Hellier, Walter Harmon, Second Lieutenant 396 

Henderson, Ernest F., Jr., Lieutenant (j.g.) ...... 338 

*Herrick, William F., Second Lieutenant 138 

Heywood, Vincent E., First Lieutenant . . . . . 67 

Hodder, James Allan, Cadet 382 

Holt, Arthur R., Ensign . 430 

*Homer, Joseph Warren, Jr., Ensign . . . . . . . 281 

Hood, Donald T., Lieutenant 285 

Hoopes, Thomas T., Ensign 346 

Howe, David W., First Lieutenant 26 

Howell, Charles Hurd, Captain 74 

Hubbard, Edwin Beaumont, Second Lieutenant 406 

Hughes, Joseph V., Second Lieutenant . 264 

Hurlburt, John Rogers, Captain 150 

Hyde, Russell Noyes, Lieutenant (j.g.) 348 

Ives, Paul Frost, Lieutenant 358 

Jarvis, Samuel Gardiner, Second Lieutenant 202 

Jesse, Herman J., First Lieutenant . . . ... . . . 426 

Keith, George Knowlton, Ensign 402 

Keith, William Scott, Second Lieutenant 462 

*Kenneson, Edward Ralph, First Lieutenant 136 

Keough, Wesley L., Second Lieutenant 268 

Kiley, James E., Second Lieutenant 464 

*Killorin, George W., Second Lieutenant 256 

Kinder, Roland H, Second Lieutenant 412 

King, Appleton, Flight Cadet 406 

King, Gelston Tyler, Second Lieutenant 210 

Kirwan, Thomas A., Captain 109 

Knowles, Robert Winthrop, Lieutenant 438 

Koch, Theodore William, First Lieutenant 168 

Kuehl, Adolph A., Second Lieutenant 240 

Kullberg, Harold A., First Lieutenant 94 

Langley, John A., Second Lieutenant 446 

Laskey, William Gallup, Ensign 438 

Law, Sidney Fuller, Second Lieutenant 58 

[ viii ] 



CONTENTS 



Lawrence, William Badger, Jr., Ensign 422 

Leavitt, Henry Joseph, Second Lieutenant 116 

Leeburn, Leo J., Second Lieutenant 380 

Lehan, Ralph A., Ensign 436 

*Lingard Eric, Ensign . . . 326 

Little, Charles E., Sergeant 216 

*Lord, Orlando Merritt, Second Lieutenant 160 

Lowell, James Arnold, Cadet 398 

Macaulay, A. Vernon, Second Lieutenant 386 

Macaulay, Charles R., First Lieutenant 386 

MacBride, Edwin Thayer, First Lieutenant 240 

MacDonald, Donald, First Lieutenant 460 

MacDonald, Neal C, Second Lieutenant 460 

Mackay, George H., Jr., First Lieutenant 384 

Mackenzie, Clyde C, Second Lieutenant 178 

*MacLeish, Kenneth, Lieutenant 295 

MacLure, Henry Goldsborough, First Lieutenant 212 

*McCormack, Ralph Roby, Ensign 316 

McLaughlin, Ralph D., Second Lieutenant 227 

McNamara, John F., Lieutenant 166 

Magnuson, Henry Alexander, Cadet 477 

Magoun, Francis Peabody, Jr., First Lieutenant 120 

Mahoney, Frank H., Second Lieutenant 472 

Marschat, Richard A., Ensign 366 

Marshall, Charles Clark, Second Lieutenant 448 

Merrill, Donald Hersey, Lieutenant (j.g.) 294 

Miller, Charles B., Second Lieutenant 318 

Miller, John Matthew, Ensign 352 

Mitchell, Elmer Leighton, Lieutenant (j.g.) 350 

Moran, John Lalley, Second Lieutenant . 192 

Morse, Charles Lester, Second Lieutenant 264 

Mosser, Philip Dudley, Ensign '. 318 

Mudge, William Forbes, Lieutenant (j.g.) 392 

Munkittrick, Robert J., Ensign 434 

Murphy, Dudley Bowles, Ensign . 332 

Murphy, John Lewis, Ensign 426 

* Murphy, Joseph Gerard, Ensign 468 

Muther, Walter P., First Lieutenant 112 

Nason, Charles Francis, Second Lieutenant 408 

Noble, Edwin Lawrence, Second Lieutenant 266 

Norris, Ralph H., Lieutenant (j.g.) 290 

*Ostridge, Charles L., Lieutenant (j.g.) 324 

Packard, Harold Artemas, First Lieutenant 260 

*Page, Phillips Ward, Ensign 368 

Paine, Stephen, Ensign 388 

*Palmer, Clyde Norton, Ensign ........ 300 

[ ix ] 



CONTENTS 



Parker, x\lbert N., Second Lieutenant 398 

*Parker, Bradstreet, Cadet 314 

Parker, Harold Wayne, Second Lieutenant 470 

Payson, John Brown, Second Lieutenant 184 

Payson, Phillips Merrill, First Lieutenant 79 

Perry, Wtlliam Graves, Captain 148 

Pettingell, John M., Second Lieutenant 370 

*Pfaffmann, John S., Second Lieutenant 146 

Phister, Lispenard Bathe, Second Lieutenant 380 

*Pishon, Sturgis, First Lieutenant 134 

Platt, William, Ensign 38P 

Powderly, Daniel W., First Lieutenant 474 

Powel, Howard Hare, Captain 72 

Powers, Ralph A., Lieutenant (j.g.) 440 

Prince, Gordon C, Captain 378 

*Putnam, David Endicott, First Lieutenant 4 

Qutnn, Thomas C, Second Lieutenant 416 

Ramsay, Harold Theodore, Cadet 194 

Read, Albert Cushing, Lieutenant-Commander 306 

Reece, Robert H., First Lieutenant 76 

Reycroft, Harlan Long, Ensign 176 

Reycroft, Wendell Gage, Ensign 174 

Rice, Thomas Emerson Proctor, First Lieutenant 422 

Richards, Earle F., First Lieutenant 24 

Richards, Junius Alexander, First Lieutenant ...... 250 

Richmond, Isidor, Ensign 244 

Ricker, Raymond W. T., Second Lieutenant 418 

Riley, Henry I., First Lieutenant 27 

*Rogers, Ralph Tupper, Ensign 320 

Rohrbach, Charles H, Second Lieutenant 410 

Rowe, Ralph S., First Lieutenant 418 

Rowen, Howard John, Lieutenant (j.g.) 364 

Rudolf, Henry James Gray, First Lieutenant 87 

Sargent, Carl A., Second Lieutenant 414 

Sargent, Howard Crosby, E?isign 402 

Schermerhorn, Horace, Lieutenant (j.g.) 458 

Seeley, Harry W., First Lieutenant 210 

Shea, Laurence L., Second Lieutenant 232 

Shepherd, Ridgley Garretson, Second Lieutenant 456 

Shumway, Carl Elliot, Lieutenant (j.g.) 342 

Slater, Robert A., Second Lieutenant 266 

Smith, Charles Henry, Second Lieutenant 200 

Smith, Clarendon Waite, Ensign 436 

Smith, Samuel Abbot, Lieutenant (j.g.) 336 

* Souther, Henry, Major 270 

Spencer, Winthrop Wheeler, First Lieutenant 218 

[ x ] 



CONTENTS 



*Sphague, William G., Ensign 476 

* Stafford, John F., Jr., Second Lieutenant 82 

Stanley, Henry Turner, Lieutenant (j.g.) 400 

Steedman, Charles Richard, Second Lieutenant 246 

* Stevens, Henry LeNoble, First Lieutenant 62 

Stewart, Charles Prescott, Ensign 340 

* Stiles, Robert Hewins, First Lieutenant 16 

Stone, Van Zandt, Lieutenant . . . . . . . . .110 

Stonemetz, Philip Thayer, Ensign 368 

*Swan, Leroy Amos, Second Lieutenant ....... 262 

Swift, Henry, Lieutenant 360 

Tarrant, Thomas R., Second Lieutenant 208 

*Tart, Edmund Graham, First Lieutenant 104 

Terhune, Edward Andrus, Jr., Ensign 344 

Teulon, Arthur Parker, Lieutenant (j-g.) 272 

Thomas, Errold Banks, Second Lieutenant 254 

Thompson, Willis Duer, Jr., Ensign 390 

Townsend, Richard S., Lieutenant 428 

Tuck, Leon P., First Lieutenant 242 

Tuttle, George W., Second Lieutenant 112 

Twitchell, Roger Thayer, Second Lieutenant 144 

Tylee, Arthur Kellam, Lieutenant-Colonel 108 

Underhill, Donald Prince, First Lieutenant 404 

Underhill, Frank Hopewell, First Lieutenant ...... 404 

*Upton„ Charles Hastings, First Lieutenant 59 

Van Schaack, John Jay, First Lieutenant ....... 188 

Warner, Frederick H, Jr., First Lieutenant 248 

Warren, Aldred K., Jr., Ensign 376 

Weeden, Charles F., Jr., Second Lieutenant 446 

Welch, Everett Preston, Ensign ........ 244 

Whitehouse, Robert Treat, Jr., Ensign 304 

Whitehouse, William Penn, Second, Lieutenant ..... 302 

Whiting, George Clarke, First Lieutenant 102 

Whitney, Richard Skinner, Jr., Second Lieutenant 414 

Whitney, Robert, First Lieutenant 242 

Whitten, Lyman Perley, Second Lieutenant 86 

Wilcox, Edward Milton, First Lieutenant 106 

Willis, Irad Edmunds, Second Lieutenant 382 

Woods, George Bryant, First Lieutenant 44 

Wright, Chester Ellis, First Lieutenant 46 

*Wyman, Alfred Theodore, Second Lieutenant 92 

York, Philip Simmons, Second Lieutenant 215 



NEW ENGLAND AVIATORS 



SOLDIERS OF THE WOODEN CROSS 



By Rt. Rev. Charles Henry Brent, D.D. 

Medals that adorn the uniform tell of courage and endurance 
and heroism that braved the worst for the cause. Their wearers 
live to hear the acclaim of their comrades. But there is another 
decoration, the commonest even though the most distinguished 
of all, the Wooden Cross that is awarded only to the men who 
have done the greatest thing that man — yes, even God — can do. 

Yonder they lie, along that front where with face to the foe they 
counted not their lives dear unto themselves but bore the standard 
of liberty onward. Above their graves rise the sheltering arms of 
the rough-hewn cross, than which no fitter monument ever reared 
its form over mortal remains. 

Our comrades they were. Our comrades they are. Death was 
powerless in the face of their bold daring to rob us of them or them 
of us. They are separated now from us, not by the gaping gulf of 
time but by a veil so thin that at times we almost see their figures 
through its waving folds. They live — live gloriously in the land 
of far distances. Death stripped them of nothing essential. In the 
permanent society of the world beyond this they think and speak 
and see and love. They are what they were, except so far as the 
river of death has washed away the dust of earth and left them 
cleaner and better by reason of this their last great adventure. 

The same dauntless spirit moved them, one and all. There was 
something dearer than life. To it they gave themselves and their 
all, and won the decoration of the Wooden Cross. 

These men and a myriad more are calling to us, calling to us 
and bidding us to carry on. If we would still hold to their com- 
radeship we must display in life the spirit they displayed in death. 
We must live for the things for which they died. That which we 
have achieved by victory we must weave into the fabric of the new 
world and the new age. The Wooden Cross of our dead comrades 
is for them a glorious decoration. For us it is the banner of our 
life that is to be. It challenges us to hold more precious than mortal 
life ideals of honor, justice, and righteousness. After all, the Cross 
that redeemed the world was a wooden cross, too, was it not? It 
was no toy or pretty bauble, but a thing of nails and pain and death 
— and yet a thing of glory. 



THE SECOND PURSUIT GROUP 



By Lieutenant Earle F. Richards, Thirteenth Aero 
Squadron 

The Second Pursuit Group, originally the 13th and 139th Squad- 
rons, began to operate late in June, 1918. Then came the 103d 
(formerly the Lafayette), which was replaced by the 22d and 49th 
Squadrons late in Aug., or early in Sept. This was a live Group 
which came to its own in the St.-Mihiel and Argonne offensives. 
It has some one hundred and thirty-five official victories, against 
thirty-eight losses. 

Early in the spring there were reports from the lone Lafayette, 
at Dunkirk. Things were causing concern on the front from Reims 
to Soissons, and in June the First Pursuit Group pulled out to 
stave off the advancing Hun at Chateau-Thierry; and the neophyte 
139th and 13th Squadrons moved into the vacant hangars at the 
"cross-roads." Raoul Lufbery had gone on to a reward, as had 
Dick Blodgett and others, and the new tenants were confronted 
with a sterner task, to meet and avenge their deaths. Then the 
business began and the skeleton Squadron was right busy until 
the eleventh day of the eleventh month. 

Major Angstrom, who had been with the English, was in com- 
mand of one Squadron, while Capt. Charles Biddle, of the Lafay- 
ette, had the other Squadron, as Flight Commander. In the 139th 
were Capt. Bridgman, who later commanded the 22d, and Dave 
Putnam, both of whom had been with the French. From the 103d 
Squadron came Hobey Baker, and Maury Jones as Flight Com- 
mander for the 13th, while George Fisher, from the First Pursuit 
Group, was the third on that list. 

Soon the 103d came, and proved to us that there was n't any 
use wasting time. The summer went on in a quiet sort of way as 
later experiences taught, and when the 103d left our Group, the 
22d and the 49th Squadrons came in. 

Then in Sept. came the St.-Mihiel affair, which paved the way 
for large things in the Argonne. In the week beginning Sept. 12 
the Group had downed twenty-five planes, against nine lost, and 
four of these came back. A little later, it grew noisy over west of 
the Meuse, and the Second Pursuit Group was very much in the 
activity, and over a hundred official victories resulted. 

[3 ] 



*DAVID ENDICOTT PUTNAM 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., One Hundred and Thirty- 
Ninth Aero Squadron, Second Pursuit Group 
Killed in action, Sept. 12, 1918 

Son of Frederick Huntington and Janet (Hallowell) Putnam; was 
born at Jamaica Plain, Mass., Dec. 10, 1898. He was a descendant 
of Gen. Israel Putnam, of Revolutionary fame. He attended the 
Newton High School, and entered Harvard College, class of 1920. 
At school he was president of his class and excelled in athletics; he 
was an expert swimmer, played on the football team, the baseball 
team, and the hockey team; he was class orator. 

During his freshman year at college he successfully passed his 
examination for the Aviation Service, but being under age was 
barred from entering the U.S. Service. He left Harvard after pass- 
ing his mid-year examinations and sailed for France on a cattle- 
ship, being determined to enter the Air Service abroad. In April, 

1917, he began his training at Avord, France, where he was brev- 
etted on Oct. 17, 1917, and sent to Pau for training in acrobatics. 
There he remained until Dec. 21, when he was sent to the front 
assigned to the Lafayette Escadrille, N 156, stationed a couple of 
miles outside of Chalons, near the Marne River. On Dec. 22, 1917, 
he flew for the first time over the enemy lines, and on Jan. 19, 1918, 
brought down his first enemy machine; he was given a Morane 
plane, and was proud of the fact that he was the only man known 
to have brought down a Boche while flying one of these machines. 

One of Putnam's longest and hardest fights was on April 11, 

1918, when he engaged four two-seaters for thirty-five minutes, 
and brought down one of them. The following day he fought alone 
a German "circus" of eight machines and got two of them. 

On April 23, Putnam was credited with three official victories. 
His most famous combat took place on June 5, 1918, when he 
was alone in battle with ten German Albatross planes; bringing 
down five, the greatest score of victories ever credited to a flyer 
in one flight. 

On June 16, 1918, he wrote: 

Combat after combat comes my way, and without boasting I'll say 
that I generally meet them head on. Friday, with another fellow, I dove 
into a bunch of six Germans and three fell. These are not official yet. 

[ 4 ] 



DAVID ENDICOTT PUTNAM 



Yesterday I was with three other fellows when I saw two Boche bi- 
planes. They saw us at about the same time and started to drive for home. 
Putting on all the speed I could, I gave chase. As my machine happened 
to be slightly faster than the others of my patrol, I arrived first. With 
both guns shooting murder, I slowly closed with one of the Boches. Nearer 
and nearer I drew. One gun stuck, but the other rattled on. When I was 
about ten yards from the German, up came his nose. A perfect target, 
and just at that moment my remaining gun stopped. The German gunner 
(I could see him clearly) took one look at me and commenced to fire. A 
quick turn and I was out of range. I looked back and there was the un- 
lucky Boche falling. Suddenly his left wing broke off and he dashed into 
the ground. I looked for the rest of my patrol, and there they were, some 
five hundred yards above me watching the fight. We got together again 
and started to patrol some more. I kept on, for I was able to fix my guns, 
which were n't very badly jammed. Suddenly I saw five more Germans 
and gave chase immediately. As the biplanes had done before them, they, 
too, turned toward home, and in following them I passed through a cloud 
and lost the rest of my patrol. The Germans, however, went so far that I 
turned back. I had flown perhaps three minutes towards our lines when a 
German balloon loomed up directly ahead of me. "Well," I said, "I've 
got no incendiary bullets, but there's no harm in shooting at it." No 
sooner said than done. I pulled both triggers. Pfoof ! ! ! The balloon burst 
into flames, and it did look queer. I supposed that there would be just one 
burst of flame and that would be the end. No; the thing remained in the 
air, a flaming mass, for perhaps twenty seconds, and then dropped slowly 
to the ground where it continued to burn. But how the anti-aircraft guns 
did shoot at me. Bang! Bang! Bang! Just a continuous roar. "Flaming 
onions" also were coming up from the ground. Into a cloud I went. The 
shooting was even more terrible there, so out I dove. Twisting, turning, 
circling, I finally reached our lines and made tracks for home. The others 
arrived about the same time, having witnessed the entire performance. 
That makes nine official planes and thirteen unofficial for a total of 
twenty-two in six months. 

On June 10, 1918, Putnam was commissioned 1st Lieut., A.S., 
U.S.A., and four weeks later he was sent to an American escadrille, 
and finally assigned as Flight Commander of the 139th Squadron. 
During the terrific air fighting along the French front early in 
June, he distinguished himself by his repeated attacks on the 
German infantry, flying at low altitudes above the massed forma- 
tions, and spraying them with machine-gun bullets with perfect 
indifference to the shots from the ground that riddled his wings 
with holes. 

Lieut. Putnam's last flight was made over the lines on Sept. 12, 
[ 5 ] 



DAVID ENDICOTT PUTNAM 



1918, in company with Lieut. Robertson. Fifteen German planes 
came down upon them from the clouds in a surprise attack. Robert- 
son escaped; Putnam brought down one German plane in flames, 
and on his way back he saw an Allied biplace being attacked by 
eight Bodies; he saved the biplane, but was himself brought down 
with two shots through his heart. It was for this last deed that his 
country awarded him the Distinguished Service Cross. He fell at 
Limey, and was buried with full military honors near Toul, in the 
forest of Sebastopol, Sept. 14, 1918, and lies by the side of Lufbery, 
whom he had succeeded as the "American Ace of Aces." He was 
credited with thirty-four planes, fourteen of which are official. 

In a discourse on "Immortality," delivered after his return from 
France, by the Reverend William B. Geoghegan, at New Bedford, 
Mass., the speaker said: 

From contact with our aviators, I have felt the impulse of the soaring 
spirit that would carry them higher than their planes ever went, and have 
felt that the clouds would open to take them into a larger universe. It 
was my great pleasure to meet, just before he was killed, our Ace of Aces, 
Putnam. His was one of the most beautiful souls I have known. He was 
in appearance almost like a Greek statue, showing, however, the effect of 
his experiences. When I heard that he had gone down, I knew that that 
beautiful form had been broken to emancipate a noble soul, and that he 
had gone to flights beyond the bounds of our human imagination. 

In a beautiful letter to his mother, found among Putnam's 
effects, to be delivered in the event of his death, he wrote: 

Mother, there is no question about the hereafter of men who give them- 
selves in such a cause. If I am called upon to make it, I shall go with a 
grin of satisfaction and a smile. 

Lieut. Putnam was awarded the Croix de Guerre; the Medaille 
Militaire, May 30, 1918; the Cross of the Legion of Honor, Nov. 
11, 1918; and the Distinguished Service Cross, April 8, 1919. In 
addition to citations, received Feb. 21, 1918, and March 21, 1918, he 
was awarded the medal of the Aero Club of America July 4, 1918. 

The following report of the Chief of the U.S. Air Service, Liai- 
son Section, was sent on Nov. 15, 1918, by Major Edmund Gros, 
in answer to a request by the French Government for names of 
famous American aviators to be used in naming vessels for the 
French fleet. 

[ 6 ] 



DAVID ENDICOTT PUTNAM 



First Lieutenant David Putnam. One of the American best pilots 
and, for some time preceding his death, the American Ace of Aces. 
During the time Lieut. Putnam served as a Sergeant-Pilot in the 
French Army, he succeeded in bringing down on the Champagne front 
nine enemy planes, three of which were biplace machines, and in ad- 
dition he is credited with thirteen unofficially, which were too far over the 
enemy lines to be confirmed officially. On the date of June 5, he brought 
down one official enemy plane, and four others unofficially. Lieut. Putnam 
joined the 139th Aero Squadron, June 24, 1918, and from that time up to 
the time of his death, he brought down five official enemy planes as well 
as seven others which were so far within the enemy lines that no con- 
firmations could be obtained. These latter aircraft were all brought down 
in the Toul sector during the time when that front was quiet, and it was 
only by means of persistent and long flights into enemy territory that he 
was able to gain the above number of victories. 

Always seeking combat, he flew a brightly painted red machine which 
was known as "Putnam's Red Devil," and was never known to turn tail 
when attacked by superior numbers. 

On July 12, Lieut. Putnam was recommended for the award of the Dis- 
tinguished Service Cross for having brought down in conspicuous gallant 
and skillful manner an enemy biplace machine; notwithstanding the 
superior manoeuvring ability of his opponent he dived straight into the 
machine gun of the observer and brought the enemy plane down by the 
firing of only six shots. 

On August 1, Lieut. Putnam was recommended for the award of the 
Medal of Honor on account of his extremely brave, courageous, efficient 
service to the Allied cause. 

As a Flight Commander Lieut. Putnam showed remarkable cool-headed- 
ness and skill as a leader and always allowed the less experienced pilots to 
derive benefit of his knowledge. As Acting Squadron Commander of the 
139th Aero Squadron from May 16 to the time of his death, he again 
showed his ability by managing his squadron in most exemplary manner, 
yet never diminishing the number of his flights or combats. 

On September 12, Lieut. Putnam and another pilot were attacked by 
seven or eight enemy aircraft. He succeeded in downing one enemy plane, 
but was overpowered by superior numbers and was brought to earth, hav- 
ing received several bullet wounds. 

At the time of his death, Lieut. Putnam had been credited with fourteen 
official victories, while his unofficial victories numbered twenty. 

Always a clean fighter and one who always fought out of a sense of duty 
and never for renown or publicity, Lieut. Putnam was loved and respected 
by all with whom he came into contact, and will be remembered by his 
friends and foes alike as a true sportsman, as well as one of the best 
fighters. 

Edmund Gros, Major, Air Service. 



[7] 



HOWARD R. CLAPP 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Twenty-Second Aero 
Squadron, Second Pursuit Group 
Killed in action, Nov. 3, 1918 
Son of Clift Rogers and Gertrude (Blanchard) Clapp; was born 
at Dorchester, Mass., July 24, 1893. He prepared for college at the 
Newton High School and the Noble and Greenough School; grad- 
uated from Harvard College, in 1916; entered the Law School, and 
during his first year there joined the Harvard Regiment. 

He attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg, from 
May until Aug., 1917, then entered the School of Military Aero- 
nautics, M.I.T., graduating (with honor) Sept. 22, 1917; he con- 
tinued his training at Mineola, N.Y., about Oct. 1, 1917; was com- 
missioned 1st Lieut. Dec. 17, 1917, and sailed overseas Jan. 29, 
1918. After training at Issoudun, France, Furbara, Italy, and Orly, 
he joined the 22d Aero Squadron, in Aug., 1918, at Toul. 

This Squadron in two months lost eleven of its original eighteen 
pilots, and had forty- two German planes to its credit; it was 
actively engaged throughout the fighting along the left bank of 
the Meuse toward Sedan, during the last month of the war. 

On the afternoon of Nov. 3, 1918, a patrol of six pilots, among 
whom was Lieut. Clapp, went over the lines in single-seated Spads 
to bomb a road leading out of Beaumont to the north. They flew 
about twenty kilometres inside the German fines and on their 
return were attacked by eighteen German Fokkers. Three Ger- 
man planes are known to have been brought down and only three 
of the American planes returned to their own lines; two of them 
were so riddled with bullets as to be useless. Of the three Ameri- 
cans who failed to return, Lieut. Tiffany was taken prisoner, un- 
injured; Lieut. Gibson's plane, and grave, were later identified 
near Letanne, but no trace of Lieut. Clapp has been found. He 
was last seen engaged at close quarters with several of the German 
planes, and the officers of the Squadron reported that his plane 
was probably exploded by an incendiary bullet within the German 
lines, near Beaumont, ten miles south of Sedan; his place of burial 
is unknown. Lieut. Herman C. Rorison was decorated for his con- 
duct in this fight. The other survivors are Lieuts. Frank B. Tyndall 
and John Crissey. 

[ 8 ] 



HOWARD R. CLAPP 



Extract from letter written by Lieut. Clapp, June 6, 1918, de- 
scribing combat practice : 

For the last few days I have been at the last field of this Group, doing 
combat practice, with camera-guns. It is the most thrilling and exciting 
work we have done so far, and wonderful practice. It accustoms you to 
handle the machine without paying any attention to it, or the horizon, or 
the ground, all old and tried friends of earlier days of instruction. But in 
combat your only thought is for the other machine, and how to get on his 
tail, or keep him from getting on yours. I have n't done very much of it 
yet; twice with John Agar and once with Harry Harkins. We go out to- 
gether or meet over some prearranged town, and then the fun begins. We 
start to circle, each one climbing for all he is worth, and at the same time 
drawing nearer each other. Round and round, and up and up ! Finally the 
circle gets so tight that we are both doing practically vertical banks and 
stretching our necks to the limit to keep an eye on the other man. Sud- 
denly one or the other breaks — he has not handled his control properly 
in his anxiety to keep his place — and goes down in a side-slip or vrille 
(tail-spin). This is the chance that the other man has been waiting for, and 
he kicks the lower rudder of his machine, causing it to fall over on that 
side and down on the other man's tail. The latter by this time has come 
out of the vrille by going into a nose-dive, and with the tremendous speed 
thus acquired points his machine straight upwards in a terrific zoom. 
Then the real fun begins. It is like a juggler playing with a couple of balls. 

This morning I smashed my first bird all to bits — worse luck. I was 
coming down to land and it was very windy and our field is terribly rough. 
I had her on the ground on all three points when the wheels struck a bump 
and over she went on the left wing. Then things happened with much 
speed and raising of dust. She whirled round like a top, smashing the other 
wing to kindling wood and wiping off the landing-gear completely. The 
last thing that happened was one of the wheels flying up past my left ear 
and embedding itself in the wing! I had a tiny scratch on my left elbow 
and some badly hurt feelings, for it was the first time I had done any real 
damage to any of Uncle Sam's expensive planes. Very much disgusted! 



[ 10] 



ARTHUR RAYMOND BROOKS 



Captain, A.S., U.SA., Twenty-Second Aero Squadron 
Second Pursuit Group 

Son of Frank E. and Josephine (Levasseur) Brooks, was born 
at Framingham, Mass., Nov. 1, 1895. He attended the public 
schools of Framingham and graduated from the M.I.T. in 1917, 
where he was editor-in-chief of the "Tech" Magazine. 

He enlisted in the U.S. Service Sept. 1, 1917, at M.I.T. ; and was 
ordered to Fort Wood, N.Y. He trained with the R.F.C. at To- 
ronto, Can., from Sept. 10 to Nov. 10, 1917. From Nov. 10 to 
Feb. 25, 1918, he trained at Hicks Field, Fort Worth, Texas, with 
the 28th and 139th Squadrons. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, on 
Feb. 25, 1918, and sailed overseas March 12 to France, where he 
completed his training at the 3d A.I.C., Issoudun. On Aug. 16, 
1918, he was transferred to the 22d Squadron as Flight Com- 
mander and was prominent in the brilliant exploits of that Squad- 
ron. On Sept. 14, 1918, he won the Distinguished Service Cross, 
and recommendation for the Medal of Honor, in combat with 
eight Fokkers, bringing down two and making an official credit 
of six. 

Lieut. Howard Clapp, afterwards killed in action, wrote of this 
combat : 

Twelve Fokkers attacked our formation of six from above and in the 
sun. . . . 

Brooks had about five after him, and they stuck very tenaciously. But 
he is a fine flier and a good shot, and, though he only fired 75 rounds during 
the whole affair, succeeded in bringing down two of them — one in flames. 
They have both been confirmed, so he is now officially an ace. 

His machine was very badly shot up. The rudder wires were cut 
through on one side, so that the rudder was useless; one of the main spars 
in his top wing was smashed and a tire punctured. Yet, in spite of all this 
he brought the machine safely down in a rough field north of camp. 

A quotation from Capt. Brooks's own description of the affair 
follows : 

We were still at 5000 metres or about three miles up. The " we" in this 
case referring to myself and eight red-nosed Richthofen Circus planes bent 
on an eight-to-one shot. 

We were ten miles behind the lines of the infantry and my chances of 
escape were so slight that I figured I had come to the end. I was frankly 
scared, but in spite of much high tension and futile yelling at the top of 

[ 11 ] 



ARTHUR RAYMOND BROOKS 



my voice, I calculated, by nature of my training, I suppose, to get as 
many of the Fokkers as possible before the inevitable. 

The only thing that saved me was that being entirely surrounded, the 
Germans could not shoot at me without being in their own way. A stream 
of white ribbons from the incendiary bullets and the tracers would cut 
through the gap in my wings so that if I reached out my hand they were 
close enough to cut it off. . . . 

Twice I tried to ram the Fokkers that had me in a direct line with their 
guns. One red-nosed "Night Mare" came in from my right and endeav- 
ored to draw me under by playing as a foil in a swoop to my level and then 
perceptibly below. 

I had just time to dip enough to see his features before I let him have 
a few incendiary bullets. I was n't even sorry for him after that. 

Another I turned upon and after a short, close burst was satisfied that 
a second had quit, although he did not, like the first, apparently catch 
fire. . . . 

Two more of the Boches, in their tactical work, happened to get in the 
way of my line of fire and I finally had the better feeling of finding myself 
with a good 2000 metres, directly over the huge, boomerang lake (La- 
chausee) with only four of the enemy still paying me too much attention 
to suit me. 

This was rather more dangerous than with a swarm, because the indi- 
viduals could far better get a good shot at me where they had less chance 
of being in their own way. 

A 220 horse-power Spad can out-dive a Fokker D-7 and for 1500 
metres, with almost full motor, I spun, nose-dived, and slithered, flattening 
out just over the rolling country, with a fair chance over those four. 

Two of these, and finally one, kept up the chase for a feeble distance, 
but retreated to my glad astonishment, before crossing the lines. 

Brooks was commissioned 1st Lieut. Oct. 7, 1918. After the sign- 
ing of the Armistice he was stationed at Grand, as Commanding 
Officer of the 22d Squadron. He was commissioned Capt. on March 
12, 1919. Stationed at Selfridge Field, and later at Kelly Field. 

Citation 
D.S.C. 

For the extraordinary heroism in action over Mars-la-Tour, France, Sept. 
14, 1918. Lieut. Bkooks, when his patrol was attacked by twelve enemy 
Fokkers over Mars-la-Tour, eight miles within the enemy lines, alone 
fought bravely and relentlessly with eight of them, pursuing the fight from 
5000 metres to within a few metres of the ground, and though his right 
rudder control was out and his plane riddled with bullets, he destroyed 
two Fokkers, one falling out of control and the other bursting into flames. 

(Signed) Pershing 



[ 12 ] 



* JAMES DUDLEY BEANE 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Twenty-Second Aero 
Squadron, Second Pursuit Group 
Killed in action, Oct. 30, 1918 

Son of Edmund Murry and Kate (Miles) Beane; was born in New 
York City, Jan. 20, 1896. He took up residence in Concord, Mass., 
in 1909, and attended the Concord High School where he made a 
record on the track team. On graduation he entered the employ of 
the Department of Education at the State House, in Boston. 

He sailed for France in June, 1916, and from July 8, 1916, to 
July 20, 1917, served as ambulance driver in the American Am- 
bulance Field Service on the Verdun front. He joined the French 
Army in Aug., 1917, and was assigned to the Lafayette Escadrille 
for training. After acting as Avion de Chasse to the French, from 
Aug., 1917, to Feb., 1918, he was transferred to the U.S. Air Serv- 
ice in Feb., 1918, and shortly after commissioned 1st Lieut. 

He had several German planes to his credit, when on June 27, 
1918, he was shot down, badly wounded after a hard battle against 
overwhelming odds. He left the Hospital six weeks later with two 
fingers gone, but insisted on rejoining his Squadron. In Aug., 1918, 
he was transferred to the 22d Aero Squadron, with which he was 
flying at the time of his death. On Oct. 31, 1918, he was officially 
reported "Missing in action" near Bantheville, after one of the 
most important air battles of the year. For his heroic action in this 
engagement he was posthumously awarded the D.S.C. Not until 
April 29, 1919, was the fact of his death fully established. A letter 
from the American Military Mission in Berlin bearing that date 
states definitely that Lieut. Beane was killed in action on Oct. 30, 
1918, and that he was buried near the place where he fell. Capt. 
F. W. Zinn, of the Air Service, reported that he was buried "two 
kilometres east of Brieulles-sur-Bar. 

D.S.C. 

For extraordinary heroism in action near Bantheville, France, Oct. 29, 
1918. When Lieut. Beane's patrol was attacked by eight enemy planes 
(Fokker type) he dived into their midst in order to divert their attention 
from the other machines of his group and shot down one of the Fokkers in 
flames. Four other Fokkers then joined in the battle, one of which was 
also destroyed by this officer. 

(Signed) Pershing 

[ 14 ] 



ROBERT HEWINS STILES 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Thirteenth Aero Squadron 
Second Pursuit Group 
Killed in action, Sept. 16, 1918 
Son of Walter F. and Annette L. (He wins) Stiles; was born at 
Fitchburg, Mass., Nov. 15, 1894. He attended the public schools 
of Fitchburg and graduated in 1916 from Harvard College, where 
he was prominent in many associations. He was on the editorial 
board of the Crimson; its managing editor in 1915, and president 
of the board of editors in 1916. He was a member of the freshman 
baseball squad, and manager of the 'Varsity baseball team in 1916; 
also president of the freshman Mandolin and Banjo Club. After 
graduation he became commission sales agent for a well-known 
textile firm, and was doing a very successful business at the time 
of his enlistment. 

In the summer of 1916 he attended the Harvard Aviation School 
at Buffalo, N.Y., where he obtained an aviator's license. In June, 
1917, he enlisted at Boston, Mass., for the Aviation Service; trained 
at the M.I.T. from Aug. 20, 1917, until Oct., when he was sent 
overseas, continuing his training at Issoudun, France. He was 
commissioned 1st Lieut. May 13, 1918. On Aug. 7, 1918, he was 
sent to the front attached to the 13th Squadron, 2d Pursuit Group. 
On Aug. 15 he was given credit for bringing down a German plane 
during his first engagement. Lieut. Stiles took part in the St.- 
Mihiel drive, and on Sept. 16, 1918, was reported "Missing in 
action." It was later ascertained that he had been killed in action 
on that date, having been brought down by four or five German 
planes. He was shot through the chest and death was instanta- 
neous on landing. He was buried near where he fell in a little 
cemetery beside some Germans, who had been killed in 1871. 
Later, he was reburied in the officers' section of the cemetery at 
Thiaucourt. On the day of his death Lieut. Stiles was the leader of 
a patrol of three, and when seven miles southwest of Metz these 
men were attacked by a number of German planes. Two of the 
men were able to reach their own lines, but Lieut. Stiles was last 
seen flying straight into Germany. Although only officially cred- 
ited with one plane, it has been reported by other aviators that 
Stiles brought down several planes after his first one. He was cited 

[ 16 ] 



ROBERT HEWINS STILES 



by Gen. Pershing, "For exceptionally meritorious and conspicuous 
services with the 13th Squadron." 

Capt. Biddle, Commander of the 13th Squadron, wrote of him: 

Lieut. Stiles was one of my Flight Commanders, and I considered him 
one of the most valuable men in the Squadron, and the loss to all of his 
friends here who admired him so much for his courage and fine character 
cannot be measured. 

Capt. Biddle elsewhere wrote of this engagement: 

In three days, Sept. 13 to 15, the 13th Squadron shot down officially 
eight German machines, all single-seater fighting planes. In the mean- 
time, however, we ourselves lost six men, two of them being among my 
best pilots. 

Brother in Service — ■ 

Walter F. Stiles, Jr., 1st Lieut., Q.M.C., A.E.F. 

LOUIS EVANS BOUTWELL 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Twenty-Second Aero 
Squadron, Second Pursuit Group 

Son of Harvey L. and Nellie C. Boutwell; was born in Maiden, 
Mass., Feb. 15, 1892. He was educated at the Stone School, Bos- 
ton; Bowdoin College; and Boston University, Law School, LL.B. 
1917. He was admitted to the Suffolk County Bar, in Sept., 1917. 

On Oct. 30, 1917, he enlisted at Boston, Mass., and had eight 
weeks' ground training at the M.I.T. He then attended the flying 
school at Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La., until Sept. 1, 1918. He 
was commissioned 2d Lieut, on May 13, 1918. At Gerstner Field 
during the summer of 1918, in addition to flying, he was detailed 
as Trial Judge Advocate before special courts-martial, and as 
such tried forty or more cases. 

Lieut. Boutwell sailed overseas on Sept. 6, 1918. He spent some 
time in the hospital at Issoudun with influenza. Upon recovery he 
was assigned to 22d Aero Squadron, 2d Pursuit Group; and at last 
account was still overseas with the Third Army of Occupation. At 
Charmont he was ordered to do important work as Judge Advo- 
cate, although not relieved from his full duty as a member of the 
22d Squadron. 

[ 18 ] 



HARRY BOIT FREEMAN 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninetieth Aero Squadron 
Thirteenth Aero Squadron, Second Pursuit Group 

Son of Franklin W. and Helen (Boit) Freeman, of Wakefield, 
Mass.; was born in Newton Lower Falls, Oct. 17, 1896. He was 
educated at Wakefield High School; Cheshire Academy, Cheshire, 
Conn. ; and the University of Washington (one year) ; also, he had 
two years at Yale College, class of 1919. He played on the baseball 
and football teams at Cheshire, and on the football team at Yale. 

He enlisted on June 12, 1917, at Boston, and began preliminary 
training at M.I.T. Ground School, where he finished on Aug. 4, 
1917. He was one of ten men chosen to go at once to France for 
training, and he sailed overseas on Aug. 22. He went directly to 
Liverpool, and from there to Southampton and Le Havre. He was 
one of a detachment of fifty men chosen from all the ground schools 
in the United States. After a few weeks at Etampes, he was trans- 
ferred to Issoudun, where for two weeks he was engaged in general 
construction work. Following this he spent four months at the 
Aviation School at Tours, and was brevetted Jan. 29, 1918. He 
finished tests at Tours on Dec. 19, 1917, but was delayed by quar- 
antine and change of management. 

On Feb. 2, 1918, he was commissioned 1st Lieut, and went to 
Issoudun for Nieuport training, and then to the French Aerial 
Gunnery School at Cazaux, with a class of twenty men, for the 
month of April. He returned to Issoudun for combat training, but 
owing to shortage of pilots was sent out to the 90th Observation 
Squadron. 

During May and June Lieut. Freeman was stationed with the 
90th Squadron at Amanty and Ourches, flying biplace Sopwiths. 
On July 1 he was transferred to the 13th Squadron, 2d Pursuit 
Group, stationed at Toul. He served as Deputy Flight Commander 
to "Hobey" Baker, during July and the first half of Aug. He was 
then made Flight Commander. He engaged in several combats 
during July, Aug., and Sept., and led a formation of four against 
six Boches, at an altitude of 21,500 feet, the highest combat on 
the U.S. record. He is credited with three enemy planes. 

On Sept. 14 he was one of a patrol of fourteen planes which en- 
gaged a number of Boches. 



[ 19 ] 



HARRY BOIT FREEMAN 



On Sept. 11, 1918, he was sent over ten miles within the lines in 
a heavy rainstorm to learn if the Huns were evacuating the St.- 
Mihiel salient. On Sept. 14 he was one of a patrol of fourteen planes 
which engaged a number of Boches near Pont-a-Mousson, where 
four men were lost. Due to a failure of his motor during combat, 
he was forced to land directly back of the German front lines, and 
was made prisoner. He was confined in the prisons of Metz, St.- 
Avold, Strasbourg, Karlsruhe, Landshut, Villingen, and Con- 
stance. Being released after the Armistice, he returned through 
Switzerland to France on Dec. 1, 1918; and sailed for America on 
Feb. 1, 1919. He was honorably discharged on Feb. 7, 1919, at 
Garden City, N.Y. 

Since his discharge Lieut. Freeman has been cited by Gen. 
Pershing "for conspicuous bravery in Service." 

Brother in Service — 

Willard J. Freeman, 1st Lieut., 23d Infantry, U.S.A.; died in 
Service 



[ 20 ] 



* JOSEPH EMMETT BEAUTON 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Thirteenth Aero Squadron 
Second Pursuit Group 

Killed in airplane accident, June 3, 1918 

Son of William F. N. and Ella Teresa (Ahern) Beauton; was born 
at New Haven, Conn., March 13, 1895. He was educated at the 
Lovell Grammar School, New Haven High School, and Sheffield 
Scientific School, Yale. At high school he played on the football 
team in 1911, '12, and '13. At Yale he played on the freshman foot- 
ball team in 1914. 

He enlisted in July, 1917, and trained first at the Ground School 
of Urbana University, 111., until about Sept. 15. From then until 
Dec. 1, 1917, he trained at the Flying School in Belleville, 111. ; 
and was commissioned 1st Lieut. Dec. 23, 1917. He sailed over- 
seas in Feb., 1918, and received training first on Caudrons. Later 
he went through the courses for advanced training at Issoudun. 
He joined the first flight of the 13th Squadron, which was sent to 
the front south of Chalons-sur-Marne; the Group consisting of 
the 99th Observation Squadron and one French Escadrille. This 
Group was stationed at Haussimont-sur-Marne, and worked with 
an artillery camp from March until June, 1918. On June 1 the 
99th Squadron was ordered to Amanty, leaving the flight of the 
13th to work from this field with the French until the Squadron 
should be completed. On the morning of June 3, Lieut. Beauton 
took his mechanic, Hugh A. Tate, up for a trial flight. They left 
at about seven-thirty, and returned about fifteen minutes later, 
because of motor trouble. At that time Sopwiths were being used, 
and were not of the most dependable type. As the machine neared 
the edge of the field it was seen to side-slip and then nose over and 
dive. Lieut. Beauton fell and was killed. He was buried in the town 
of Mailly, seven miles from Haussimont, France. 



[ 22 ] 



EARLE F. RICHARDS 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Thirteenth Aero Squadron 
Second Pursuit Group 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin F. Richards; was born at West 
Haven, Conn., April 17, 1896. He was educated at the Suffield 
School, Suffield, Conn., and at Wesleyan University, Middletown, 
Conn. At college he was a member of the freshman and 'Varsity, 
football teams, the class basketball team, and the 'Varsity track 
team. He trained with the Wesleyan R.O.T.C. 

He went overseas in the spring of 1917, and served for four 
months with the American Ambulance Field Service, behind Sois- 
sons, and in the Champagne, taking part in the evacuation under 
fire at Gueux, which won the unit a citation, and Croix de Guerre 
from the French, July 14, 1917. 

In Oct., 1917, he enlisted at Paris in the U.S. Aviation Service, 
and was sent to Tours for training, where he received the French 
Brevet, in Feb., 1918. He trained at the 3d A.I.C. at Issoudun from 
Feb. to April, 1918, and he was commissioned 1st Lieut., March 8, 
1918. He attended the Aerial Gunnery School at Cazaux until May, 
1918, when he was assigned as Ferry Pilot to the 1st A.A.P., Orly 
(Seine), remaining until June 14, 1918. He was transferred to the 
1st Air Depot, at Colombey-les-Belles, June 14 to July 14, and on 
July 5 was attached to the 13th Aero Squadron, 2d Pursuit Group, 
with which he went to the front in the Toul sector. 

On Sept. 29, 1918, during the Argonne offensive, Lieut. Richards 
was brought down, wounded in action, and was sent to the hospital. 
He reported for duty on Nov. 26, and served as Flight Commander, 
13th Squadron, from Dec. 18, 1918, to Jan. 4, 1919. He was hon- 
orably discharged on April 7, 1919, at St.-Aignan, France, and re- 
turned to the U.S. Inactive Status: Capt. in Reserve; per letter 
War Dept., June, 1919, Lieut. Richards designed the insignia of 
his Squadron. 

Married, May 16, 1919, at Paris, France, Edith L. Armstrong. 

From the Commander in Chief, A.E.F., for conspicuous and especially 
meritorious service. 

First Lieutenant Earle F. Richards, A.S., U.S.A., Pilot, 13th Aero 
Squadron, 2d Pursuit Group, is hereby credited with the destruction, in 
combat, of two enemy Pfalz, in the region of Cormsy, at 4000 metres alti- 
tude, on Sept. 14, 1919, at 8.05 o'clock. 

[ 24 ] 



DAVID W. HOWE 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Thirteenth Aero Squadron 
Second Pursuit Group 

Son of Willard B. and Annie B. Howe; was born in Burlington, 
Vt., June 22, 1892. He was educated at the Burlington High School, 
graduating in 1910; and at the University of Vermont, A.B. 1914, 
where he was a member of Sigma Phi and Phi Beta Kappa Fra- 
ternities. He trained for two years in the student battalion of the 
University of Vermont. 

He enlisted at New York on May 12, 1917, and attended the 
First Plattsburg Officers' Camp, from May 12 to June 25, 1917. 
He then trained at the M.I.T. Ground School, June to Aug., 1917; 
and at Hazelhurst Field, Mineola, N.Y., Aug. to Oct., 1917. On 
Nov. 2, with a 1st Lieut.'s commission, dating from Nov. 3, 1917, 
he sailed overseas, and was in training at the 3d A.I. C., Issoudun, 
France, from Dec. to March, 1918. In March and April he was 
stationed at the Ecole de Tir Aerienne, Cazaux; and acted as 
ferry pilot at Orly on the Seine, in May and June, 1918. 

In July, 1918, Lieut. Howe joined the 13th Aero Squadron, 2d 
Pursuit Group, organizing on the Toul sector, and remained with 
this Squadron at Toul, Bebain and Souilly aerodromes until Dec. 5, 
1918. He returned to America and was honorably discharged on 
Feb. 25, 1919. 

Copy of a General Order: " Headquarters Air Service First Army, A.E.F. 
France, Sept. 22, 1918. General Orders, Number 8. Par. 6, 1st Lieutenants 
J. D. Este, J. J. Seerly, E. R. S. Converse, D. W. Howe, and 2d Lieut. 
F. E. Hays, 13th Aero Squadron, Second Pursuit Group, are hereby 
credited with the destruction, in combat, of three enemy biplane Fokkers, 
in the region of Chambley, at 2400 metres altitude on Sept. 13, 1918, and 
18:35 to 19:55 o'clock. By Order of Colonel Mitchell. (Signed) T. DeW. 
Milling, Colonel, A.S., U.S.A., Chief of Staff. Official: W. P. Kelleher, 
Major, A.S., U.S.A., Adjutant." 



[ 26 ] 



HENRY I. RILEY 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Thirteenth Aero Squadron 
Second Pursuit Group 

Son of Charles E. and Stella (Bosworth) Riley; was born Sept. 
24, 1894, at North Attleboro, Mass. He was educated in the public 
schools of North Attleboro, and studied Electrical Engineering for 
three years at the Rhode Island State College. He played on the 
baseball team at the high school, and belonged to the Cadet Corps 
of Rhode Island State College. 

He enlisted in the Service of the U.S. at the Officers' Training 
Camp at Plattsburg, on May 14, 1917. He was trained at Platts- 
burg, N.Y., and at the Ground School, M.I.T. He was later trans- 
ferred to Mineola, Long Island, N.Y., for a course in Primary 
Flying. 

He sailed overseas, and he attended the aviation schools in 
France, at Issoudun, Cazaux, Orly, Seine; at Colombey-les-Belles; 
at Toul; and at Belrain. Subsequently he was attached to the 13th 
Squadron, 2d Pursuit Group. He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on 
Dec. 13, 1917, and received active orders as 1st Lieut, on Feb. 11, 
1918. Returning to the U.S., he was stationed at Carlstrom Field, 
Arcadia, Florida. 

Married, Nov. 7, 1918, Catharina Slaign. 



[ 27 ] 



JAMES DWIGHT FRANCIS 

First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Forty-First Aero Squadron 
Son of Henry A. and Agnes (Bartlett) Francis; was born at Pitts- 
field, Mass., Jan. 13, 1897. He was educated at the Pittsfield High 
School, at Phillips Andover Academy, and at Harvard College, 
class of 1919. In 1916 he belonged to the Harvard Regiment and 
attended the OflScers' Training Camp at Plattsburg, N.Y. He was 
a member of the Harvard R.O.T.C., 1916-17. 

He enlisted in the Aviation Service at Pittsfield, Mass., on 
July 6, 1917. After completing the course at the M.I.T. Ground 
School he was sent overseas, and received the remainder of his 
training in French schools. He attended the 3d A.I.C. at Issoudun, 
from Oct., 1917, to May, 1918, as a Cadet. On May 13, 1918, he 
was commissioned 1st Lieut., A.S.A. He was ordered to the Cazaux 
Instruction Centre in June, 1918. From July to Oct., 1918, he 
served as Instructor at the 3d A.I.C, Issoudun. During Nov. and 
Dec, 1918, he was assigned to the 41st Aero Squadron, 5th Pursuit 
Group. 

Lieut. Francis was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., 
on Feb. 8, 1919. 

Members of family in Service — 

Grandfather: William Francis Bartlett, Major-General in Civil 
War. 

Ancestors in Revolutionary War : 
William Francis, Captain. 
Daniel Hubbard, Captain. 
Jabez Hall, Captain; died in service, 1776. 
Seth Pomeroy, General; died in service, 1777. 



[ 28 ] 



STUART ELLIS ELLIOTT 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Thirteenth Aero Squadron 
Second Pursuit Group 

Son of John Stuart and Helena Forsyth (Ellis) Elliott, of Wash- 
ington, D.C.; was born at Osterville, Mass., Aug. 24, 1892. He 
was educated at the Fay School, St. Paul's School, Concord, N.H., 
Harvard, A.B. 1914, and M.I.T. (graduate work). While at school 
and college he engaged in general athletic sports. 

Previous to the war he served four years in Troop B, M.V.M. 
He enlisted on May 21, 1917, at Boston, and trained first at the 
Ground School, M.I.T. He continued his training at Mineola; and 
sailed for France on Oct. 27, 1917, where he had further training 
at Issoudun and Cazaux, France. He was commissioned 1st 
Lieut, on Sept. 17, 1917. During April and May, 1918, he was ferry 
pilot at Orly. He saw active service from July 1 to Oct. 11, 1918, 
being attached to the 13th Aero Squadron, 2d Pursuit Group, of 
which Major (then Capt.) Charles Biddle was Commander. He 
was stationed near Toul from July 1 to Sept. 14, and took part in 
the St.-Mihiel offensive. On Sept. 20 he moved to Belrain, where 
he remained until Nov. 4, taking part in the Argonne-Meuse drive. 
On Nov. 5 he was moved to Souilly. He has a record for 100 hours 
over the lines in a 220 Spad. He flew patrols, protections, and took 
part in "strafing" sorties. He returned from France on March 4, 
1919, and was honorably discharged at Camp Mills, on April 11, 
1919. 



[ 30 ] 



HUGH BRIDGMAN 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Forty-Ninth Aero Squadron 
Second Pursuit Group 

Son of Lewis J. and Annie Page (Campbell) Bridgman; was born 
at Salem, Mass., Oct. 26, 1897. He was educated in the Salem 
public schools, and at Harvard College, class of 1919. He was on 
the staff of the Crimson, and was a member of the winning crew in 
an interdormitory boat-race in 1916. 

He sailed for France on Feb. 19, 1917. with the Harvard Unit 
of the American Ambulance Field Service. On Sept. 15, 1917, he 
enlisted in the Air Service, U.S.A., and was trained at Tours, and 
at Issoudun. He was commissioned 1st Lieut. Jan. 1, 1918, and in 
June was one of the first group of ten American aviators chosen to 
pilot French fighting-planes at the front. He was later transferred 
to the 49th Squadron 2d Pursuit Group, and took part in the 
first "All- American" offensive in Sept., 1918. He did excellent 
work and was credited with one Boche. 

He wrote of this exploit: 

I don't think I wrote what a nice birthday I had. I got a beautiful 
present. The telephone rang and they told me I had official confirmation 
on a Fokker I got in flames, with another boy, two days before I attained 
my majority. 

It was queer the way we got him. We have the old Richthofen Circus 
opposite us now, and they are marvellous pilots and full of all kinds of 
tricks. Seven of them laid a trap for our patrol — four staying high, and 
three coming down to invite us to attack them. We did just what they 
wanted us to do, — but left the rear man up top to protect us. 

We dove 2000 metres after the Fokkers, who dove also, into Germany. 
They had a head start, so all we could get was a long shot with incendi- 
aries. One of them caught fire, and as we were low, and in Germany, with 
the other Fokkers trying to get a chance to pick on us, we pulled up. 

As I did so, my motor stopped, and I went down some more. I fiddled 
with it and it picked up, and I staggered back home on a level with the 
observation balloons. 

Our Squadron now has a record of 22 Bodies, with only five losses. . . . 
More than four to one. 

In a letter dated Sept. 17, 1918, he wrote of the offensive: 

Our quiet sector has been turned into an important one. I am so glad 
to have been in the operation as it was the first ail-American offensive 
since we entered the war. 

It was, of course, very successfully carried out. . . . We were handi- 
[ 32 ] 



HUGH BRIDGMAN 



capped in our particular line of trade by nasty weather, clouds so low we 
had to hop the hedges (almost) to fly at all, and squalls of rain every ten 
minutes. There was a strong wind, too. 

Dawn of the offensive, I went out alone, more to satisfy my curiosity 
than to fight, as there were no enemy planes up at all. The front looked 
queer because my perspective was changed. We always fly high up, 15,000 
to 20,000 feet, and here I was only a few hundred. It was just beginning 
to grow light, and in the semi-darkness the flashes of the guns we had 
massed on the lines looked like thousands of fireflies. I could see them 
twinkling constantly, fifteen or twenty miles up and down the front. 

The guns near me rather worried me for a while. The shells were coming 
so fast that they tossed me around quite a bit, disturbing the air as they 
did. The detonations were very clear. 

I looked around for enemy planes, but all I saw that morning were our 
liaison planes following infantry, and then chasing back to tell head- 
quarters and batteries all about it by wireless. They were working at my 
own height, and once in a while an unusually low cloud would come by, 
and get two of us hidden together, whereupon I would dive out for all I 
was worth to avoid a collision. 

During my flight I superintended the affair up and down the entire 
front of operations. In one place I went down and watched a local attack 
by the infantry supported by small tanks. Viewed from above, an attack 
is ridiculously slow. The tanks seem to crawl, and the men crawl with them. 
In reality I've seen the tanks, and they are fast for anything so clumsy. 

It was tiresome to circle around and watch that particular attack, so 
after a time I crossed into Germany and looked over the Bodies in their 
reserve trenches. Quantities of shells were bursting on this side and a few 
on our own territory. I was only machine-gunned once from the ground. 

Altogether that first morning was the most impressive I shall probably 
ever see, and to witness it in such a complete way was worth anything 
I've got. 

Lieut. Bridgman was honorably discharged at Camp Devens, 
March 18, 1919. 

Citation 

First Lieutenant Hugh Bridgman, A.S., 49th Aero Squadron: For dis- 
tinguished and exceptional gallantry at Aincreville, France on, 23d Oct., 
1918, in the operation of the American Expeditionary Forces. In testi- 
mony thereof, and as an expression of appreciation of his valor, I award 
this citation. 

(Signed) John J. Pershing, 

Commander-in-Chief 



[ 34 ] 



THE THIRD PURSUIT GROUP 



By Lieutenant Chester E. Wright, Ninety-Third Aero 
Squadron 

The Third Pursuit Group was formed at Vaucouleurs under the 
command of Major William Thaw, in the first days of Aug., 1918. 
It included the 103d, the 93d, the 213th and the 28th Squadrons. 
Of these the 103d, or the former Lafayette Escadrille, was the 
only one which had operated before. It was several weeks before 
the other three were equipped and ready for work. There were 
many difficulties, such as the lack of planes, parts, and efficient 
mechanics, to be met with and overcome. Yet in this short period 
each organization became complete and began its patrols accord- 
ing to schedule. 

At this time there was but little enemy activity on the Toul 
sector, so that it was possible for the new men to gain much ex- 
perience over the lines before the real contest began. On Sept. 12, 
1918, the drive of the First American Army on the Boche positions 
between St.-Mihiel and Pont-a-Mousson commenced. With this, 
the group took up its duties in earnest. Patrols were constantly 
sent over the lines to bomb, "strafe," destroy balloons, protect ob- 
servation and bombing planes, and drive back the enemy forma- 
tions. With but small losses, very satisfactory results were achieved. 
The German formations encountered were not as strong or as 
skilful as they later proved to be on the Argonne and Verdun sector. 
Beside, their "chasse" planes, most commonly the Fokker type, 
were not quite as good for fighting purposes as the French 220 H.P. 
Spads used by the Americans. The Spads had the advantage of 
speed, strength, and diving ability. However, the Fokkers made 
up for this to a certain extent by their adeptness in climbing and 
manoeuvring. Taken as a whole, the forces were f aily well matched. 

On the 24th of Sept. the First Army having reached its ob- 
jectives, transferred its forces to the Argonne. The Third Pursuit 
Squadron accordingly moved with them, and became settled at 
LTsle-en-Barrois, about 20 kilometres southeast of Verdun. In 
carrying out their missions here our patrols met with much 
fiercer opposition than before. The Germans sent out patrols in 
greater numbers and played a most cautious game. It was not un- 
usual for our fairly scattered formations of three to eight planes 



[ 35 ] 



THE THIRD PURSUIT GROUP 



to encounter twice as many. Yet the work went on with the same 
degree of success as before. A German captain who was taken 
prisoner after his machine had been shot down in flames, and he 
had been forced to escape in a parachute, made a fair statement of 
facts when he said: "Your organization is poor. You patrol in 
small numbers far into German territory, yet you get amazing 
results. It is due to a certain amount of daring and luck, mostly 
the latter." 

With the retreat of the Huns, it was again necessary for the 
group to change position. On Nov. 6 it moved toward the lines 
ten kilometres to Foucacourt. Adverse weather from this day 
to the Armistice permitted only a few patrols and bombing ex- 
peditions. On Nov. 11 the Group Commander, now Lieut.-Col. 
Thaw, gave out the order "All hostilities will cease at 11 a.m." In 
the short three months of activity up to this time the following 
official confirmations on the destruction of enemy planes had been 
received: the 93d, thirty-two; the 103d, twenty-eight; the 28th, 
fourteen; and the 213th, twelve. Sharing in these victories were 
the following New England men: William Loomis, Richard 
Loomis, Bryant Woods, Clarence H. Faith, William C. Appleton, 
Hugo A. Kenyon, and Chester E. Wright. 



[36] 



WILLIAM CHANNING APPLETON, Jr. 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., One Hundred Third 
Aero Squadron, Third Pursuit Group 

Son of William Charming and Edna (Turner) Appleton; was born 
in Jamaica Plain, Mass., on March 15, 1897. He attended the 
Noble and Greenough School, Boston, and was graduated from 
Harvard in 1917. At school and college he took part in athletics; 
at school he played on the baseball team; and at Harvard was 
captain of the second 'Varsity hockey team, 1915-16, and a 
member of the 'Varsity hockey team, 1916-17. 

He trained with the Harvard Regiment in 1915-16, attended 
the Plattsburg Camp in 1916, and took a Military Science course 
at Harvard, 1916-17. In May, 1917, he enlisted in the American 
Ambulance Field Service, sailed that month for France, and was 
attached to the Camion Service (T.M.U. 133), which operated 
along the Aisne and Chemin des Dames front from June to Nov., 
1917. 

He enlisted in the Air Service, U.S.A., in Paris on Dec. 3, 1917. 
He was stationed at Paris, at Tours, and at St.-Maixent from 
Dec, 1917, to April, 1918; and trained at Gondrecourt, Tours, 
Issoudun, and Cazaux, from May to Oct., 1918. On May 18, 1918, 
he was commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. On Oct. 13, 1918, he 
was attached as pilot to the 103d Aero Squadron, 3d Pursuit 
Group (1st Pursuit Wing of the 1st Army), then stationed at 
LTsle-en-Barrois, and later moved to Foucacourt Field, near the 
Argonne Forest. In the weeks before the Armistice the 103d 
Squadron patrolled the Argonne-Meuse front between Grandpre 
and Verdun, and later from Verdun northward beyond Stenay, 
during the battles which resulted in the taking of Grandpre, Dun, 
Stenay, etc. The following extracts are from letters written by 
Lieut. Appleton: 

October 20, 1918 

. . . Yesterday we went out to get a plane which had a forced landing 
near the lines. It was on a hill where eight days before the Americans had 
rushed up over. Old tanks, etc., lying around and lots of dead Germans, 
all hit in the chest by bayonet or machine gun. . . . 

This country seems much more like one's idea of war than the last 
summer's country [the -Aisne and Chemin des Dames front]. Especially 
yesterday with low dark clouds and misty rain and artillery rumbles. It 

[ 37 ] 



WILLIAM CHANNING APPLETON, Jr. 



was as dark at three as usually at five or five-thirty this time of year, and 
the flashes of guns twinkling all over the valleys and machine guns win- 
nowing away in the distance, made everything very lonely. No towns left 
at all. 

November 11, 1918 

. . . We seem to have ceased hostilities. . . . You ought to see the poor 
old French poilus. They are weeping, they are so happy. 

A couple of our fellows walked out beyond our lines just after 11 a.m., 
when peace came, and talked with some Germans who walked over from 
the other side. Germans seemed satisfied and said the Kaiser was finished, 
and grinned broadly. 

All the church bells in the little torn-up villages began ringing and the 
whistles of the little narrow gauge railway locomotives began tooting at 
eleven, when the firing ceased. 

Our squadron made the last patrol, as far as we can find out, of any 
American force along this part of the front, and possibly of any Allied, 
last evening. We went out an hour before sunset and got back after dark 
and landed by flares. The front was wonderfully beautiful. A thick haze 
up to 1000 metres, and above clear as a bell, with the moon rising in the 
east. You could see the earth vaguely beneath. A bunch of our chasse 
planes were playing around over an old town [Verdun], just on the upper 
edge of the haze. A few fires from burning villages behind the German lines 
and the artillery flashes on our side. 

The sun set crimson as we headed north on our patrol, and when we 
reached the end of the northern stretch, there was only a pink glow. We 
headed home, and put our noses down and pulled on our throttles, and in 
a few minutes saw the flares and bonfires at our field, away to the south- 
west. 

. . . And to-day all fighting is stopped. It is hard to believe. 

After the Armistice, Lieut. Appleton was detached from the 
Squadron on Dec. 1, 1918; spent Dec. at Issoudun, and part of Jan. 
at Bordeaux. He sailed from Marseilles Jan. 20, for America, and 
was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., on Feb. 7, 1919. 



[ 38 ] 



* ERNEST A. GIROUX 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., One Hundred Third Aero 
Squadron, Third Pursuit Group 
Killed in action, May 22, 1918 

Son of Arthur E. and Jessie (Emery) Giroux (now Mrs. Arthur 
E. Haley); was born in Roxbury, Mass., Dec. 4, 1895. He was 
educated at the Somerville High School, class of 1915, and at 
Dartmouth College, class of 1919. He was a member of the Phi 
Gamma Delta fraternity. 

He left college in March, 1917, to enlist in the American Am- 
bulance Field Service, sailing overseas on April 22, 1917; he was 
one of the first forty-five to sign for camion service; went to the 
front with the Ammunition Transport, serving as Sergeant in 
T.M.U. 526 B. He secured his discharge and enlisted in the 
Franco-American Flying Corps, and trained at Avord, Tours, 
Issoudun, and Cazaux; later he was transferred to the U.S. Air 
Service and was commissioned 1st Lieut. Nov. 20, 1917. After 
completing his training he acted as ferry pilot between Paris and 
the front. He was attached to the 103d Squadron under Major 
Thaw, and in April, 1918, began active service at the front. 
He was killed May 22, 1918, in an engagement between five 
American machines of the 103d Squadron, and eight German 
monoplace machines. He fell behind the enemy lines in the 
vicinity of Laventie, between Lille and Armentieres, and was bur- 
ied at Estaires, France. He was awarded the Distinguished Serv- 
ice Cross by Gen. Pershing and the Croix de Guerre with Palm. 

D.S.C. 

First Lieutenant Ernest A. Giroux, Pilot, A.S., U.S.A. For extraordi- 
nary heroism in action near Armeyeren, France, May 22, 1918. Lieut. 
Giroux, while on patrol with four other scout planes attacked an enemy 
formation of eight monoplace machines. Two of Lieut. Giroux's com- 
panions were forced to retire when their guns became jammed. Despite 
numerical superiority, Lieut. Giroux continued the attack, endeavoring 
to protect his leader until finally forced down and killed. 

Croix de Guerre ivith Palm 

Awarded to American Pilot, 1st Lieut. Ernest A. Giroux. Young pilot 
filled with energy did not hesitate on May 22, 1918, to attack in their 
lines an enemy patrol of superior numbers, and gave them a stubborn 
fight, in the course of which he disappeared. 

[ 40 ] 



ARCHIE R. GIROUX 

Second Lieutenant, Royal Flying Corps 

Son of Arthur E. and Jessie (Emery) Giroux (now Mrs. Arthur 
E. Haley); was born in Somerville, Mass., on Oct. 19, 1897. He 
was educated at the Somerville High School, and at Dartmouth 
College, class of 1923. 

He enlisted in the American Ambulance Field, Service on April 
28, 1917, and served at Danmiers on the French front, as sergeant, 
T.M.U. 526 B, from April 28 to Oct. 28, 1917. His brother Ernest 
was in the same service. On April 22, 1918, he enlisted in the Royal 
Air Force; his brother having enlisted in the Franco-American 
Flying Corps. He trained at Toronto, Can., Ground School, flying 
204 T.D.S.; at East Church, England, No. 7 Fighting School; and 
at Turnberry, Scotland, "Camel" scout Pilot. He was commis- 
sioned 2d Lieut, on Nov. 21, 1918. 

On Feb. 25, 1919, he was temporarily released from Shornecliffe, 
Eng., and returned to the United States. 



[ 42 ] 



GEORGE BRYANT WOODS 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. Twenty-Eighth Aero 
Squadron, Third Pursuit Group 

Son of George Adams and Martha Neal (Howe) Woods; was born 
at Winchester, Mass., May 6, 1896. He was educated at the Noble 
and Greenough School, and at Harvard College, class of 1919. 
taking his degree A.B. Honoris Causa. He played on the freshman 
football and track teams in 1915-16; on Harvard 'Varsity football 
squad, 1916; member 'Varsity crew squad, 1919. 

He enlisted at Cambridge, Mass., on May 30, 1917, and trained 
at the M.I.T. Ground School from May 30 to July 17, 1917. He 
sailed overseas on Aug. 13, 1917, and continued his training at 
Foggia, Italy; and at Issoudun and Cazaux, France. He received 
an Italian brevet in Dec, 1917, and was commissioned 1st Lieut. 
U.S.A.S., at Foggia on Jan. 10, 1918. He was one of thirty men 
sent to France on order of Gen. Pershing in March, 1918. 

On May 12, 1918, Lieut. Woods fell in a tail-spin from 400 feet 
(due to defective machine), with his plane completely demolished. 
Suffering from a broken jaw, broken ankle, and other injuries, he 
was three months in the hospital. He joined his Squadron, the 
28th, on Aug. 30, and was sent to the front on the Toul sector. 

On Sept. 12, 1918, he was leading a flight on the St.-Mihiel 
sector on a mission to "strafe" the infantry back of the German 
lines, when his motor was hit by machine-gun fire over the third- 
line trenches. The Germans continued shooting after the engine had 
stopped, riddling the plane with rifle and machine-gun bullets. 
They concentrated fire after the machine had been abandoned, 
while Lieut. Woods was making way to cover on foot, until he was 
captured by German infantrymen. About Sept. 29 a note dropped 
over the aerodrome by German flyers stated that Lieut. Woods had 
been killed. He was given up by his Squadron, but later was re- 
ported a prisoner of war. He was confined successively in six Ger- 
man prison-camps, suffering hard treatment until he reached Vil- 
lingen, where there was Red Cross Service. He was released on 
Nov. 29, 1918, and sent by train through Switzerland with other- 
captured officers. 

Lieut. Woods was honorably discharged on Feb. 5, 1919, at 
Garden City, N.Y. 



[ 44 ] 



CHESTER ELLIS WRIGHT 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-Third Aero Squadron 
Third Pursuit Group 

Son of Richard William and Gertrude (Wesley) Wright; was born 
at Readville, Mass., Sept. 1, 1897. He attended the schools of 
Hyde Park, Mass., and spent three years at Harvard College, class 
of 1918. At the end of his sophomore year, he succeeded in break- 
ing the strength test record for undergraduates, and registering 
second highest in the University. During the fall of his junior year 
he was a member of the cross-country team. In Feb., 1917, he left 
college to train for the Air Service. 

He enlisted on March 25, 1917, at Fort Monroe, was appointed 
sergeant and assigned to the Curtiss School, Newport News. In 
the latter part of May, the school was broken up, and he was trans- 
ferred to the Ground School, M.I.T. He graduated July 23, and 
was sent to Essington, Pa., for instruction in flying hydroplanes. 
On Aug. 25 he was transferred to Chanute Flying Field, Rantoul, 
111., and completed his R.M.A tests on Sept. 15. He was com- 
missioned 1st Lieut., Oct. 9, 1917. On Oct. 23 he was assigned to 
active duty at Garden City, N.Y., as adjutant of the 19th Aero 
Squadron. He sailed overseas on Nov. 23, 1917, as Supply Officer for 
the 15th Foreign Detachment, and was stationed at St.-Maixent 
until March 14, 1918. From then until April 15 he trained at the 
A.I.C. at Issoudun, when he was sent to Cazaux for a month's 
work in aerial gunnery. He was later ordered back to Issoudun, 
and thence to Orly, Paris, as a ferry pilot and tester. On July 29 
he reported to the 93d Aero Pursuit Squadron as pilot, and from 
Aug. 6 to the time of the Armistice he acted as Flight Commander 
of that Squadron. During that period he had numerous encounters 
with enemy planes and received official confirmation on eight 
planes and one balloon. On Dec. 5, 1918, at Souilly, he was decor- 
ated by General Liggett with the Distinguished Service Cross and 
one oak leaf. 

Lieut. Wright returned to the U.S. on March 13, 1919, and was 
honorably discharged April 1, 1919, at Garden City, N.Y. 

D.S.C. 

For extraordinary heroism in action near Beffu, France, 10 Oct., 1918. 
Lieut. Wright attacked an enemy observation balloon protected by four 
[ 46 ] 



CHESTER ELLIS WRIGHT 



enemy planes; despite numerical superiority he forced the planes to with- 
draw and destroyed the enemy balloon. 

A Bronze Oak Leaf 

For extraordinary heroism in action near Bantheville, France, 23 Oct., 
1918. 

Lieut. Wright, accompanied by one other machine, attacked and sent 
down in flames an enemy plane (Fokker type), that was attacking an 
Allied plane. He was in turn attacked by three enemy planes. His com- 
panion was forced to withdraw on account of motor trouble. Lieut. Wright 
continued the combat and succeeded in bringing down one of the enemy 
planes and forced the remaining two into their own territory. 

(Signed) Pershing 

ERNEST A. GIOIOSA 

Cadet, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Thomas and Henrietta (Baciagalupo) Gioiosa; was born at 
Boston, Mass., Sept. 20, 1893. He was educated at the English High 
School; at Boston College; and at Dartmouth College, graduating 
at Dartmouth with the degree B.S. He played baseball and foot- 
ball at Boston College, 1910-11, and football at Dartmouth College, 
1911-12. He enlisted in the Air Service at Boston, Mass., Nov. 14, 
1917, and was assigned to the Ground Schools at the M.I.T., and 
Princeton, N.J., for elementary work, completing the course at 
Princeton, March 9, 1918. He was subsequently transferred to 
Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., where he remained from March 16 to 
May 6, and to Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., where he was sta- 
tioned from May 7 to Nov. 29, 1918. He was honorably discharged 
at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., Nov. 29, 1918. 

Brothers in Service — 

Alfred A. Gioiosa, Sergeant, Co. 4, Overseas Convalescent 
Hospital. 

Albert A. Gioiosa, Coxswain, U.S.S. Pennsylvania. 



{ 48 ] 



* PERRY HENRY ALDRICH 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., One Hundred Thirty- 
Fifth Aero Squadron, First Observation Group 
Killed in action, Oct. 29, 1918 

Son of Rev. Leonard and Fannie I. (Wright) Aldrich; was born in 
West Kill, N.Y., Nov. 27, 1891. He prepared for college at Ver- 
mont Academy, Saxtons River, where he graduated with honors, 
and entered the University of Vermont; there he was also an 
honor student, graduating in 1915. He was a member of the Alpha 
Zeta fraternity, and of Phi Beta Kappa. 

For two years he taught agriculture in the Waterbury High 
School, and was given the principalship of the junior high school 
of that place, resigning this position to enter the Air Service, Sept. 
20, 1917. He was one of five graduates, appointed from this college 
to attend the aviation schools, and was trained at Fort Sill, Okla., 
and Garden City, N.Y., and commissioned 2d Lieut., Jan. 3, 1918. 

He went overseas in Jan., 1918, received intensive training in the 
aerial schools in France, was commissioned 1st Lieut. Feb. 2, 1918, 
assigned to the 135th Aero Squadron, and was sent to the front 
as an observer in Aug., 1918. 

On Oct. 10 he brought down an enemy plane officially. At the 
time of his death he was about to be made operating officer of a 
new squadron, which would have meant promotion to Capt., but 
on Oct. 29 he and his pilot, Lieut. Edward C. Landon, volunteered 
for an important mission for the corps commander, without the 
usual protection. This they declined, on the grounds that one ship, 
if lucky, could get away better than three, and if the enemy did 
overwhelm them, only one would be lost. They were forced to fly 
at an altitude of 1000 metres, because of poor visibility, and in the 
combat which ensued Lieut. Aldrich was mortally wounded. 

When the plane landed he was sent with all speed to the hos- 
pital, but he passed away without regaining consciousness. 

He was buried the following day, at Sebastopol, Toul, Meurthe- 
et-Moselle, where an impressive service was held. 

The following appreciation was forwarded to Lieut. Aldrich's 
family with the certificate issued by the War Department stating 
that "Perry H. Aldrich died with honor in the Service of his 
country." 



[ 49 ] 



PERRY HENRY ALDRICH 



At the time when so many officers of the Air Service are returning, I 
feel an earnest desire to express to you some acknowledgment on the part 
of the Government of the devoted sacrifice offered by your son, who died 
of wounds received in action in France, Oct. 29, 1918. 

Lieut. Aldrich sought the front lines of danger and was one of those 
whose privilege it was to be selected for it. His sacrifice was made for his 
country, and his bravery and unflinching devotion to duty have made him 
one of the nation's heroes. 

The Air Service of the United States Army has permanently inscribed 
his name upon its Roll of Honor and he will ever be remembered as one 
of those who contributed his best to maintain the prestige of our cause. 

I join with his brother officers in expressing our deep appreciation of 
his loyalty and the effectiveness of the service rendered. 

Very sincerely 

Carr T. Menoher 

Major-General, U.S.A. 

Lieut. L. W. Schlesinger, Adjutant 135th Aero Squadron, wrote : 

I was with the Squadron when Perry joined it, and in my work as 
Adjutant the various officers of the Squadron were constantly before me. 
I can truthfully say that I don't believe there was a braver, truer, more 
Christian soldier than Perry in the A.E.F. He was a good comrade, always 
had a kind word and a ready smile, and was absolutely indifferent to per- 
sonal danger. He showed the highest devotion to duty, and met his death 
while carrying out a dangerous mission. 

D.S.C. 

For extraordinary heroism in action near St.-Mihie!, France, 29 Oct. 
1918. 

Lieut. Aldrich (Observer) with 1st Lieut. E. C. Landon, volunteered 
and went on an important mission for the Corps Commander, without 
the usual protection. Forced to fly at an altitude of 1000 metres because 
of poor visibility. Soon after crossing the lines they encountered an enemy 
Rumpler plane, and forced it to the ground. On returning they attacked 
another Rumpler and drove it off. After completing their mission and 
seeing an enemy observation tower on Lake Lachaussee, they reentered 
the enemy territory and fired upon it. Immediately attacked by seven 
enemy planes (Fokker type) a combat followed in which Lieut. Aldrich 
was mortally wounded. 

By command of General Pershing 

Brother in Service - 

Herbert J. Aldrich, sergeant Medical Dep't Fort Meyer, Va. 



[50 ] 



T. J. DUNCAN FULLER 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., One Hundred Thirty- 
Fifth Aero Squadron, First Observation Group 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Fuller, of Boston, Mass.; was born 
at Washington, D.C., Aug. 6, 1893. He was educated at the Wash- 
ington public schools, and at Harvard College, class of 1915. He 
rowed on his freshman crew, and on the 'Varsity four-oared crew, 
in 1913. 

He enlisted on April 23, 1917, at Mineola, N.Y., and was trained 
at Mineola, from April to July, 1917. He was commissioned 1st 
Lieut., R.M.A., July 26, 1917, U.S. Air Service, and was on duty 
at Chanute Field, Rantoul, 111., from July 26, to Sept. 4, 1917; at 
Fort Sill, Okla., from Sept. 4 to May 9, 1918; and at Taliaferro 
Field, Fort Worth, Tex., from May 9 to July 1, 1918. 

He sailed overseas on July 15, 1918, and trained at Issoudun, 
France, from Aug. 15 to Sept. 1, when he was attached to the 
135th Squadron. On Sept. 12 he was forced to land on Swiss soil, 
his machine having been damaged by anti-aircraft fire. He refused 
to give his parole not to try to make his escape, and was im- 
prisoned at Addermatt, Switzerland, until the end of the war. On 
Oct. 16, 1918, he made a desperate attempt to escape on a rope 
made from his bedclothes; but the rope broke and Lieut. Fuller 
fell a considerable distance and was badly injured. He was re- 
imprisoned, and remained in captivity until Dec. 7, 1918, when he 
was released by the Swiss government. He returned to the U.S. 
on Jan. 3, and was honorably discharged on Jan. 10, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Ashmead Fuller, 1st Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. 



[52 1 



ARTHUR L. CLARK 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Twenty-Fourth Aero 
Squadron, First Observation Group 

Son of Eugene W. and Jane (Putnam) Clark; was born at Jamaica 
Plain, Mass., on Dec. 18, 1892. He was educated at the Roxbury 
Latin School, at the West Roxbury High School, at the Mass. Agri- 
cultural College, and at the Rhode Island State College. He was a 
sophomore in the Agricultural Department of the Rhode Island 
State College when he enlisted at Plattsburg, N.Y., May 12, 1917. 
On Aug. 14, 1917, he was honorably discharged from the Officers* 
Training Camp at Plattsburg, and on the same day ree'nlisted in 
the S.E.R.C. at Mineola, N.Y., as private, 1st class. 

He was assigned to the Ground School at M.I.T., and from there 
transferred to the Aviation School at Mineola, N.Y. He was further 
trained at the School for Observers at Fort Sill, Okla. On Jan. 4, 
1918, he was commissioned 2d Lieut, at Garden City, N.Y., 
and on Jan. 5 assigned to active duty with detachment of Aerial 
Observers, No. 1. He sailed overseas on Jan. 9, 1918. 

He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on Feb. 2, 1918, and assigned to 
various schools in France. On Sept. 12, he was ordered to active 
official observer's flying duty near the Toul sector. On Sept. 17, 

1918, while flying with his pilot, Lieut. William A. Bradfield of 
Dallas, Tex., the motor went dead and he was forced to descend, 
and was captured by the Germans. For a month he was reported 
"missing in action," but on Oct. 15 was reported unwounded and 
a prisoner at Landshut, Germany. 

Upon landing from their plane on Sept. 17, Lieut. Clark and his 
pilot were taken to Joeuf , in Lorraine, questioned closely and trans- 
ferred to Karlsruhe, Baden, by train, and finally to Landshut and 
Villingen, about thirty kilometres north of the Swiss border. On 
Nov. 25, after many faithless promises, they were released, and 
proceeded to Konstanz, thence to the Swiss border. 

Lieut. Clark was one of the first American aviators and ex- 
prisoners of war to be returned to the U.S., arriving on Jan. 18, 

1919. He was honorably discharged in Jan., 1919, and is now at- 
tached to the Experiment Station at the Rhode Island State 
College. 



[54] 



LEO BERNARD CAUCHON 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.SA., Twenty-Fourth Aero 
Squadron, First Army Observation Group 

Son of Phelias, and Zelia Cote Cauchon, of Providence, R.I.; was 
born Sept. 29, 1895. He attended the Rhode Island School of De- 
sign. Prior to the war he was for sixteen months a member of 
troop N, R.I. Cavalry. 

On May 11, 1917, he enlisted at Providence R.I., and was sent 
to the Plattsburg Training Camp, May 11 to July 16, 1917. From 
then until Sept. 15, 1917, he attended the Ground School at 
Princeton, N.J. He sailed overseas for France, arriving Oct. 28, 

1917. From Dec. 25, 1917, to April, 1918, he trained at the Ecole 
d' Aviation, at Chateauroux, France, and from April until July, 

1918, at Issoudun, where he was commissioned 1st Lieut, in June, 
1918. He concluded his training at Tours, where he was stationed 
from July to Aug. 23, 1918, when he was attached to the 24th 
Aero Squadron, and with them saw service until Dec. 8, 1918. 

Between Sept. 8 and Nov. 11, Lieut. Cauchon's flying time over 
the lines was thirty-six hours, seventeen minutes, and he was offi- 
cially credited with one enemy plane. He returned to the U.S. and 
was honorably discharged at Camp Pike, Ark., April 26, 1919. 
Citations 

First Lieutenant L. B. Cauchon, A.S., U.S.A., and Second Lieuten- 
ant B. F. Collins, C.A.C., 24th Aero Squadron, 1st Army Observation 
Group, are hereby credited with the destruction, in combat, of an enemy 
Fokker, in the region of Damvillers, at 2500 metres altitude, on Oct. 22, 
1918, at 9.50 o'clock. 

By order of Colonel Milling 

Chief of Staff 

The Air Service Commander, First Army, cites the following officers 
and men for exceptional devotion to duty : 

First Lieutenant Leo B. Cauchon, A.S., U.S.A., Pilot, 24th Aero Squad- 
ron, has repeatedly fulfilled missions under unfavorable conditions with 
an utter disregard of personal risk. On Oct. 22, with Second Lieutenant 
Bayakd F. Collins, C.A.C., U.S.A., Observer, he was flying alone over 
Stenay-Montmedy region and encountered five enemy formations, re- 
sulting in two combats, in which one German plane was shot down. Lieu- 
tenant Cauchon returned safely, although his plane was badly damaged. 
The destruction of one enemy plane has been officially confirmed on this 
mission. 

By order of Colonel Milling 

[ 56 ] 



LEO BERNARD CAUCHON 

First Lieutenant Leo B. Cauchon, A.S., U.S.A., Pilot, joined the 24th 
Aero Squadron on Aug. 30, 1918; has had thirty-six hours and seventeen 
minutes total flying time, of which twenty-one hours and twenty-two 
minutes was included in successful reconnaissance. He has displayed un- 
usual bravery in action on several occasions, for which he was cited in 
General Order Number 30, Headquarters, Air Service, First Army, Nov. 
26, 1918. As mess officer during his entire stay with the Squadron, he has 
performed his duties with good ability and untiring effort. 

Matjby Hill 
Captain, A.S., U.S.A. 

Brothers in Service — 

Herve P. Cauchon, Sergeant, Headquarters, Co. 103, F.A. 
26th Div. 

Henri F. Cauchon, Corporal, Headquarters, Co. 327, Infan- 
try, 82d Div. 

SIDNEY FULLER LAW 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Frederick A. and Mary E. (Fuller) Law, of Longmeadow, 
Mass.; was born at New London, Conn., Dec. 14, 1892. He was 
educated at the Springfield Technical High School, Springfield, 
Mass., and at the Throop Polytechnic Academy, Pasadena, Cal. 
He enlisted at Ludlow, Mass., Oct. 6, 1917, and was assigned to 
Camp Devens, Ayer, Mass., where he remained until Dec. 13, 1917. 
He attended the Ground School at Princeton, N.J., from Dec. 13, 
1917, to March 2, 1918. He was trained at Camp Dick, Dallas, 
Tex., from March 2 to April 23, and at Carlstrom Field, Arcadia, 
Fla., from April 23 to June 29. On June 29, 1918, he was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., and was ordered to return to Camp Dick, 
where he remained until July 20. He was stationed at Brooks 
Field, San Antonio, Tex., from July 20 to Sept. 6, and at Call 
Field, Wichita Falls, Tex., from Sept. 6 to Dec. 19, 1918. At Call 
Field he acted as Flying Instructor, and made some cross-country 
nights in the interests of the United War Work Campaign. He 
was released from the Service at Call Field, Dec. 16, 1918. 



[ 58 ] 



* CHARLES HASTINGS UPTON 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Fiftieth Aero Squadron 
First Observation Group 
Killed in airplane accident, Aug. 28, 1918 

Son of Samuel and Arexzine A. (Wood) Upton; was born at Boston, 
Mass., Sept. 4, 1893. He was educated in the public schools of 
Somerville, and at Tufts College, where he spent three years in the 
Engineering School; he was an excellent athlete and a member of 
the Tufts College Glee Club. 

He enlisted on June 16, 1917, at Cambridge, Mass., and entered 
the Ground School at M.I.T., where, after completing his course, 
he was selected as one of the honor men to be sent overseas to 
Foggia, Italy, for further training. There he won the Golden Eagle 
of the Royal Italian Flying Corps. He was commissioned 1st Lieut. 
March 2, 1918, and was given his choice of remaining to pilot 
Caproni planes or being transferred to France. He chose the latter 
course, and was ordered to Issoudun for advanced training, and 
then to Tours, where he was stationed for several months. He was 
then sent to the front attached to the 50th Aero Squadron. 

On Aug. 28, 1918, Lieut. Upton, with his observer, went up for 
target practice; there was a very strong wind blowing, and in the 
process of shooting at the target an unexpected cross current of 
air threw the machine into a very slow "spin," which at two hun- 
dred metres altitude is often fatal. Just as Lieut. Upton was getting 
his machine under control again, it crashed to the ground, killing 
him almost instantly. 

He was buried with full military honors on Aug. 29, 1918, at 
Gondrecourt, France. The final request in Lieut. Upton's will was 
that if there were services over his remains, to tell his friends to 
bring nothing but violets, the flowers he loved best. This request 
was carried out, and his grave was covered with violets. A me- 
morial service was held for him on Oct. 6, 1918, at the Winter 
Hill Baptist church, at Somerville, Mass. 

Lieut. Upton had a distinct literary gift; he had published some 
stories before he went abroad, and extracts from his inspiring 
letters have also been in print. A week before his death he wrote : 

I must tell you that this thing we are working for has become so much 
a part of our lives, that it is our life. By that I mean there is nothing I 

[ 59 ] 



CHARLES HASTINGS UPTON 



have ever done in this world which has given me a greater degree of con- 
tentment and satisfaction. The chance to serve, oh, you know what it is, 
you are one of those who saw the big Ideal, who gave up things that he 
might serve that Ideal. . . . My chance is coming now! I am stationed 
temporarily twenty-five miles back of the front expecting to move up to 
another airdrome before long. Then our work will begin. . . . Never was 
much of a church man, or even a believer in prayer, yet our Big Ideal has 
brought something greater than many of us ever had. How else could our 
chance to serve come to mean what it does? It is not fear of death, or of 
a possible Hell; simply a full realization that there is a God whom we 
serve through our Big Ideal. 

A few weeks earlier he wrote: 

There is something more awe inspiring about an airplane crash than 
any other accident that may cause death. ... I thought I had become 
hardened to death — I am not — my desire to fly is still with me. I do 
not fear my own death; there is too much beyond; but I fear to see my 
brothers go. And from all these accidents, sometimes fatal and sometimes 
not, a chap, even while seeing the injustice of it, gains a greater faith in 
what before may have seemed an intangible Supreme Being. It is para- 
doxical to have a greater faith in a Supreme Being who allows men to be 
killed, but it works that way. 

Who can stand beside the open grave of a comrade, hear the volleys 
fired, and the sweet notes of "Taps," see the airplanes swoop down to 
drop garlands over the spot, without feeling that there is something 
Greater? As the last note of "Taps" sounds out over the spot, one has 
a vision, if you like, of a soul gone to a well-earned rest and to happiness. 
. . . And so through it all, we have our Grand Ideal, which tells us we 
have the glorious chance to grasp the opportunity of our lives, and if we 
come through, something to remember all our remaining days. For my 
part, I have never prepared to do anything comparable to what my service 
offers, I have never experienced anything of equal exaltation; in a word, 
service in a cause like ours becomes so absorbing, so impersonal, it grips 
one until there is nothing too great to give, no sacrifice too great to make for 
that which is now sacred to us. I hope I have given you something of the 
spirit of the boys over here, for we are all in the same situation, all in the 
same cause, all with the same Big Ideal. It's the greatest experience of 
our lives. I don't think we will lose the vision. . . . How could one lose his 
vision at the front, where if men are winged over the Biggest Top, they 
have gone with their Grand Ideal locked in their hearts. 



[ 60] 



HENRY LeNOBLE STEVENS 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Fiftieth Aero Squadron 
First Observation Group 
Killed in action, Sept. 12, 1918 

Son of Charles and Mary Wharton (Sinkler) Stevens, was born at 
Pinopolis, S.C., May 23, 1892. He was educated at the Charleston 
and Episcopal High Schools, the University of Virginia, and the 
Eastman Business College. He was a member of the 'Varsity track 
team at the University of Virginia. 

He enlisted from Providence, R.I., on May 13, 1917, at the 
Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg. From Plattsburg he was 
sent to Toronto, Can., to train for the Aviation Service under the 
Royal Flying Corps. He trained at Long Branch, Camp Rathbun, 
and at Armour Heights, Can., and was later transferred to Talia- 
ferro Field, Fort Worth, Tex., attached to the 22d Squadron. He 
sailed overseas with the 139th Squadron, on Feb. 24, 1918, and 
continued his training at Tours, France, where he was made Com- 
manding Officer of a construction squadron, at 2d A.I.C., being 
urged to retain this position for duration of the war. 

At his own request he was transferred back to active service and 
trained at Tours and Issoudun for reconnaissance pilot. He was 
commissioned 1st Lieut, on Sept. 8, 1918. On Sept. 9 he was sent 
to Bar-le-Duc with the 50th Squadron, and on the morning of the 
St.-Mihiel drive, Sept. 12, he was despatched on a dangerous re- 
connaissance mission, in D.H. 4 Liberty plane. Four hours later he 
was shot down in flames at Pont-a-Mousson, back of the German 
lines, and instantly killed. His mission was to see whether the 
Germans were withdrawing or reinforcing their lines at a very 
important point. As Lieut. Stevens had been up four hours before 
he was shot down, it was believed that he had accomplished his 
mission and had subsequently been lost in the heavy rain and low 
hanging clouds. He was buried at the military cemetery at Thiau- 
court. 

Married, June 27, 1917, Mary Elizabeth Carpenter. 



[ 62 ] 



JOHN RICHARD EDWARDS, Jr. 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Ninety-Ninth Aero 
Squadron, First Observation Group 

Son of John Richard and Harriet (DeWolfe) Edwards, of Bristol, 
R.L; was born in Washington, D.C., Oct. 21, 1896. He was edu- 
cated at the public schools of Portsmouth, N.H., Episcopal 
Academy, Philadelphia, Friends School, Washington, D.C., and 
Bowdoin College to the second semester of his junior year. 

He completed the course of military instruction at the Platts- 
burg Camp of 1916. Later that year he enrolled for naval instruc- 
tion and served on the U.S.S. Virginia during the months of 
Sept. and Oct. 

In Jan., 1917, he volunteered for duty as an ambulance driver 
on the French front. Early in Feb., 1917, he enrolled in that serv- 
ice, took passage for France, and served for six months in the 
Verdun and Champagne sectors. 

After completing the period for which he volunteered as an 
ambulance driver, he enlisted in Paris as a private in the American 
Aviation Service. He was a member of the first section of Ameri- 
can aviators that was trained in France, this camp having been 
established at Tours. He was assigned to the French Aviation 
Camp at Issoudun, where he was trained to operate the various 
machines used by the French aviators. 

In Nov., 1917, he was given the Brevet dAviateur Militaire by 
the French Minister of War. Dec. 10, 1917, he was commissioned 
as a 1st Lieut, in the Air Service, U.S. Signal Reserve Corps. 

In Feb., 1918, Lieut. Edwards was assigned as a member of 
Observation Squadron U.S. No. 99. This Squadron, from March, 
1918, to the signing of the Armistice, located enemy installations 
by observations and photographs, distributed propaganda lit- 
erature beyond the battle line, located hostile munition and in- 
fantry positions, adjusted the artillery fire of the U.S. forces, per- 
formed reglage service, made repeated reconnaissances to the 
enemy's territory, and was likewise assigned to various special 
missions. This American Squadron served for a time with a French 
Escadrille. 

While operating within the Frapelle sector, Lieut. Edwards 
was cited with other members of the Squadron, and Major-General 



[ 64 ] 



JOHN RICHARD EDWARDS, Jr. 



O. P. Summerall especially cited the work of the 99th and 104th 
Squadrons, during the closing days of the War. During the St.- 
Mihiel salient attack he was continually employed in connection 
with the work performed by this Squadron. 

Aero Squadron 99 and 104 for faithful and untiring service in obtaining 
useful and valuable information, often under great difficulty, and in aiding 
the advance of the ground forces throughout the Meuse-Argonne offensive 
of Sept. 26 to Nov. 11, 1918. 

Among other individual citations received by Lieut. Edwards, 
are the following: 

The Air Service Commander, First Army, cites the following officers 
and men for exceptional devotion to duty : 

1. Par. 5. First Lieutenant John R. Edwards, A.S., U.S.A., Pilot, 99th 
Aero Squadron, executed exceptional mission on Sept. 14th, 1918, over 
Conflans, twenty kilometres behind enemy lines. His formation was at- 
tacked by twenty-five enemy pursuit planes. During combat his gas pump 
was shot away. Pumping gas by hand, he piloted machine free of the 
enemy and reached own lines. The plane landed without a crash despite 
the damage done to it by the enemy fire. 

By order of Colonel Milling 

Brother in Service — 

Allen R. Edwards, Lieut.-Col., U.S. Coast Artillery. 
Father in Service — 

John R. Edwards (Rear Admiral U.S. Navy) (Retired). 



[ 66 ] 



VINCENT E. HEYWOOD 

First Lieutenant, R.M.A., Ninety-Ninth Aero Squadron 
First Observation Group 

Son of Charles Henry and Cora M. (Eaton) Heywood; was born 
in Springfield, Mass., Jan. 20, 1889. He graduated from Lake 
Forest College, Lake Forest, 111. 

In 1915 he attended the 1st Plattsburg Camp, and that same 
year organized the Worcester Rifle Club, having previously qual- 
ified as an expert rifleman in the U.S. Revolver Association. In 
1916 he enlisted for 30 days with the 2d U.S. Cavalry, and took 
examinations for a volunteer commission. On March 17, 1917, 
he sailed for Bordeaux, attached to the 97th Division Infantry, 
French Army, as Ambulancier. 

The day America entered the war he took part in the French 
Celebration at Paris, and was one of eighty Americans to march 
to Lafayette's monument. At the front, near Verdun, he was as- 
signed to S.S.U. 17, with which he had strenuous evacuation work. 
He was in two offensives in the Ayocourt-Esnes sector. Heywood 
and Stephen P. Lewis, as brancardiers went into the first-line 
trenches the evening preceding the German offensive near Hill 
304. They remained dug in for six hours, through a terrible barrage 
of 77's, and went over the top with the 59th Chasseur Division, 
each rescuing a blesse. Hey wood's Section was cited "for courage 
and calmness under desperate circumstances, especially during 
June, July, and Aug., 1917." 

His enlistment in the French Army having expired on Sept. 17, 
he enlisted as a private in the U.S. Air Service, at Paris, and was 
sent to Tours for instruction, receiving his Brevet d'Aviateur Mili- 
taire on Nov. 30, 1917; he was sent to the American Chasse School 
at Issoudun on Dec. 3, where he remained until March 17, 1918. 
He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on March 6, 1918, Aviation Sec- 
tion, S.O.R.C., R.M.A., and assigned to the 99th Aero Squadron. 
On March 25, the 99th, consisting of eighteen pilots, flew their 
new Sopwith planes out of Le Bourge Aerodrome, Paris, under the 
fire of the German long-range gun. 

Early in Oct., 1918, Lieut. Heywood was recalled, because of 
nervous breakdown, and assigned to the Technical Section of the 
Air Service in Paris, for a two months' rest. 



[ 67 ] 



VINCENT E. HEYWOOD 



He was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., on Dec. 31, 
1918. 

Citations 

The volunteer Heywood came in the 17th Section on the 29th of 
April. During all the time he has been in the Section he did his work as 
well as possible. He is a very good mechanic and a very good driver; he 
always showed the most intelligent devotion and the highest courage, and 
I noted many times his calm and cool blood during the hard shelling we 
had in the Verdun battle (June, July, Aug., 1917). I give for Heywood 
my best recommendation, and I wish for him, for the good character he 
always shows, the best luck for anything he will undertake. 

Le Sous-Lieut. Com. S.S.U. 17 
(Signed) d 'Halle y 

Croix de Guerre with Star 

General Legaille, Commander of the 97th Division Infantry, cites at the 
Division's Order, the S.S.U. 17, attached to the Division, for the following 
reason. Under the Command of Sub-Lieutenant d'Halley and an American 
Lieutenant, Neftel, the young volunteers of the S.S.U. 17 have given proof, 
on dangerous, often critical occasions — notably a series of combats in 
June, July, and Aug., 1917 — of a calm and thoughtful courage and of 
most lofty sentiment of devotion. Without thought of danger, they have 
given themselves to go in search of, rescue, and bring back the wounded, 
under the enemy's fire; and have rendered to the 97th Division and to the 
French Cause services the value of which cannot be exaggerated. 

(Signed) General Legaille 

The undersigned, commanding the S.S.U. 17 certifies that Mr. Vincent 
E. Heywood was a member of the Section at the time of the above citation. 

(Signed) d'Halley 

Nov. 22, 1918 

To Lieut. V. Heywood: 

The Administrative Officers, Technical Section, wish to express to you. 
their appreciation for your work in connection with the Division in which 
you have been associated. The results obtained have been due to the fact 
that each officer has performed to the best of his ability the duties en- 
trusted to him. The organization has grown rapidly from the start, and 
was, at the time the Armistice was declared, in splendid shape for future 
functioning. Your individual part in bringing about the development of 
this organization is much appreciated. 

(Signed) E. J. Hall 

Lieut.-Col. Air Service 
Chief Technical Section 



[ 68 ] 



R. NOBLE ESTEY 

First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A.; Adjutant to CO., Fifth 
Army Corps ; Chief Photographic Officer, Ninety-Ninth 
Aero Squadron, Fifth Army Corps 

Son of Henry P. and Mary J. (Noble) Estey; was born in Water- 
bury, Conn., Oct. 29, 1886. He was educated in the public schools 
of Waterbury, later taking up newspaper work. He became inter- 
ested in aviation in 1909, and made his first flight as a member of 
the American Press Association at Belmont Park, in 1911. In 1913 
he brought the first Curtiss Flying Boat to Providence. While he 
was connected with the Providence Tribune he formed the First 
Aeronautical Division of the Rhode Island State Militia, which 
when the U.S. declared war comprised about 100 partly trained 
men. On April 6, 1917, the members of the Division were taken 
over into the regular Navy, and soon after transferred to Marble- 
head. Here they remained until July 13, 1917. At this time Estey 
applied for and received honorable discharge from the Navy, 
joined the Lafayette Escadrille in New York City, and sailed for 
France on July 23, 1917. On Aug. 27 Lieut. Estey transferred 
to the Air Service of the U.S., in Paris. On Sept. 1 he was sent 
to Tours for training, and in Feb., 1918, to Issoudun, completing 
the course in March. He was then assigned to the 99th Observa- 
tion Squadron, and on March 18 left Issoudun for the front. 
Toward the end of Aug. the Squadron was shifted to Souilly, 
arriving two days before the beginning of the St.-Mihiel drive. 
During the entire offensive the Squadron operated over the sec- 
tor, photographing and carrying on artillery reglage work. There 
were times when it was impossible to string up telephones fast 
enough to keep up with the infantry, and when runners carrying 
messages were shot down before they could reach General Head- 
quarters. At such times the observation planes were the only 
communication between the front lines and the Post Command. 
At the beginning of the Argonne offensive Lieut. Estey was made 
Adjutant by Lieut.-Col. Christie, who was then Chief of the Air 
Service of the Fifth Army Corps, to which the 99th Squadron was 
attached. After the Armistice he was ordered home, arriving at 
Hoboken on Feb. 17, 1919. He was honorably discharged June 5, 
1919, and accepted a commission in the Reserve Corps. 



[ 70 ] 



HOWARD HARE POWEL 

Captain, A.S.A., U.SA., Eighty-Fifth Squadron, RA.F. 
Son of Harford W. Hare and Marion C. H. Powel, of Newport, 
R.I.; was born at Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 7, 1891. 
He attended St. George's School, Newport, R.I., and entered 
Harvard College in the class of 1914, withdrawing on account of 
illness in his sophomore year. He played football and took prizes 
in English and French in school and college. 

On June 15, 1911, he enlisted as a private in Battery A, 
M.V.M., with which he served until honorably discharged, 
Dec. 13, 1913. He volunteered in the American Ambulance Field 
Service, Feb. 12, 1916, and during the great German drive against 
Verdun saw hard service with his section, "S.S.U. No. 2," which 
was twice cited for bravery. He was honorably discharged on Oct. 
19, 1916, and in Nov. returned to the U.S. 

He enlisted at Boston in May, 1917, and graduated with the 
first class of cadet aviators at M.I.T. He was then ordered to 
Mineola, N.Y., for practical flying, graduated there as a pilot, and 
was commissioned 1st Lieut. A.S., S.C., Officers' Reserve Corps, 
U.S.A., on Aug. 28, 1917. He was assigned for further advanced 
instruction to Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., where he later 
acted as instructor. Subsequently he was transferred to Toronto, 
Can.; to Taliaferro Field, Fort Worth, Tex., where he was at- 
tached to the 27th Squadron; to Toronto again; and to Kelly 
Field, No. 2, San Antonio, Tex. 

He went overseas in command of the 183d Aero Squadron. As a 
member of the A.E.F. he was trained at various British flying 
schools, and commissioned Capt. (temp.) in the Signal Corps, 
U.S.A., on Feb. 19, 1918. He was attached to the 85th Squadron, 
R.A.F., with which he saw much active service during July, Aug., 
and Sept., 1918. In Sept. he was taken ill; upon recovery was 
given leave. He returned to the Supply Depot, Nov. 5, and 
arrived in Boston, Mass., on Jan. 22, 1919. 

Captain Powel is still in the Service, stationed at Kelly Field, 
San Antonio, Tex. He took part in the Mid- West Flight of the 
Flying Circus engaged in selling Victory Loan Bonds. 

Captain Powel comes of a family prominent for three centuries 
in the Army and Navy of Great Britain. 



[ 72 ] 



CHARLES HURD HOWELL 



Captain, R.F.C., Twelfth and Thirteenth Squadrons 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. George D. Howell, of Boston, Mass.; was 
born at Uniontown, Fayette, Co. Pa., Feb. 25, 1891. He was edu- 
cated at St. Mark's School, Southboro, Mass.; at Trinity College, 
Hartford, Conn., and at Balliol, Oxford, and Christ's, Cambridge, 
Eng. 

In Sept., 1915, while a student at Oxford, he enlisted in the 
Royal Flying Corps. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., Dec. 13, 
1915; and in July, 1916, was one of a large group of flyers that 
accompanied Gen. Haig in his campaign on the Somme, for some 
nine months continuously. Lieut. Howell was then given a rest in 
England, and was later in service in the Coast Defence against 
raids, and was in charge of anti-aircraft gun crews. He gained his 
first promotion from successful bombing in the Somme drive. 

He trained in England at Brooklands, No. 2, Res. Squadron, 
and at Croydon, No. 17, Res. Squadron. In France he was at- 
tached to 12th and 13th Squadrons, and to Headquarters. In 
England he served as instructor to the 49th and 44th Squadrons, 
at No. 2, Auxiliary School of Aerial Gunnery; also to the 45th, 61st, 
and 39th Squadrons, at Grantham. 

He was commissioned 1st Lieut. July 1, 1917; Capt., Sept. 1, 
1918. On Jan. 25, 1919, he was demobilized at Thetford, Eng. 

His commanding officer, R.A.F., wrote in Sept., 1918, in recom- 
mending him for promotion: 

I have known Lieut. C. H. Howell for the past two and three-quarters 
years, first as Pilot in England, and later in France where he did splendid 
work in an artillery observation and long-range bombing Squadron. He 
can fly almost any type of machine, and is an excellent instructor. Alto- 
gether, to my knowledge, he has had that varied experience which fits him 
to lead formations in the Field, or command Instructional Flights at 
home. 

(Signed) Lieut-Col (A.) R.A.F. 

Capt. Howell was mentioned in the Victory Despatches from 
Eng. in Nov., 1919, for his " splendid service during the war." 
Married, Dec. 19, 1916, Margaret Russell. 

Brother in Service — 

G. Dawson Howell, Lieut., U.S. Navy. 

[ 74 ] 



ROBERT H. REECE 



First Lieutenant, R.A.F. 

Son of John and Marietta Reece (Now Mrs. J. B. Thomas) ; was 
born in Brookline, Mass., Aug. 30, 1888. He prepared for college 
at the Noble and Greenough School and entered Harvard College 
in the class of 1911. 

In Oct., 1916, he joined the Royal Flying Corps and received 
his aviation training in England. During the following year he 
was one of thirty-five chosen from his Squadron to be sent to the 
Ypres front, attached to the first Royal Flying Corps bombing 
squadron used in France. In Oct., 1917, he was attached to the 
Handley-Page Squadron, R.N.A.S., as navigating officer for long- 
distance night-bombing raids into Germany. The following Feb. 
he was granted six months leave and sailed for America on the 
S.S. Andania, which was torpedoed off the Irish coast. All on 
board were rescued by trawlers and returned to England; Lieut. 
Reece's leave was extended and his next voyage was uninterrupted. 

In April, 1918, he returned to his Squadron in France, known as 
"The Bedouin Squadron." Among the places bombed by this 
Squadron during the following months were Metz, Mannheim, 
Konz, Pforzheim, Thionville, Saarbrucken, Lumez, Vahl Eberzing, 
Stuttgart, and Frankfort, the raid at the last place being carried 
out during three thunderstorms. 

On July 7, 1918, Lieut. Reece was awarded the "Distinguished 
Flying Cross," and in Sept. 1918, he was sent to England as A.D.C. 
to the Inspector General of the Royal Air Force. 

The D.F.C. is personally bestowed upon the recipients by King 
George at Buckingham Palace, and Lieut. Reece was one of five 
Americans to receive this honor. 

Lieut. Reece was early convinced that the aeroplane would 
become an effective fighting machine, and during his term in the 
British Army he saw the development in the Air Service from the 
use of small machines for observation only, into a great offensive 
arm of warfare. This is all graphically described in the first chapter 
of his book, "Night Bombing with the Bedouins." This chapter he 
has aptly named "Per Ardua Ad Astra" which was the motto of 
the Royal Flying Corps. To quote his words: 

[ 76 ] 



ROBERT H. REECE 



What would the past generation have said of a man who had prophesied 
great armies fighting in the air? Even in the early months of the war there 
were but few who realized what an important part of -the war was to be 
carried on in the newly conquered element. When the infantry saw an 
occasional box-kite-looking machine drifting slowly over the lines, strug- 
gling to keep itself aloft, how many, I wonder, foresaw that in a few 
months these machines would be swooping down on them like swallows, 
raking them with machine guns by day and bombing them by night? How 
many artillery officers laughed at the suggestion that a day was coming 
when thousands of great guns would be directed from the air? Yet in a 
few short months two great blind fighting giants, their arms stretching 
from the Belgian coast to the Swiss border, learned to see each other; and 
their eyes were in the air. 



It was not until 1916 that the full powers of the aeroplane as an of- 
fensive weapon began to be realized. Bombing was done, but it was of a 
desultory nature, and although the number of machines engaged in this 
work steadily increased, and the work itself became more and more di- 
versified and specialized, it was not until 1918 that the possibilities of the 
aeroplane as a purely offensive weapon were appreciated. 

An aeroplane can operate far back of the enemy lines, both in the day 
and at night; enemy troops in transport can be bombed; railway stations, 
sidings, etc., damaged; transports of all kinds delayed; and ammunition 
dumps, when located, can be blown up. In fact, military targets of all 
sorts can be attacked from the air that cannot be reached in any other 
way. The very foundation of a nation's strength in war, its industry, can 
be attacked from the air and, if attacked on a large enough scale, can be 
destroyed. 



The hundreds of bombing machines which the English aeroplane fac- 
tories were turning out at the time hostilities ceased, and the thousands of 
men being trained for bombing, make one wonder what would have hap- 
pened to the German industries if the war had continued through the 
spring of 1919. 

Besides these hundreds of aeroplanes under construction and the thou- 
sands of men in training, the Royal Air Force had in operation, Nov. 11, 
1918, over twenty thousand aeroplanes, over thirty thousand aviators, 
and over two hundred thousand mechanics and other personnel. 



The name of Lieut. Robert Reece is next to the top on the 
Honor List at the Air Ministry, a record of those who did night 
bombing in Germany. He resigned from the Service to resume his 
business career in the spring of 1919. 

[ 78 ] 



PHILLIPS MERRILL PAYSON 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 
One Hundred Sixty-Sixth Aero Squadron, A.E.F. 
Attached to Fifty-Fifth Squadron, R.A.F. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Payson; was born in Portland, 
Me., Aug. 9, 1892. He was educated at St. Paul's School Concord, 
N.H., and at Williams College. At St. Paul's School he played 
football and hockey, and was a member of the crew. At college he 
was captain of the football team in 1914. He served with the Ohio 
Cavalry at the Mexican Border for ten months. 

He enlisted at Boston, Mass., in June, 1917. He received his 
training with the Royal Air Force at various English schools; 
attended the Ground School at Oxford University, and the 
Machine-Gun School at Grantham, Eng. He was trained in night 
flying with the 30th Squadron, at Newcastle, and had experience in 
day flying at Amesbury, Eng., and Turnberry, Scotland. Ordered 
to France, he served at the front with the 55th Squadron, R.A.F., 
from June to Oct., 1918, making fourteen long-distance raids on 
the Rhine towns. His day raids with the R.A.F. included Cologne, 
Coblenz, Frankfort, Mannheim, Stuttgart, Trier, and Offenburg. 
He was then transferred to the U.S. Air Service, attached to the 
166th Aero Squadron, A.E.F., with which he served from Oct. to 
Nov., 1918, and made seven raids during the Argonne offensive. 
From Nov., 1918, to March, 1919, he was with the 166th Aero 
Squadron, Army of Occupation He was honorably discharged 
from the Air Service at Garden City, N.Y., on March 29, 1919. 

He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on April 7, 1918. He was recom- 
mended for promotion, and a letter from his superior officer Major- 
Gen. M. M. Patrick, dated Nov. 26, 1918, expressed regret that 
instructions from the War Dept. had discontinued all promotions 
after Nov. 11, as the recommendation for Payson's promotion had 
been approved by the Air Service. 

Lieut. Payson was also recommended for the D.S.C. The official 
text, signed by Victor Parks, Jr., Capt.; Inf. att'd. A.S., and dated 
Nov. 12, 1918, follows: 

Lieut. Payson is English trained, having been with an R.A.F. Independ- 
ent Force for several months before coming to the American Forces. 

He is now Flight Commander in the 166th Aero Squadron, and is a 
very cool-headed and efficient officer. On one raid over the lines with this 

[ 79 ] 



PHILLIPS MERRILL PAYSON 



Squadron, his plane was attacked in force by the enemy, and he fought 
them until far back of our own lines. Lieut. Payson skilfully manoeuvred 
his ship and evaded the German planes, time and time again. Several 
times he turned upon his pursuers and fired into them with his forward 
guns. He outmanoeuvred his opponents at every stage of the battle, and 
with his Observer fought off five enemy planes, who seemed determined 
to bring him down. He landed near Revigny and his ship was salvaged, 
having been literally shot to pieces. The landing wires were shot away, 
the planes riddled, and his gas tank shot through. 

A letter from the Office of the Secretary of the Air Ministry, 
Strand, London, Eng., dated May 23, 1919, states: 

Lieutenant P. M. Payson, United States Air Service, was attached to 
the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force from 20th Oct., 1917, until 
30th Sept., 1918. 

He graduated as a Pilot in April, 1918, and had completed approxi- 
mately 212 hours in the air. 

He served with No. 55 Squadron, R.A.F., which formed part of the In- 
dependent Air Force, from 30th June, 1918, to 30th Sept., 1918, during 
which period he took part in 14 successful bombing raids, and at all 
times displayed great ability and keenness. He was a thoroughly efficient 
officer and a good pilot, and on the termination of his attachment to 
No. 55 Squadron, the Squadron Commander reported that he should 
make a very satisfactory Flight Commander. 

Citation 

The Army Air Service Commander, First Army, cites the following 
officers and men for exceptional devotion to duty : 

24. First Lieutenant P. M. Payson, A.S./U.S.A., as Pilot of the 166th 
Aero Squadron, performed efficient and hazardous work in the Argonne- 
Meuse sector, Oct.-Nov., 1918, during operations of the First Day 
Bombardment Group. 

By order of Colonel Milling 



[ 80 ] 



*JOHN F. STAFFORD, Jr. 

Second Lieutenant, Two Hundred Tenth Squadron, R.A.F. 
Killed in action, Sept. 29, 1918 

Son of John and Maud C. (Birtwell) Stafford; was born at Fall 
River, Mass., May 5, 1898. He was educated at Westminster Pre- 
paratory School, Simsbury, Conn., where he was prominent in 
athletics, playing three years on the football team and three years 
on the baseball team. 

In Oct., 1917, he enlisted in the Canadian Air Service, at New 
York, being then nineteen years old. He was immediately sent to 
Canada, and trained at Camp Leaside, Camp Mohawk, and Camp 
Borden successively. He also attended the University of Toronto; 
and then went to the School of Aerial Gunnery, at Camp Hicks, 
Fort Worth, Tex., where he was commissioned 2d Lieut, in April, 
1918. He left about the middle of May, for England, and was at 
the Royal Air Force Training Establishment in Cranwell, Sleaford, 
Lincolnshire, and later at Camp Freiston, Boston, Eng., attached 
to the 210th Squadron, R.A.F. At the latter gunnery school he 
made the best record ever held for aerial gunnery — that is, target 
practice from the air upon real-sized target aeroplanes, and also 
upon the target suspended from the pit balloon. Lieut. Stafford 
trained in England from June until Sept., 1918, when he was 
ordered to France, and stationed near Dunkirk. On Sept. 29 he 
left Dunkirk in a Camel Sopwith fighting scout machine, and was 
last seen in aerial combat with a German airplane on that date. 
He was reported missing by the British Air Ministry, who have 
been unable to obtain further information, and the presumption 
is that he was killed. There was a report that he had passed 
through Berne, Switzerland, on Dec. 9; but his family have had 
no further reassurance, and have given up hope of his return. 



[ 82 ] 



JOSEPH BROWN BOWEN 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 
Thirty-Second Squadron, R.A.F., B.E.F. 

Killed in action, Sept. 7, 1918 

Son of Edward Steere, and Elma Sophia (Brown) Bowen; was 
born at Providence, R.I., April 15, 1891. He was educated in the 
public schools of Pawtucket, R.I., graduated from Brown Uni- 
versity in 1915, and in June, 1917, received from Yale the degree 
of Master of Forestry. 

On July 21, 1917, he volunteered for the Air Service and trained 
at Princeton, and with the Royal Air Force at Fort Worth, Tex. 
He was commissioned 2d Lieut., Feb. 19, 1918, and went overseas 
with the 148th Aero Squadron, A.E.F. On reaching England he 
was detached for special instruction in scout fighting, a tribute to 
his skill, since only the most promising aviators were chosen to fly 
combat planes. This training completed, the Royal Flying Corps 
wished to retain him as a permanent staff officer, but permission 
was refused and he was assigned to active duty with the 32d Aero 
Squadron, Royal Air Force, being one of the few American officers 
attached to British squadrons. During late July, and through Aug., 
1918, he was in the heavy fighting in the vicinity of Cambrai, 
Chateau-Thierry, Fismes, and Douai. 

His letters related violent encounters with Richthofen's "circus," 
from one of which he returned with twenty-two bullet holes in his 
plane. Of another fight he wrote: "I think I got a Hun in the 
scrap, but was too busy to see what happened to him." 

On Sept. 7, 1918, volunteers were asked for a special patrol and 
Lieut. Bowen offered to go, and, as his flight-book shows, it was not 
the first time that he had chosen to do more than duty required. 
That evening he was posted as missing. Later, it was ascertained 
that he had been killed in the air, while engaged on the Allied side 
of the lines, in single combat with a Fokker scout. He was buried 
near the village of Pronville, west of Bourlon Wood and Cambrai. 
Above his grave his Squadron placed a cross made from the broken 
propeller of his plane, inscribed to his memory. 

Lieut. Bowen was of Puritan descent; from Dr. Richard Bowen 
who landed in Weymouth in 1639, through six generations of 



[ 84 ] 



JOSEPH BROWN BOWEN 

doctors, including Col. Joseph Bowen of Revolutionary fame. His 
mother's ancestry returns to Roger Williams. 

Lieut. Bowen was passionately fond of outdoor life and of the 
trees, which he meant to make his profession; his enthusiasm for 
the freedom of the outdoor world made him more prompt to re- 
spond to the call of Liberty and his attitude toward his work in 
aviation is set forth in his own words written to his family: 

It is true that the aviator's job is dangerous, but death has never held 
any dread for me. In fact, I think I have a philosopher's point of view, 
and I can look upon it as an interesting experience that will come sooner 
or later. I am not married and therefore should go at once, but even if I 
had a wife and children, I should consider it my duty to go if the war lasts 
much longer, for it is a plain case of doing the fighting abroad while the 
loved ones at home are in safety. It does not matter when a man dies, 
but how." 

Brother in Service — 

Harold Clovis Bowen, A.S., U.S.A., 810th Aero Squadron. 

LYMAN PERLEY WHITTEN 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Francis and Susan S. Whitten; was born at Maiden, Mass., 
March 25, 1897. He was educated at the Maiden High School, and 
at the Mass. Institute of Technology. He was a member of the soph- 
omore relay team at M.I.T. in 1917. He enlisted at Boston, Mass., 
Nov. 3, 1917, and on Dec. 8 reported at the U.S. School of Military 
Aeronautics at Princeton, N. J. He was transferred to Camp Dick, 
Dallas, Tex., on Feb. 22, 1918, and to Taliaferro Field, Hicks, Tex., 
on March 13, 1918. On June 3 he was ordered back to Camp Dick, 
and on July 5 assigned to Ellington Field, Houston, Tex. He was 
commissioned 2d Lieut, on May 23, 1918, and honorably discharged 
at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., Jan. 6, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Louis Osborne Whitten, Private, M.E.R.C., Base Hospital No. 
44, Mesves, France. 



[ 86 ] 



HENRY JAMES GRAY RUDOLF 



First Lieutenant, R.A.F., Forty-First Squadron, with 
Second Army, B.E.F. 

Son of James R. and Edna (Havelock) Rudolf, of Boston, Mass.; 
was born in Canada, July 20, 1891. He attended the Brookline 
High School, and graduated from M.I.T., S.B., 1915. He was 
president of the rifle club, M.I.T., and capt. of the rifle team. 
He spent a year experimenting in the laboratories of Thomas A. 
Edison, and later entered the ammunition plant of the Bartlett- 
Haywood Co., Baltimore, Md., as inventor and head of several 
departments of production. 

He enlisted on Aug. 7, 1917, in the Royal Flying Corps, and was 
ordered to Toronto, Can., where he trained at Long Branch, 
Ontario; at the University of Toronto; and at Camp Mohawk. In 
Nov., 1917, he was sent to Camp Everman, Tex., and then to 
Camp Hicks, where he was commissioned 2d Lieut., R.F.C., on 
Jan. 29, 1918. He was sent overseas in Feb., 1918, and completed his 
final training at Hooten Park, Cheshire, Eng., where he graduated 
with distinction as scout pilot and was commissioned 1st Lieut., 
R.A.F., April 1, 1918. After additional courses in aerial gunnery 
at Turnberry, and at Gulane, Scotland, he was ordered to France 
on Aug. 14, attached to the 41st Squadron, with the 2d Army, 
B.E.F. From then until the end of the war this scout squadron did 
patrol work around Ypres and as far south as Arras. The fighting 
was all well over the lines, and seldom below 12,000 feet, which 
made it difficult to determine the exact results. This Squadron suc- 
ceeded in keeping the Germans on their own side, but paid heavily 
for it, as in three months the personnel changed three times. 

Lieut. Rudolf is credited with three Fokker biplanes out of 
control (confirmed). On one occasion he and two others were 
attacked by fifteen Fokkers that came down on them through the 
clouds. After losing his two companions, one of them being shot 
down in flames, Lieut. Rudolf fought his way back alone, and 
on landing found that there were fifty-seven bullet holes in his 
machine. On another occasion he was alone watching a flight of 
Bristol Fighters manoeuvring toward a flight of Fokkers. Two of 
the British machines collided, and one crashed. The other gained 
control near the ground with one wing badly damaged, but was 



I 87 ] 



HENRY JAMES GRAY RUDOLF 



attacked by a German two-seater. To help him, Lieut. Rudolf was 
obliged to go down under the Fokker; he drove the German plane 
off and flew home ahead of the crippled Bristol, diving on the 
machine guns in his path. For this exploit he was mentioned by 
the second Brigade at the request of the 48th Squadron. 

At another time he was congratulated by the British 2d Army 
for his part in a duel which they observed from the front line. In 
the midst of the fight, Lieut. Rudolf shot off one blade of his own 
propeller. At the same time the German went into a spin. Rudolf 
was forced to stop his engine but followed him down 6000 feet, 
getting in bursts as he came out of his spin, and left his enemy out 
of control, himself landing safely just across his own lines on a 
narrow road among the shell craters east of Ypres. 

The principal work of Squadron 41 was to furnish offensive 
patrols and escorts for bombers, but on all patrols they dropped 
twenty-five pound bombs at railroads and bridges, besides doing 
some ground-strafing. On Aug. 27, at dawn, they dropped down on 
the Linselles aerodrome, some twelve miles over the lines, and 
flying low, bombed and shot up the hangars, leaving all in flames. 

On Sept. 28, during the great offensive in front of Ypres, they 
swept the roads in front of the advance, which took place in a 
driving rain storm. All the squadrons of the 11th Wing took part. 
Ten went out from the 41st Squadron, but only five of them re- 
turned. King Albert of Belgium was in personal command, and 
sent his congratulations to the aviators. 

On July 15, 1919, Lieut. Rudolf was placed on the unemployed 
list, R.A.F., retaining rank. 



[ 88 ] 



ROBERT SIDNEY BOWEN, Jr. 



Second Lieutenant, R.A.F. 

Son of Robert Sidney and Catharine Sinclair (Fenton) Bowen; 
was born at Allston, Mass., Oct. 4, 1900. He was educated in the 
public schools of Newton, Mass., and was prominent in track 
athletics at the Newton High School. He went overseas as an 
ambulance driver in the American Field Service, and was serving 
in France when the U.S. took over this organization, and returned 
him to this country as under military age. 

He enlisted with the Royal Flying Corps (British) in New York 
City, in Oct., 1917. He received his training at Toronto University; 
at Camp Mohawk, Deseronto, Can.; at Camp Leaside, Beams- 
ville, Can.; and at Camp Taliaferro, Fort Worth, Tex. He was 
ordered overseas in July, 1918, and trained at Herts, Eng., 
until called into active service as scout Pilot in France, where 
he joined the 84th Squadron a short time before the Armistice was 
signed. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, in the Royal Air Force in 
July, 1918. Since the Armistice, Lieut. Bowen has been on special 
service in England; in active service in France and Belgium; also 
attached to the 80th Squadron serving in France and Egypt. 

On Nov. 12, the day after the signing of the Armistice, Lieut. 
Bowen sent home a vivid account of his unofficial downing of two 
enemy machines a few days previous to that date; his letter closed 
with the words : 

I reported my flight, but it was hard lines for me because I have no idea 
where the German planes went down and therefore they can't be credited 
as official. . . . My bus has 33 bullet holes in it and three in my flying suit, 
which shows I was in some close action. 

Grandfather in Service — 

Charles F. Bowen, served in 5th Mass. Regiment in Civil War. 



[90] 



* ALFRED THEODORE WYMAN 



Second Lieutenant, R.A.F. 
Killed in airplane accident, May 27, 1913 
Son of Alfred A. and Flora M. Wyman; was born at Fitchburg, 
Mass., Dec. 28, 1892. He was educated at the Fitchburg High 
School, and at M.I.T., from which he graduated with the degree 
B.S. in June, 1916. He was a member of the class relay team 
at M.I.T., class treasurer in 1913; class president in 1914, and a 
member of the Delta Upsilon Fraternity, Osiris, the Institute 
Committee, and the Architectural Society. In June, 1916, he re- 
ceived the Medal of the American Institute of Architects for Gen- 
eral Excellence in Architecture, and the Rotch Prize of two hundred 
dollars. 

He enlisted in the Royal Flying Corps, at Toronto, Can., from 
Fitchburg, Mass., in Sept., 1917. He received provisional appoint- 
ment as 2d Lieut., Cavalry, U.S.A., as a result of the examination 
which he passed earlier in Sept., but did not accept because he was 
already a member of the R.F.C. He was trained as a cadet at 
various flying schools in Canada, and at Fort Worth, Tex. He re- 
ceived sailing orders and proceeded overseas to England, where he 
received further training outside London. He was commissioned 
2d Lieut, in the Royal Air Force, on April I, 1918. On May 27, 
1918, just after he had completed his training, Lieut. Wyman was 
killed as the result of an airplane crash at Chichester, Eng. He was 
buried at Chichester, Sussex County, Eng. 

Brothers in Service — 

Philip Wyman, Capt., A.S.A., U.S.A. 
Franklin Wyman, 1st Lieut., A.S.A., U.S.A. 
Kendall Wyman, 2d Lieut., Infantry, U.S.A. 
Donald Wyman, 2d Lieut., Royal Air Force. 



[ 92 ] 



HAROLD A. KULLBERG 



First Lieutenant, R.A.F., No. 1 Squadron 

Son of Charles A. and Hilda (Streed) Kullberg; was born at Somer- 
ville, Mass., Sept. 10, 1896. He attended the public schools of 
Concord and Somerville, and the Wentworth Institute, Boston. 

On Aug. 7, 1917, he enlisted in the Royal Flying Corps, at To- 
ronto, Can., having been pronounced too short to pass the require- 
ments of the U.S. Air Service. He attended the School of Military 
Aeronautics in Toronto; trained at Deseronto, and Camp Borden, 
Can.; and also at Camp Hicks, Fort Worth, Tex. He was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., Dec. 12, 1917. He sailed overseas to England, 
in Jan., 1918, and was assigned to a scout squadron in the Surrey 
district, and stationed at Stockbridge and Tangmore. He was 
commissioned 1st Lieut., April 12, 1918. In May he was sent to 
France, attached to Squadron 1, of the R.A.F., and was in action 
on several fronts. He was officially credited with fourteen Hun 
planes and two balloons, and was awarded the Distinguished Fly- 
ing Cross by King George. The victory for which Lieut. Kullberg 
was decorated, was an encounter alone with ten enemy planes, 
during which he brought down two and routed the others. 

His last experience was to be shot down in Germany, two months 
before the Armistice was signed. He spent six months in the Prince 
of Wales Hospital recovering from his wounds. On July 12, 1919, 
he was demobilized in England. 

Distinguished Flying Cross 

This officer has destroyed six enemy aeroplanes and has taken part in 
seven engagements when others have been destroyed by members of this 
patrol. A bold and keen officer who possesses fine fighting spirit. 

R.A.F. Communique No. 22 

Lieut. H. A. Kullberg, No. 1. Squadron, dived on a Fokker biplane 
which was attacking a D.H. 9, and, after a long burst of fire, saw its wings 
break off in the air. A little later he attacked another Fokker biplane, 
which was seen to go down and crash. 

He was also awarded the Diploma of Aerial League of America. 

Brother in Service — 
Frank O. Kullberg, Sergeant, U.S. Signal Corps, A.E.F. 



[ 94 ] 



HARRY DEPEW COPLAND 



First Lieutenant, R.A.F. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Henry B. Copland; was born in Cambridge, 
Mass., April 17, 1896. He was educated in the schools of Detroit, 
Mich., and Cambridge, Mass., graduating from the Rindge Tech- 
nical School in Cambridge, in 1915. He early became interested in 
aviation. In 1908 he made flights at Franklin Field, Boston, and 
in 1911 conducted experiments with a power-driven airplane of 
the Curtiss type at Detroit. During 1915 and 1916 he made several 
trips to England and France, and was wireless operator on board 
British munition ships. 

In the spring of 1917 he endeavored to enlist in the U.S. Naval 
Aviation, but was rejected because he was under weight. In Aug., 
1917, he joined the Royal Flying Corps in Boston, Mass., and pro- 
ceeded to Toronto, Can., where he was trained as pilot. In Nov., 

1917, he was transferred to Taliaferro Field, Fort Worth, Tex., 
where he completed a course in aerial gunnery. On Dec. 18, 1917, 
he was commissioned 2d Lieut., R.F.C., and given an appointment 
as Flying Instructor at the School of Aerial Gunnery in Texas. 
From that date until April he trained British and American 
cadets in aerial gunnery. On April 1, 1918, he was commissioned 
1st Lieut., R.A.F., and assigned to the Aerial Fighting School at 
Beamsville, Ontario, Can., as Instructor. In July, 1918, he was 
appointed Flight Commander of B Flight No. 1, Aerial Fighting 
Squadron, which he instructed until Oct. 1. From the time of his 
appointment as instructor up to Oct. 1, he made over 1500 flights 
and carried over 800 cadets without accident. 

In Oct., 1918, Lieut. Copland was sent overseas, and attached to 
the Felixtowe Air Station. Here he did patrol duty in the North 
Sea and on the coasts of Germany, Belgium, and France, for sub- 
marines. After the Armistice was signed, he patrolled the North 
Sea in large flying boats in search of floating mines which menaced 
shipping. These patrols lasted from four to six hours. On Nov. 21, 

1918, he escorted the surrendered German submarines into Har- 
wich Harbor. In May, 1919, he was ordered to No. 4 Communica- 
tion Squadron from No. 231 Squadron. The new Squadron carried 
passengers and mail between England and Holland across the 
North Sea. Lieut. Copland sailed for the U.S. on June 29, 1919. 



[ 96 ] 



JOHN KENT BLAIR 



First Lieutenant, R.A.F., Fifty-Sixth Squadron 

Son of George H. and Marion L. Blair; was born in Boston, 
Mass., May 8, 1894. He attended the Mechanic Arts High School, 
Boston, from which he graduated in 1912. 

On July 15, 1917, he enlisted in the Royal Flying Corps at 
Toronto, Ont., having four cousins with the Canadian Expedition- 
ary Forces. On July 6 he was assigned to the Cadet Wing, R.F.C., 
and sent to the Toronto University School of Military Aeronautics 
for training. He attended successively the flying school at Armour 
Heights (Y Squadron, C.T.S.), from Aug. 20, 1917; Leaside, from 
Oct. 23 (90th Squadron, C.T.S.), for bombing, photography, ar- 
tillery, and observation; Camp Hicks, Tex., from Nov. 25, 1917, for 
aerial gunnery; and Camp Everman, Tex., from Dec. 13, where he 
was instructor to the 80th Squadron. He was commissioned 2d 
Lieut, in Dec, 1917, and 1st Lieut, in April, 1918. 

On April 9 he sailed overseas, and was stationed with the 3d 
Squadron at Shoreham-by-the-Sea, Eng., on April 29, 1918. He 
was later transferred to Turnberry, Scotland, for aerial fighting. 
He was ordered to France in June, and served there with the 56th 
Squadron, encamped a few miles south of Doullens, until just 
before the Armistice. During this time Lieut. Blair was flying a 
single scout machine, SA. 5, and was engaged in patrol work. He 
was in numerous air fights, "ground- strafing" expeditions and 
balloon hunts. He was shot down three times while ground-strafing, 
but managed to get back to the British lines, being twice forced 
to land among the trenches and shell-holes. He was with the 
British advance on the Cambrai front from the beginning of his 
active service. 

He was still with the Royal Air Force at Todcaster, Yorkshire, 
Eng., on June 12, 1919. 



[98] 



DAVID CLENDON HALE 



Observer, R.A.F., Two Hundred Fourteenth Squadron 

Son of Davis Campbell and Elizabeth (Sheen) Hale, of Cambridge, 
Mass.; was born in Longmont, Col., Aug. 18, 1894. He graduated 
from Phillips Andover Academy in 1913, and from Amherst Col- 
lege, S.B., 1917. He belonged to the track team at school and 
college. 

He enlisted in the U.S.N. Air Service at Boston, Mass., on June 5, 
1917, and was assigned to the Ground School of Naval Aviation 
at M.I.T. He transferred to the Royal Flying Corps at Taliaferro 
Field, No. 1, Fort Worth, Tex., and was sent overseas to England, 
on March 1, 1918. 

He completed his training in night bombing at the R.A.F. 
Officers' Night Flying School at Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, 
where he passed a thirty-two days' course on May 7, 1918. He 
was later ordered to London, and attached to the 214th Squadron, 
R.A.F., one of the R.A.F. Independent Air Squadrons, which was 
shortly ordered to St.-Inglevert, France. He qualified as Sub- 
Lieut., R.A.F., and Observer on June 26, 1918. 

He saw service at the French front from July 9, 1918, flying 
Handley-Page bombing machines, and taking part in raids on 
Ostend, Bruges, Zeebrugge, and the various German aerodromes 
in Belgium, during the summer. On Aug. 15, 1918, while attached 
to an American Squadron, he was observer in the first (official) 
American night bombing plane to cross the lines on the western 
front, en route to a raid on the Ostend docks. While he was carry- 
ing out a similar raid on Zeebrugge on Aug. 22, Observer Hale's 
machine crashed and he was slightly wounded. During the autumn 
of 1918 the 214th Squadron made a number of closely concen- 
trated raids in connection with army operations in the lines, bomb- 
ing railroad junctions and ammunition dumps during the retreat 
from Belgium. At the time of the Armistice, Hale was stationed 
at Maria Aeltre, Belgium. From there he wrote that the most in- 
teresting experience of all was entering the city of Ghent on the 
day of its release from the Germans, and receiving the welcome of 
the people of all ages and conditions. 

He was honorably discharged on Jan. 28, 1919, at Hampton 
Roads, Va. 



[ 100 ] 



GEORGE CLARKE WHITING 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Forty-Third Pursuit Squad- 
ron, R.A.F.; One Hundred Forty-Eighth Pursuit Squad- 
ron, U.S.; Flight Commander 

Son of Walter Rogers and Gertrude (Clarke) Whiting; was born 
in Boston, Mass., Jan. 28, 1894. He was educated at the Stone 
School, Boston, and Harvard University, class of 1917. He rowed 
on the crew at school and at college, and was a member of the 
Union Boat Club crew. In 1916 he was instrumental in forming 
the "Harvard Flying Corps," with the result that twenty under- 
graduates and two members of the graduate committee received 
training at flying schools and became licensed aviators. 

On April 17, 1917, he enlisted in the Aviation Section, Signal 
Corps, at New York, and trained at Miami, Fla., and Ground 
School, Austin, Tex. On Aug. 17, 1917, he sailed overseas with one 
of the first detachments of forty-eight aviators, picked from 
American flying schools for training in the foreign fighting 
schools. He arrived in England Sept. 1, and was attached to the 
Royal Flying School at Oxford; then at Croyden, 43 T.S., for scout 
training. In Dec. he trained at Turnberry, Scotland, after which 
he had a course at the Aerial Fighting School, Ayr, Scotland. 

On March 2, 1918, he was commissioned 1st Lieut., and on 
March 12 crossed to France, attached to the 43d Squadron, R.A.F., 
as flying officer, one of the first three to cross from English schools. 
He remained with the 43d until July 1, 1918, operating from the 
aerodromes of La Gorge, Avesnes, Le Compt, Fouquerelle, Lietre. 

On July 1 Lieut. Whiting was transferred to the 148th American 
Air Squadron at Dunkirk, acting as Flight Commander, and oper- 
ating successively from Dunkirk, Allonville, Ramasmill, and Al- 
bert. This was a Pursuit Squadron which acted in cooperation with 
the R.A.F. and was under British command. Lieut. Whiting was 
in active service with this Squadron until Oct. 4, 1918, when he 
was shot down, and was admitted to General Hospital No. 14, at 
Boulogne. From the General Hospital he went to Issoudun for the 
Medical Board, and inspected the school while there. He then re- 
ceived orders to return to the U.S. On Feb. 4, 1918, he was honor- 
ably discharged at Washington, D.C. 

Married, Oct. 4, 1917, Martha Clay. 



[ 102 ] 



* EDMUND GRAHAM TART 

First Lieutenant, R.A.F., Eighty-Fifth Bombing Squadron 
Group Nine 
Killed in airplane accident, May 31, 1918 

Son of Edmund and Margaret (McNab) Tart, of Everett, Mass.; 
was born in Montreal, P.Q., Nov. 28, 1892. He was educated in 
the public schools of Chelsea, and graduated from the Wentworth 
Institute, Boston, with a fine record in mathematics. In athletics 
he took two running prizes, for 200 and for 400 yards. He had acted 
as assistant commissioner of the Everett and Chelsea Boy Scouts. 
He was in business as an electrical engineer at the time of his 
enlistment. 

He enlisted at Boston, Mass., in the spring of 1917, during Col. 
Guthrie's recruiting mission, and left Boston on June 12, 1917, for 
Frederickton, N.B.; he then trained at Camps Gordon and Rath- 
bun, at Toronto University, Camp Borden, and Leaside, Can. 
He was commissioned 2d Lieut., R.A.F., in Nov., 1917, and sailed 
overseas. In April, 1918, he was commissioned 1st Lieut., and at- 
tached to the 85th Squadron, Group 9. It was said by his Major 
that he was a very keen pilot, and that "he could go to crashes 
blindfolded." He had made a special study of map-reading. 

Lieut. Tart was accidentally killed during a flight with his 
bombing squad, in England, on May 31, 1918, and was buried in 
Bebington Cemetery, England. 

Brother in Service — 

Harry Tart, Royal Air Force. 



[ 104 ] 



EDWARD MILTON WILCOX 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Ninety-Ninth Squadron 
British R.A.F. 

Son of George C. and Gertrude (Smith) Wilcox; was born at 
Winsted, Conn., July 14, 1896. He was educated at the Winsted 
public schools, Gilbert High School, and Sheffield Scientific School, 
Yale University. He was made a member of Sigma Chi, at Yale. 
He trained with the Yale S.A.T.C., April- June, 1917. 

On June 1, 1917, he enlisted at New Haven. In eight weeks he 
completed a course in Military Aeronautics at M.I.T., and was 
ordered overseas, sailing Aug. 18, 1917. He was a member of the 
1st American Detachment attached to the Royal Flying Corps 
for training in England as pilot. He trained at Oxford, Stamford 
(flying a Curtiss machine); Lincoln (advanced flying), where he 
nearly lost his life when his engine failed at the height of 3000 feet, 
and he fell on a concealed embankment, destroying his de Haviland 
machine; he was slightly wounded, and was in a hospital for five 
weeks. During July, 1918, he was trained in aerial gunnery at 
Marske, Yorkshire, and was ready for the front. But he had 
further training in wireless telephony at Salisbury Plain, England. 
On May 13, 1918, he was commissioned 1st Lieut. Having trained 
from Sept. 4, 1917, to Aug. 5, 1918, Lieut. Wilcox served one 
month as ferry pilot in England, then as ferry pilot in France for 
the Independent Force, Royal Air Force, employed in bombing. 
He was sent to Courban, an aircraft depot, eleven miles behind the 
lines, which supplied machines for bombing squadrons, and it 
was then his duty to take machines to the front to replace casual- 
ties. The machines used for bombing trips were de Haviland 4's 
with the Rolls-Royce engine, de Haviland 9's and de Haviland 
9 A's, equipped with the Liberty motor. 

On reaching France, Lieut. Wilcox applied to go to the front, 
but was sent there only a week before the war ended, with the 99th 
Squadron, R.A.F. He had, however, 150 hours in the air to his 
credit before sailing for America, on Jan. 28, 1919. He was honor- 
ably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., on Feb. 14, 1919. 



[ 106 ] 



ARTHUR KELLAM TYLEE 



Lieutenant-Colonel, R.A.F., Headquarters, Canada 

Son of Arthur Mailland and Harriet F. (Kellam) Tylee, of Quincy, 
Mass.; was born in Lennoxville, P.Q., Can., April 24, 1887. He 
attended the Brookline public schools, and graduated from 
M.I.T., B.S., 1907. 

On Aug. 4, 1915, he enlisted in the R.F.C., at Toronto, Can., 
and was commissioned 2d Lieut, in the Canadian Expeditionary 
Forces, on Nov. 18, 1915, and was stationed at Toronto until Dec, 
1915. On Dec. 7, 1915, he was commissioned 1st Lieut., Royal 
Flying Corps, and ordered overseas. He was stationed at Thetford, 
Eng., until April, 1916; first attached to the 12th then to the 35th 
Squadron, R.F.C. Ordered to France, he was attached to the 23d 
Squadron until Aug., 1916. From then until Jan., 1917, he was 
attached to the 65th Squadron in England. On Jan. 1, 1917, he 
was commissioned Captain, and transferred to the 48th Squadron 
in England, remaining until Feb., 1917. During the next six 
months he was with the 81st Squadron in England and Canada, 
being commissioned Major on March 21, 1917. He was attached 
to the 42d Wing, in Canada, until Nov., 1917, and was in Texas 
from Nov. to Jan., 1918. From Jan. to April, 1918, he was with the 
Training Division in England. 

On April 1, 1918, he was commissioned Lieut.-Col., and attached 
to Headquarters, R.A.F., Canada, as Inspector of Training, until 
the close of the war. 

On Jan. 1, 1919, Lieut.-Col. Tylee was made Officer of the 
British Empire (O.B.E.). In March, 1919, he was still in the 
British Service. 



[ 108 ] 



THOMAS A. KIR WAN 



Captain, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Michael J. and Marcella L. (Aiken) Kirwan; was born at 
Oswego, N.Y., March 12, 1892. He attended the high school at 
Oswego, N.Y.; Columbia University, class of 1914 (two years); 
and the University of Pennsylvania (two years, special course). 

In March, 1915, he enlisted in Battery A, 1st Mass. F.A., and 
served on the Mexican Border in 1916 as private. He was elected 
2d Lieut., June 14, 1917, and sailed with Battery A, 101st F.A., 
for France, Sept. 9, 1917. He was commissioned 1st Lieut., Nov. 16, 
1917, and on Nov. 28 transferred to the Air Service as Observer; 
trained for six weeks at Camp Valdahon, France, and returned to 
his regiment, with which he went to the front in the Chemin des 
Dames sector. He was then attached to French Escadrille 55, 
which was located at Mont de Soissons, and assigned to the 26th 
Division, for aerial observation and for photography. "When the 
26th Division left the Chemin des Dames sector he was sent to 
French Escadrille 51, in the Reims sector. After two months' train- 
ing he was ordered to report to the 88th Squadron and, on its arrival 
at the Toul sector, was appointed Chief Observer of the squadron. 

In July, 1918, the squadron took part in the Chateau-Thierry 
offensive, and on July 15 Capt. Kirwan was made Operations Offi- 
cer of the Fourth Observation Group. This group performed the 
aerial observations for the divisions which came into the Toul 
sector. Shortly before the St.-Mihiel drive Capt. Kirwan was 
promoted to Operations Officer of the Air Service, Fourth Army 
Corps, and took an active part in assigning the squadrons and 
balloons to the divisions in the corps. Following this offensive the 
Fourth Army Corps remained in this sector as part of the 
Second American Army, and after the Armistice went into Ger- 
many as part of the Army of Occupation. 

Capt. Kirwan spent three months in Trier and Coblenz, and 
served for a month as Commandant of the University of Rennes. 
At his request he was relieved, and sailed for the U.S., March 28, 
1919. He was honorably discharged, April 19, 1919. 

Capt. Kirwan was awarded a citation signed by Gen. Pershing, 
for "exceptionally meritorious and conspicuous services as Aerial 
Observer, Fourth Army Corps." 

[ 109 ] 



VAN ZANDT STONE 



Lieutenant, R.F.C., Eighty-Third Aero Squadron 
Twenty-Third Section 

Son of Charles Emerson and Ada Menzies (Dailey) Stone; was 
born in Andover, Mass., Sept. 14, 1893. He was educated at 
Phillips Andover Academy, graduating in 1912. 

On Aug. 11, 1917, he enlisted in the Royal Flying Corps, and 
was sent for training successively to Long Branch, Ontario, Toronto 
University, and Camp Mohawk, Deseronto, Can. On Nov. 15, 
1917, he was commissioned 2d Lieut., and attached as instructor 
in turn to Camps Benbrook and Hicks, Fort Worth, Tex. He was 
commissioned 1st Lieut, in Feb., 1918, and made Flight Com- 
mander at Camp Leaside, Toronto. He was sent overseas and 
stationed at the Central Flying School, Upavon, Wilts, Eng., 
where, owing to his efficiency as Instructor, the War Office retained 
him until the end of the war. 

Lieut. Stone was honorably discharged from the Royal Flying 
Corps and has returned to the U.S. 

The following "Tribute to the Phillips Andover Boys in the 
War," by Charles Emerson Stone, father of Lieut. Stone, seems 
worthy of inclusion here: 

I was thinking only the other day of the more than two thousand boys 
of our alumni and students who have been in this great war, and what a 
poignant regret it would always be that we had failed to see, in the years 
before it was certainly upon us, that the spirit of daring and the thirst 
for action was put in them in actual preparation for this awful event. How 
blind we are after all our research and years of study and thought, that we 
should not have seen it, and have had a little more charity and greater 
love for the rare souls that were given into our keeping! But ten years 
ago who could have foretold it all? Still the regret is there all the same. 
And we mourn the loss of eighty-three of earth's noblemen. R.I.P. 



[ no ] 



WALTER P. MUTHER 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., One Hundred Forty-Seventh 
Aero Squadron 

Son of Lorenz and Louisa (Ebert) Muther, of Newton, Mass.; was 
born at Oak Park, III, March 1, 1890. He attended the Mass. 
Institute of Technology, graduating in 1913. On June 2, 1917, he 
enlisted at Cambridge, Mass., and trained at the M.LT. Ground 
School and at the Flying School at Essington, Pa. He was com- 
missioned 1st Lieut., Air Service, Nov. 8, 1917. He sailed overseas 
from New York, Nov. 2, 1917, and continued his training at the 
3d A.LC, Issoudun, France, Dec. 4, 1917, to April 15, 1918, and 
at the American Aviation Acceptance Park, Orly, Seine, April 15 
to July 24, 1918. Lieut. Muther was then attached to the 147th 
Aero Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, with which he remained until 
Dec. 4, 1918. With this Squadron, which did notable work at the 
front, he was in action at Chateau-Thierry, St.-Mihiel, and in the 
Argonne Forest. Lieut. Muther was honorably discharged, Feb. 17, 
1919. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

GEORGE W. TUTTLE 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Dr. Walter and Anna A. (Woodbury) Tuttle; was born at 
Exeter, N.H., April 10, 1894. He was educated at Phillips Exeter 
Academy and at the Mass. Institute of Technology. He won 
scholarships at Exeter, and at M.I.T. for the entire course. He 
enlisted in U.S. Army School of Military Aeronautics, and trained 
at U.S.A.S., Mineola, N.Y. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., 
July 18, 1918, and assigned to the 48th Aero Squadron, 1st Prov. 
Wing, at Mineola, N.Y. ; then to the 3d Prov. Squadron, Armorers' 
School, Wilbur Wright Field, Fairfield, Ohio. He was transferred 
to the U.S. Army Aviation School, Payne Field, West Point, 
Miss., where he was stationed until the end of the war. He was 
honorably discharged on Dec. 5, 1918, at Hoboken, N.J, 
Married, April 29, 1918, Edith Pelletier. 

Father in Service — 

Dr. Walter Tuttle, examining physician, Rockingham County, 
N.H. 

[ H2 ] 



* EDMUND PIKE GRAVES 



First Lieutenant, Royal Air Force 
Killed in airplane accident, Nov. 22, 1919 

Son of Edmund Pike and Mary Warner (Caldwell) Graves; was 
born in Newburyport, Mass., March 13, 1891. He was educated at 
St. George's College, Buenos Ayres; Middlesex School; and Har- 
vard College, A.B. 1913. He enlisted in the Royal Air Force at 
Toronto, Can., July 9, 1917. In Oct. he was commissioned 2d Lieut., 
"winning his wings." He instructed in the School of Aerial Gun- 
nery at Fort Worth, Tex., until March, 1918, when he was ap- 
pointed Instructor of Acrobatics in the new School of Special 
Flying at Armour Heights, Toronto; where he was commissioned 
1st Lieut. He went overseas in Oct., 1918, and was stationed at 
London Colney, until honorably discharged in July, 1919. His 
failure to get to the front was such a disappointment to him that 
he enlisted in the Kosciuszko Squadron of the Polish Army, to 
fight the Bolsheviki, in Sept., 1919, and was engaged in operations 
against them just previous to his death. He was killed while taking 
part in a Polish celebration at Lemberg, on Nov. 22, 1919. After 
the squadron had flown over the town, he flew down the main 
street, performing the "double roll." During the manoeuvre the 
right wing broke. He coolly cleared himself and jumped, but was 
too near the ground for his parachute to be effective. 

While in England he had agreed to pilot a machine in a trans- 
Atlantic attempt when Alcock's success intervened. Of the Bol- 
sheviki he wrote : 

We entertained a Bolshevik Squadron Commander who deserted to the 
Poles with all his squadron, officers and men. They had been forced into 
the Red Army by threats that otherwise their families would be shot. 
When the territory occupied by these families had been taken, he and his 
squadron deserted. The Bolsheviki have few planes and pilots, all flying 
under compulsion, and they never venture within forty kilometres of the 
lines. Also, each officer has attached to him a true blue or "red" Bolshevik 
who, if suspicious, has him shot, or shoots him himself. It all seems in- 
credible. 



[ 114 ] 



HENRY JOSEPH LEAVITT 

Second Lieutenant, R.A.F., B.E.F., Sixty-Fifth Squadron 
Twenty-Second Wing 

Son of Henry and Cora (Holmes) Leavitt, of Auburn, Me.; was 
born at Sanford, Me., Oct. 4, 1892. He was educated at the Sanford 
High School, the Tennessee Military Institute, and the North- 
eastern College, Boston, graduating in the class of 1915. 

He enlisted in the Royal Flying Corps, in July, 1917. He re- 
ceived his training at Toronto University; Camp Deseronto; Camp 
Mohawk; and Camp Leaside, Ontario; and subsequently at Camp 
Taliaferro, Fort Worth, Tex. In Jan., 1918, he sailed overseas and 
completed his training at Montrose, Scotland. He was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., Dec. 19, 1917, in the British Land Force. In 
April, 1918, he was assigned to the 65th Squadron, R.A.F., and 
went to the front. Lieut. Leavitt was a skilful and daring flyer, but 
owing to a mishap to his machine while flying over German ter- 
ritory, on May 17, 1918, he was forced to land between the German 
trenches, and was captured by the enemy. From then until Dec. 
13, 1918, he was confined in German prison camps, at Karlsruhe, 
Rastadt, and Stralsund. From the last camp he wrote: 

Only a fellow who is unfortunate enough to be a prisoner can know how 
cruel the Hun really is. Our camp is on an island some twenty yards from 
the shore, a barbed wire fence runs around it. On the inside of the fence 
are armed sentries; outside the wire is a dog patrol. These dogs are trained 
to jump on any man wearing khaki. We used to watch them sometimes 
when the keeper taught them to attack a well padded man in khaki. One 
day he was leading three dogs through the camp on a rope; an officer was 
walking along minding his own business when the Hun let them go. If 
a crowd of British officers had not hurried to the scene with clubs the dogs 
would have killed him. As it was the poor fellow will wear the teeth marks 
of the dogs in his face for life. 

On his release Lieut. Leavitt was given a two months' furlough 
and was then assigned to another squadron on Feb. 26, 1919. He 
returned to the U.S. in July, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Harold E. Leavitt, U.S.N. 

Previous war records of family show one uncle and three grand- 
uncles in Civil War; great-grandfather, David Chase, in War of 
1812; great-great-grandfather in Revolutionary War. 

[ 116 ] 



WALTER AMORY 



First Lieutenant, R.A.F., Fourth Squadron 

Son of Copley and Mary (Russell) Amory; was born at Walpole, 
N.H., in June, 1899. He attended the Groton School, Groton, 
Mass., and in Aug., 1917, soon after passing his 18th birthday, 
enlisted in the Royal Air Force, Canada, being too young to enter 
the U.S. Air Service. He passed his examinations successfully and 
was sent to Fort Worth, Tex., where he was kept as Instructor 
until March, 1918. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, in Jan., 1918, 
and in April was commissioned 1st Lieut, and given his wings. 

He sailed overseas in April, 1918, and continued his training in 
England, being in a serious crash in June, which disabled him for 
over two months. Upon his recovery in Sept., 1918, he was sent to 
France attached to the 4th Squadron, R.A.F., and entered active 
service at the front. On Oct. 30 he flew over the enemy's lines, 
after a skirmish in which one of his friends was shot; in a vain 
endeavor to aid his friend, Lieut. Amory was himself wounded in 
the leg, and his machine brought down in Belgium, where he was 
captured. 

He was reported "missing" on Nov. 7, but two weeks later his 
family received word, through the British Red Cross, that he was 
alive and in a hospital. His recovery was retarded as his wounded 
leg was neglected and dressed in paper bandages while he was with 
the Germans, at Aix. After the Armistice he was taken to a British 
hospital, and late in Dec. carried to England, where he is wait- 
ing to recuperate before returning overseas. 

Brothers in Service — 

Copley Amory, Jr., Lieut., U.S.A. 
John Forbes Amory, Private, U.S.A., 

(Both in active fighting, severely wounded, Sept. 28, 1918.) 



[ 11.8 ] 



FRANCIS PEABODY MAGOUN, Jr. 



First Lieutenant, R.A.F., No. 1 Squadron 

Son of Francis Peabody and Jeanne (Bartholow) Magoun, of 
Cambridge, Mass.; was born in New York City, Jan. 6, 1895. He 
attended the Noble and Greenough School, Boston, and graduated 
from Harvard College in 1916. In Feb., 1916, he joined the Amer- 
ican Ambulance Field Service, and sailed overseas; he served as 
volunteer driver with S.S.U. No. 1, from March 3 to Aug. 3, 1916, 
during which time this section was cited in French divisional Or- 
ders, July 15, 1916. 

He returned to the U.S., and in Feb., 1917, again went overseas, 
enlisting in London, in March, with the Royal Flying Corps. He 
attended the School of Military Aeronautics at Oxford, Eng., and 
trained in elementary flying at the R.N.A.S. School, Vendome, 
France. He trained at Catterick, Yorks, in advanced flying, and at 
the School of Aerial Gunnery at Turnberry, Scotland. On July 4, 
1917, he was commissioned 2d Lieut. R.A.F.; and on Aug. 1, 1918, 
1st Lieut., R.A.F.; "wings" gazetted Sept. 3, 1917. 

Lieut. Magoun was attached to No. 1 Squadron, R.A.F., B.E.F., 
and served in France from Nov. 15, 1917, to April 10, 1918, when 
he was wounded while ground-strafing. On April 9 he was awarded 
the British Military Cross. In the summer of 1918 he returned to 
the U.S. on a furlough, but on Oct. 9 rejoined his Squadron and 
was again at the front, remaining in active service until the first of 
Jan., 1919. He was demobilized at Folkestone, Eng., Jan. 10, 1919, 
and enrolled for graduate work at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
Eng. In the summer of 1919 Lieut. Magoun returned to the U.S. 



[ 120 ] 



PATRICK GRANT, Second 



Flight Cadet, R.A.F. 

Son of Judge Robert and Amy Gordon (Gait) Grant; was born 
at Boston, Mass., April 30, 1886. He was educated at the Roxbury 
Latin School, Roxbury, Mass., and at the Noble and Greenough 
School, Boston; he graduated from Harvard College, A.B., 1908. 
He was a member of the Harvard 'Varsity football team. 

He attended the First Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg in 
Aug., 1915. 

On Nov. 1, 1917, he enlisted at Philadelphia, Pa., as Ensign, 
U.S.N.R.F. He resigned on April 21, 1918, to enter the Royal Air 
Force, Canada, April 25, 1918. He trained at Ontario, Can., and 
at Camp Borden, Squadron 88, Flight C. 

He was honorably discharged at Camp Borden, Ontario, Can., 
after Nov. 11, 1918. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

Married, Sept. 7, 1912, Marie S. Diston. 

Brothers in Service — 
Alexander Gait Grant, 2d Lieut., U.S.A. Field Artillery. 
Gordon Grant, Capt., U.S.A., A.E.F., Field Artillery. 

ALAN HENRY BOYNTON 

First Lieutenant, Marine Aviation Force 

Born at Lynn, Mass., Oct. 23, 1892. He was educated in the public 
schools of Lynn, and at the Stone School, Boston. He enlisted in 
the U.S. Marine Corps, and was commissioned 2d Lieut., Sept. 17, 
1917. He trained at the Curtiss School, at Newport News, Va., 
and was then stationed at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, with Aero- 
nautic Co., Advanced Base Force, U.S. Marine Corps. He was 
transferred to the 1st Marine Aeronautic Co., Cape May, N.J., 
and then sent to the Cape May Naval Coastal Air Station. He 
was next ordered to Naval Base 13, at the Azores, and subse- 
quently returned to the Marine Aviation detachment at Miami, 
Fla. He was commissioned 1st Lieut., Marine Corps, June 10, 1918. 
Discharged at his own request, at Miami, Fla., Nov. 25, 1918. 
Brother in Service — 

Charles Raymond Boynton, Sergeant, Supply Co. 311, Q.M.C., 
Bordeaux, France. 

[ 122 ] 



WILLIAM GASTON 

Lieutenant (j.g.), N.A.F., Royal Aviation Bombing Corps 

Son of William A. and May L. (Lockwood) Gaston; was born in 
Boston, Nov. 12, 1896. He was educated at La Villa, Ouchy, 
Switzerland; at St. Mark's School, Southboro, Mass.; and grad- 
uated, Harvard College, class of 1919. 

He enlisted in the U.S. Navy in April, 1917. In May he was 
transferred to the Naval Aviation Squad at Squantum, Mass., 
where he was commissioned Ensign on Jan. 2, 1918, and received 
a pilot's license. He was ordered to the Aviation Detachment, 
Naval Operating Base, Hampton Roads, Va., on Oct. 18, 1917, 
and served there as an instructor. On Feb. 6, 1918, he was assigned 
to the Royal Flying Corps, at Fort Worth, Tex., for a course in 
Aerial Gunnery. He sailed for Europe on March 22, 1918. 

On his arrival in England he patrolled the North Sea and English 
Channel, and later was attached to the R.N.A.S. at Hornsea, 
Yorkshire, in April, 1918. He was sent in May to No. 1 School of 
Navigation and Bomb Dropping at Stonehenge Mills, Salisbury, 
and remained there as instructor for one month. He was then 
assigned to the U.S. Northern Bombing Squadron with head- 
quarters at St.-Nylevert, France, in July, 1918; in Aug. he was 
attached to the U.S. Air Service at Milan, Italy. Subsequently, 
from Sept. to Dec, 1918, he was with No. 214 Squadron, R.A.F., 
in France, and was in command of a Handley-Page bombing plane. 
He was promoted to the rank of Lieut, (j.g.), Dec. 12, 1918. Or- 
dered home to the U.S. in Dec, 1918, and relieved from active 
duty in Feb., 1919. He returned to Harvard, and graduated with 
the class of 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

John Gaston, Lieut., U.S. Marines, 18th Co., 5th Division, 
Army of Occupation, Germany. 



[ 124 ] 



* LLOYD ANDREWS HAMILTON 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Seventeenth Aero 
Squadron 
Killed in action, Aug. 24, 1918 

Son of Dr. John A. and Jennie B. (Andrews) Hamilton, of Burling- 
ton, Vt.; was born at Troy, N.Y., June 13, 1894. He graduated 
from the Pittsfield High School with honors in 1911; there he was 
president of his class and captain of the school track team. In 
1912 he graduated from the Jacob Tome Institute in Maryland. 
He was valedictorian of the class, was awarded the school's 
scholarship prize, elected to Alpha Delta Tau for "meritorious 
attainments," associate editor of The Trail publication, member 
of the debating team, and of the track team and football squad. 

He graduated from Syracuse University, A.B., 1916. He was a 
member of the freshman football and track teams, the 'Varsity 
football and track squads, and member of the Psi Upsilon Fra- 
ternity. He was awarded Phi Beta Kappa honor, and Liberal Arts 
honor, in the Department of Economics, and graduated Magna 
cum Laude. 

In the fall of 1916 Lieut. Hamilton entered the School of Busi- 
ness Administration in Harvard University. Following the decla- 
ration of war he enlisted, April 23, 1917, and on May 12 was sent 
to the R.O.T.C. at Plattsburg. On July 12 he signed for Aviation 
and was transferred to the M.I.T. for ground-school work. He 
left Mineola, Sept. 18, with 150 others, for England. Further 
ground-school work was taken at Oxford University, and Grant- 
ham Gun School. His first flying was at Tadcaster, and was con- 
tinued at South Carlton aerodrome, and at Turnberry and Ayr, 
Scotland. 

He was commissioned 1st Lieut. March 2, 1918, and at once sent 
to the front in France, attached to the famous British Third Aero 
Squadron. He had the distinction of being the first American offi- 
cer to fight with the Royal Flying Corps, and was the first of the 
150 of his Squad to bring down an enemy machine. While with 
the R.F.C. he was under the well-known Capt. Bell, of Australia, 
who was credited with twenty-three machines, and who, because 
of his dash and skill, was called "Ginger Bell." Lieut. Hamilton 
was with Capt. Bell in the air when the latter was shot down by 



[ 126 ] 



LLOYD ANDREWS HAMILTON 



a German explosive shell, and at once avenged his Captain's death 
by shooting down the enemy observer and pilot in their machine. 
The day before the well-known Von Richthofen was killed Lieut. 
Hamilton was in the flight that fought the famous "flying circus" 
and engaged Von Richthofen himself for a few minutes, but later 
engaged another and sent him down. 

On June 20 he was transferred to the U.S. Air Service and made 
Flight Commander in the 17th Aero Squadron. This he helped to 
form and train. He was one of three recommended for commanding 
officer of the Squadron, but an older man of more military expe- 
rience was chosen. His operations throughout his work at the front 
were from Amiens north to the coast. On Aug. 24 he was returning 
from an attack ten miles over the lines when he saw an enemy kite 
balloon and dove on it, causing the observer to jump, and then 
shot the balloon down in flames. But before getting away he was 
hit by enemy machine guns from the ground and fell about three 
miles over the lines and near Langecourt. Ten months later his 
grave was found and the body removed and buried at Bomy, 
France. 

Lieut. Hamilton was awarded the British Distinguished Flying 
Cross before he was killed. This is the highest decoration awarded 
an Aviator by that nation. This citation reads : 

Lieut. L. A. Hamilton is an excellent Patrol Leader, and his dash and 
skill materially helped in the success of the operations. 

In company with four others he received the award for bringing 
down seventy-five machines in one month. 

He was also awarded the U.S. Distinguished Service Cross 
through citation by General Pershing. The citation is as follows: 

Lieut. Lloyd Andrews Hamilton is cited for extraordinary heroism in 
action at Varssenaer, Belgium, on Aug. 13, 1918. Leading a low bombing 
attack on a German aerodrome thirty miles behind the lines he descended 
and destroyed the hangars on the north side of the aerodrome and then 
attacked a row of enemy machines, flying as low as twenty feet from the 
ground despite intense machine-gun fire, burning five German planes. He 
then turned and fired bursts through the windows of the chateau in which 
the German pilots were quartered, twenty-six of whom were afterward 
reported killed. 

This destruction was made without the loss of a man or a ma- 
chine making the attack. 

[ 128 ] 



LLOYD ANDREWS HAMILTON 



Lieut. Hamilton was rated as a Military Aviator Aug. 3, 1918, 
by order of the Secretary of War at Auxi-le-Chateau. He is cred- 
ited with at least seven German planes, some reports making the 
number twelve. Six other machines were brought down for which 
official credit was not given. He brought down six observation 
balloons, one upon the day of his death and one the day before. 
While training in England he is said to have perfected a stunt not 
before used at the front and that most of his victories in the air 
resulted from its use. Among his effects was found a snap-shot of 
his Sopwith Camel machine, giving a tail view, and on the back 
of the picture he had written, "This is a view no Hun ever had of 
my bus." Often he wrote that he had no fear of any machine the 
enemy might send up, but that in low flying upon transportation 
and balloons it was mere chance if one escaped machine-gun nests. 
It was in this work that he finally lost his life. 

An officer wrote: 

Ham and his fighting partner, Tipton, were known as the first and 
finest American pilots on the front when they were with the British, and 
had the reputation of never "letting any one down," as the expression is, 
in a tight corner. 

The only officer who, from another machine, saw him shot down, 
wrote: 

Ham was one of the most popular fellows out here. He was most fearless 
in the face of danger and as stout a pilot as ever flew in France; he was a 
very capable Flight Commander and we all felt safe when behind him. 

His Major, Commander of the Squadron, wrote : 

"Ham," as he was endearingly known to us all, has been a great help 
in training our new men and in developing our organization. His lovable 
personality, steadfast purpose and remarkable ability as a flyer have set 
an example that we all are striving to emulate. 

His great-great-grandfather, Ebenezer Andrews, was in the 
Vermont Militia, served in the Revolutionary War under Ethan 
Allen, and with some sixty men captured Ticonderoga. He also 
fought at Bennington. 



[ 129 J 



* EDWARD HOOPER GARDINER 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Artillery Observer 
Attached to Fiftieth Squadron 
Killed in action, Sept. 12, 1918 

Son of Edward G. and Jane G. (Hooper) Gardiner; was born in 
Boston, May 14, 1896. He graduated from the Berkshire School, 
Sheffield, Mass., and entered Harvard College, class of 1919 (A.B. 
posthumously awarded him). At school he played for three years 
on the football team, and at college was on the freshman crew 
squad. 

He trained with the Harvard R.O.T.C. and attended the Platts- 
burg Training Camps in 1916 (one month), and 1917 (three 
months). On Aug. 15, 1917, he was commissioned 2d Lieut., U.S. 
Cavalry, and on Aug. 29 reported at Camp Devens, attached to 
the Field Artillery. He was transferred to the 103d Machine-Gun 
Bat., 52d Brigade, at Camp Bartlett, on Aug. 31. On Sept. 17 he 
volunteered to fill a vacancy in Headquarters Det., 51st Artillery 
Brigade, 26th Division, at Boxford, Mass. He sailed overseas 
under "confidential orders," on the Finland, as General's Aide, 
attached to Battery C, and landed at St.-Nazaire on Oct. 5, 1917. 
During Oct. and Nov. he was attached to the 102d F.A. He was 
transferred on Dec. 9, 1917, to the Aviation School for Instruc- 
tion in Observation, at Le Valdahon, remaining there until Jan. 15, 
1918, when he was returned to the 102d F.A., and went with them 
to the front in the Chemin des Dames sector. He was appointed 
Assistant Instructor in Aerial Observation on March 3, 1918. He 
was ill with grippe at Base Hospital No. 6 from May 21 to Aug. 3. 

On Aug. 16 he was attached to the 50th Aero Squadron, and on 
Sept. 12 he disappeared in action near Pont-a-Mousson, during 
the St.-Mihiel offensive. For several months after his death there 
was great uncertainty as to Lieut. Gardiner's fate, and it was not 
until May, 1919, that an official report from the American Military 
Mission in Berlin secured the German record which stated that he 
had been shot down at Thisnonville, a small town twenty-five 
kilometres northeast of Pont-a-Mousson. He was buried in the 
American Cemetery at Thiaucourt, France. 



[ 130 ] 



* STAFFORD LEIGHTON BROWN 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 
Killed in airplane accident, Sept. 28, 1918 

Son of George W. and Eugenie (Stafford) Brown; was born at 
Newton, Mass., Oct. 25, 1895. He was a graduate of the Newton 
High School, and entered Dartmouth College in the class of 1920. 
At college he was captain of the tennis team, and played on the 
football and hockey teams. 

He attended the Plattsburg Training Camp in 1915; and in 
March, 1917, went overseas to France as driver in the American 
Ambulance Field Service. He served for five months, chiefly in the 
vicinity of Verdun, and then joined the Air Service. He trained at 
Tours and Issoudun, and was commissioned 1st Lieut, in June, 
1918. 

In at least three instances, before the accident in which his life 
was sacrificed, Lieut. Brown escaped fatal consequences solely by 
his remarkable skill as pilot. On one of these occasions his com- 
panion was killed. He had almost finished formation flying in the 
Seventh Class, when he was killed by a fall due to a defect in his 
machine, on Sept. 28, 1918, while flying a Spad monoplace to the 
front, in the Arrondissement de Mantes. He was buried at Harge- 
ville, Suresnes, France. 



[ 132 ] 



*STURGIS PISHON 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Three Hundred Forty-First 
Aero Squadron 
Killed in airplane accident, Oct. 26, 1918 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Josiah Sturgis Pishon; was born at Las Vegas, 
New Mexico, May 30, 1888. When a boy he removed to West 
Roxbury, Mass., where he attended the public schools. He grad- 
uated from the English High School, Boston, in 1906, as a Frank- 
lin Medal scholar, and entered Dartmouth College in the class of 
1910, graduating there magna cum laude. He was prominent in 
athletics, playing on the 'Varsity football team, where he was fa- 
mous as quarter-back; he also played baseball and hockey, and 
belonged to the Theta Delta Chi Fraternity and the Casque and 
Gauntlet Society; was member of Phi Beta Kappa; was permanent 
secretary of his class. On leaving college he entered the wool busi- 
ness and later associated himself with an advertising firm, with 
which he was connected at the time of his entry into the U.S. 
Service. 

He enlisted Aug. 8, 1917, at the Army Aviation Ground School 
at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., graduating there Sept. 29, 
1917, with special recommendation to the War Department. He 
sailed overseas Oct. 13, 1917, and trained at Issoudun, France. 
After four months he was transferred to Foggia, Italy, where he 
was one of the first detachment of American Aviators to train with 
Italian officers. He was commissioned 1st Lieut. May 18, 1918, and 
returned to Issoudun for further training. Later he was sent to 
St.-Jean-des-Monts for aerial gunnery instruction, and it was there 
that he was killed in an airplane accident, on Oct. 26, 1918. He was 
buried in the French Military Cemetery at St.-Jean-des-Monts, 
Vendee, France. 

The following extract is from a letter written by Lieut. Pishon, 
and found with his papers after his death : 

What little I have to give to my country I give without reservation. If 
there ever was a righteous cause it is ours, and I am proud to have worked 
and died for it. Pray God this war will be over soon and that it will be the 
last war. I leave you with a smile on my lips and a heart full of love for 
you all. God bless you and keep you. 

Brother in Service — 

Emmet Pishon, 1st Lieut., U.S. Infantry. 

[ 134 ] 



* EDWARD RALPH KENNESON 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S A., Commander, Ninth Aero 
Squadron 
Died of pneumonia, Jan. 9, 1919 

Son of Edward S. and Esther (Martin) Kenneson, of Arlington 
Heights, Mass.; was born at Somerville, Mass., Nov. 4, 1895. He 
attended the Somerville High School, graduating in 1913. 

In Oct., 1916, he entered the School of Aeronautics, at Newport 
News, Va., and was given a Pilot's license, Dec. 2, 1916. On Dec. 
18 he enlisted in the U.S. (Regular) Army, at Fort Monroe, Va., 
where he continued his studies until graduation. On April 4, 1917, 
he was commissioned 1st Lieut., A.S., Signal Officers' Reserve 
Corps, and was transferred to Princeton, N.J., as Instructor of 
Aeronautics. In July, 1917, he was sent to Kelly Field, San An- 
tonio, Tex., where he received overseas orders, sailing Aug. 22, 
1917, in command of the 36th Aero Squadron. He was retained as 
Instructor at the 3d A.I.C., Issoudun, France, for over a year. 

In the spring of 1918 he applied to go to the front, and after 
some advanced training in bombing he was assigned to the 91st 
Squadron as an observer. On Sept. 2, 1918, he was transferred to 
the 9th Squadron, and on Sept. 30 was appointed Commander. 
He saw active service at the front from Oct. 1 to the signing of 
the Armistice, when he was assigned to the Army of Occupation. 
On Jan. 9, 1919, he died of broncho-pneumonia and was buried at 
Suresnes, France. 

Lieut. C. E. Kennedy of the 9th Squadron wrote of him: 

Lieut. Kenneson joined our Squadron about the middle of Sept., when 
we were at Amanty, France. It was about the time of the St.-Mihiel drive, 
and your son accomplished several successful missions over the lines at 
night, bringing back very important and valuable information. 

He was an excellent pilot, capable and courageous. He had more hours 
in the air than any other man in the Escadrille; I believe his flying time 
totalled more than one thousand hours. All our observers had absolute 
confidence in his ability and never had hesitancy in starting out on a 
mission with him. A splendid pilot, he was equally as capable as a soldier. 
He was devoted to his duty, performing all his military offices with qual- 
ities of unusual judgment and fairness. 

Lieut. Kenneson was recommended for promotion to a Captaincy. 
Married, June 14, 1917, Mary Aileen Cubberly, of Trenton, N.J. 
[ 136 ] 



* WILLIAM F. HERRICK 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 
Killed in airplane accident, Sept. 16, 1918 
Son of William B. and Lucy A. (Fisk) Herrick; was born at Natick, 
Mass., July 31, 1890. He graduated from the Newton High School 
in 1906, and spent one year at M.I.T. He went abroad for one year 
as private tutor, and after his return was engaged in business up 
to the time of his enlistment, in June, 1917. 

He attended the Ground School, M.I.T., and upon the com- 
pletion of his course was sent overseas to France. He was trans- 
ferred to Foggia, Italy, where he was commissioned 2d Lieut, in 
May, 1918. He was then given the option of service in the bomb- 
ing-planes at the Italian front, or of returning to France to qualify 
as a fighting pilot. He chose the latter course, and was nearly 
ready to go to the front when the fatal accident occurred at 
Issoudun. 

The following extract is from a letter received by the father of 
Lieut. Herrick from a Red Cross representative: 

Lieut. Herrick was engaged with a number of other aviators in mass- 
formation practice on Field 7. At a certain signal he and Lieut. Sylvester 
B. Moore were to pass each other, one flying up and the other down. 
Through some misunderstanding both aviators ascended. The result was 
a collision; the airplanes were smashed and the men fell, being instantly 
killed. ... I was talking with some of the men about Lieut. Herrick, and 
it would be a satisfaction to you to know with how much affection and 
admiration they spoke of him. They said he was always full of fun and 
helped to keep them all in good spirits. He was considered an unusually 
good flyer. You may rest assured it was no fault of his own that caused 
his death, but an accident coming in the regular performance of duty. 

Lieut. Herrick was buried with military honors at cemetery 
No. 32, about seven miles from Issoudun, France. 



[ 138 ] 



*ELWIN F. CHAPMAN 



Cadet, A.S., U.SA. 
Killed in airplane accident, June 3, 1918 

Son of George F. and Eliza M. (Capen) Chapman, of Canton, 
Mass.; was born at Evanston, Wyoming, July 3, 1891. At an early 
age he moved with his family to Jamaica Plain, Mass., where 
he attended school. In 1906 he entered Bordentown Military 
Academy, at Bordentown, N.J., graduating in 1910. He was re- 
garded as one of the finest athletes that this school had ever pro- 
duced, and while there he was captain of the baseball team, and 
in his senior year captain of the football team; also a member of 
the basket-ball team. In the fall of 1910 he entered the University 
of California, graduating in 1914; there he was one of the leading 
athletes; he was pitcher on the 'Varsity baseball team, and member 
of the Theta Delta Chi fraternity, the Wolf's Head Club, and the 
Gun Club. 

He enlisted at Brookline, Mass., in Nov., 1917, and in Feb., 1918, 
entered the School of Military Aeronautics, at Princeton, N.J., 
where, in a class of ninety, he was one of nineteen to successfully 
complete the course. He was then ordered to Camp Dick, Dallas, 
Tex., in April, 1918. During the drive for the Third Liberty Loan 
he was chosen as the speaker to represent his Squadron in that 
part of Texas. About the middle of May, 1918, he was sent to 
Rockwell Field, San Diego, Cal., where he was killed in an aero- 
plane collision on June 3, 1918. He was buried at Canton Junction, 
Mass. 

Brother in Service — 

George H. Chapman, 1st Lieut., U.S.A., 15th Aero Construc- 
tion Co. 



[ 140 ] 



* ROGER S. DIX, Jr. 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Killed in airplane accident, May 15, 1918 

Son of Roger S. and Louise (Parrish) Dix; was born at Boston, 
Mass., Dec. 9, 1896. He was educated at the Country Day School, 
and at Harvard College, entering with the class of 1918. He left 
Harvard at the end of his junior year, and attended the Platts- 
burg Training Camp, in 1915, and again in 1916. He served with 
the American Ambulance Field Service, Section 1, at Verdun, in 
1917, at which time his section received a Citation Militaire. In 
Nov., 1917, he enlisted in France, in the U.S. Air Service, but was 
forced to remain inactive during the winter, owing to lack of 
planes. In the spring of 1918 he was one of twenty -five to vol- 
unteer for instruction as bombing observers in the French Bomb- 
ing School at Le Crotoy, Somme, France, with the understanding 
that they should be sent at once to the front for the spring offen- 
sive. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., May 12, 1918. 

Lieut. Dix had completed his course, and was to leave that 
week for the front, when he was killed in an airplane accident at 
Le Crotoy on May 15, 1918. He fell from a height of 200 metres, 
and his French pilot was also killed. He was buried with military 
honors at Le Crotoy. 

A letter signed by the twenty-four comrades of his flying de- 
tachment which was sent his parents, states: 

Cadet Dix was easily the most popular member of this detachment. He 
was a loyal, gallant soldier, an assiduous student, an excellent airman and 
a splendid companion. Every man counted him his friend and he had 
never failed us. His fearlessness, his coolness and his intrepidity had made 
it a foregone conclusion that his career in his chosen Service would have 
been brilliantly distinguished, and his tragic death is a double loss to us 
and the Army because he was the possessor of such splendid qualities. 

The letter from which the above is quoted was also signed by 
Lieut. Dix's Commanding Officer, who adds : 

I found him to be a most excellent soldier both on the ground and in the 
air. He was on his last training flight and was to have received the highest 
honors of any of my command for his work here. He died while doing 
work in the air and while holding the position of the first in his class. More 
glory than this no man can claim for his son. 



[ 142 ] 



* EDWIN ARNOLD BROWN 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Aerial Gunnery School 
for Bombers 
Died, Nov. 1, 1918 

Son of Allan and Minnie (Arnold) Brown; was born Feb. 19, 1893, 
at Salem, Mass. He was educated in the Salem and Boston public 
schools; and at the Mechanic Arts High School in Boston, where 
he was a member of the baseball, football, and basket-ball teams. 

He enlisted in the Aviation Service on Dec. 15, 1917, and was 
sent for training to Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex. ; then to Georgia 
Technology, at Atlanta; Ellington Field, Houston Tex.; and to 
San Leon, Houston, Tex.; He was commissioned 1st Lieut, on 
April 19, 1918; received his sailing orders for overseas, but died in 
Boston on Nov. 1, 1918, twenty-four hours before the date set for 
sailing. He was buried in Salem, Mass. Lieut. Brown invented 
and perfected a more efficient system of sighting machine guns; 
and wrote a book upon aerial gunnery which is accepted by the 
War Department as an authority upon the subject. (Portrait on 
opposite page.) 

ROGER THAYER TWITCHELL 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Dr. Edward Thayer and Elizabeth F. (Schuster) Twitchell; 
was born in Dorchester, Mass., Feb. 10, 1895. He was educated at 
Milton Academy, and at Harvard University, A.B. 1916. He 
was a member of the track and cross-country teams at college. He 
served nine months in France as an ambulance driver, in Section 4, 
American Ambulance Field Service, on the western front, from 
Sept., 1916, to June, 1917. In Dec, 1917, he enlisted in the Air 
Service, at Boston, Mass., and trained at the U.S. Army School of 
Military Aeronautics, at Cornell University; at Camp Dick, 
Dallas, Tex., and subsequently at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., 
at which station he was commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S.A., Aug. 23, 
1918. He was then stationed at Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, 
Ohio, and later at Payne Field, West Point, Miss. In Jan., 1919, 
he resigned his commission and was released from service at Payne 
Field, West Point. 

[ 144 ] 



*JOHN S. PFAFFMANN 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Killed in airplane accident, July 22, 1918 
Son of George Eaton and Mabel Abigail (Shaw) Pfaffmann; was 
born at Quincy, Mass., April 27, 1894. He was educated at the 
Quincy High School, at Phillips Andover Academy, and at Har- 
vard College He was a remarkably fine tennis player, and belonged 
to the Harvard tennis team in 1916 and 1917, and was elected 
captain in 1917. 

He sailed for France in April, 1917, with the Norton-Harjes 
Ambulance Unit, and served on the Aisne, and about Reims dur- 
ing July, Aug., Sept., 1917. In Oct., 1917, he enlisted in the U.S. 
Air Service in Paris, and was assigned to Tours, where he remained 
through Nov. and Dec. He continued his training at St.-Maixent 
from Jan. to May, 1918, and was transferred to Voves on June 1. 
He was commissioned 2d Lieut, in June, 1918. On July 22 he was 
killed at Voves in an airplane accident, when returning from an alti- 
tude flight of one hour at 6000 feet, which would have given him 
his military brevet as Pilot. Watched by his chief and an instructor, 
he descended to a height of about 200 feet, and banked his plane 
to come into the wind, and land. The lower wing of the plane was 
caught in an air-pocket at the same instant that a counter-current 
hit the upper wing; he crashed, and was instantly killed. 

An impressive military funeral was held at Voves, attended by 
the officers and cadets of the Voves Flying School, veterans of the 
War of 1870, the Mayor of Voves, and many villagers and chil- 
dren. At the end of the services Lieut. Mayeur, of Headquarters 
Staff, stepped forward and said: 

Among the first Americans to come to combat the invader upon the soil 
of France, John Pfaffmann entered the Ambulance Service and distin- 
guished himself at the front by his unflagging energy and his high com- 
prehension of military duty. His desire to do more and yet more for his 
country and for France soon led him, however, to seek a transfer to the 
Aviation Service. . . . May the remembrance of his glorious death upon 
the field of honor be, in some small degree at least, an alleviation of the 
sorrow of his family, and of all those who have known and loved him. 



[ 146 ] 



WILLIAM GRAVES PERRY 

Captain, A.S., U.S.A., Headquarters Air Service, First Army 

Son of Charles French and Georgianna West (Graves) Perry; was 
born at Boston, Mass., Nov. 8, 1883. He was educated at the Noble 
and Greenough School; and at Harvard College, A.B. 1905; M.I.T., 
S.B. 1917, and Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris, 1913. 

He attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg, in Aug. 
1916; served as Capt., Co. M, 13th Reg't., Mass. State Guard. 
He enlisted Nov. 1, 1917, and was commissioned 1st Lieut., 
A.S.S.C., reported for duty at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., Nov. 
11, 1917, and was put in command of the 65th (later 477th) Aero 
Squadron. 

He sailed overseas March 4, 1918, and was commissioned Capt., 
A.S.C., Aug. 1, 1918. He was appointed Equipment Officer Air 
Service, 1st Army, Oct. 14, 1918, and was stationed at Souilly 
from Oct. 14 until Dec. 24, 1918. From Nov. 21 to 24 he was 
attached for temporary duty to the 3d Army, to receive airplane 
and other Air Service material from the enemy. Capt. Perry 
participated in frequent flights and trips to the lines during the 
Argonne battle, for the purpose of choosing and preparing airdromes 
and advanced landing places for the Air Service of the 1st Army. 

He was honorably discharged May 31, 1919. 

Cited in General Orders as follows: 

Captain William G. Perry, A.S., U.S.A., organized and commanded 
the 477th Aero Construction Squadron which made such an enviable 
record for itself. Under his direction it built airdromes at Autreville, 
Amanty, Bicqueley, and St.-Mihiel. At Bicqueley, by superb organization 
and morale, he was able to build the field in ten days. At these Head- 
quarters, as Equipment Officer during the latter part of the operations 
west of the Meuse, he successfully and with great tact handled the very 
difficult proposition of obtaining, and allocating to the units of this com- 
mand, Air Service material, transportation, and equipment of all kinds. 

His extreme conscientiousness was an example which all may well 
emulate. 

By order of Col. Milling 

Married, Aug. 6, 1908, Eleanor Gray. 

Brother in Service — 

Edward Hale Perry, 1st Lieut., Co. D, 6th Engineers. Killed 
in action at Warfusee, France, March 30, 1918. Cited for 
bravery in action. 

[ 148 ] 



- 



- 




JOHN ROGERS HURLBURT 



Captain, A.S., U.S.A., One Hundred Sixty-Third Aero 
Squadron, Second Day Bombardment Group 

Son of Henry F. and Fannie E. (Thompson) Hurlburt, of Boston, 
Mass.; was born at Lynn, Mass., Nov. 8, 1893. He was educated at 
St. Paul's School, Concord, N.H., and at Harvard College, A.B. 
1916. At St. Paul's he was captain of the track team, and member 
of the Lower School hockey and football teams. 

He sailed for France, April 28, 1917, with the American Am- 
bulance Field Service, with which he served until Sept. 18, 1917, 
when he enlisted as private in the U.S.A., and trained for the Avi- 
ation Service at Tours, France. On Jan. 17, 1918, he was com- 
missioned 1st Lieut., and arrived at the front in June, 1918, as 
Adjutant of 5th Air Depot. He was transferred to the 163d Aero 
Squadron, 2d Day Bombardment Group, with which he served 
until April, 1919, when he was appointed Aide to Gen. Patrick. 
On May 30, 1919, he was commissioned Capt., and left France to 
return to the U.S. on Aug. 18, 1919. He was honorably discharged 
on Sept. 12, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Paul Hurlburt, Capt., U.S.A., 3d Cavalry. 



[ 150 ] 



AUGUSTUS PAGE FARNSWORTH 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Adjutant, Six Hundred 
Forty-Fourth Aero Squadron 

Son of Harrie Clifford and Florence (Gordon) Farnsworth; was 
born at Hyde Park, Mass., on March 15, 1895. He was educated 
in the Hyde Park public schools and at Worcester Academy, Wor- 
cester, Mass. He graduated from the M.I.T. in 1917. In his fresh- 
man and sophomore years he played quarter-back on the M.I.T. 
football team, and was captain of the football team in his fresh- 
man year. 

He enlisted in the Air Service on Aug. 11, 1917, in Boston, Mass., 
and was assigned to the Ground School, M.I.T. On Dec. 3 he was 
sent to Waco, Tex. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., March 6, 1918, 
and was ordered to Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La., for training 
as a Pursuit Pilot. Subsequently he was sent to the Gunnery 
School at Taliaferro Field, Hicks, Tex., from which he graduated 
on June 29, he was then made Gunnery Instructor. Late in Aug., 
Lieut. Farnsworth received overseas orders; he reported at Ho- 
boken, and on Sept. 4 sailed for Scotland. He went to Paris by 
way of Glasgow and London, reporting for duty on Oct. 5. He was 
immediately assigned to the 3d A.I.C. at Issoudun, where he 
qualified as Pursuit Pilot on Nov. 9, and was made Instructor in 
Combat on Nov. 11, 1918. 

Brother in Service — 

Charles Luke Farnsworth, Quartermaster, 1st Class, U.S.N. 



[ 152 ] 



GODFREY LOWELL CABOT 



Lieutenant, U.S.N. R.F., Aviation Aide, First Naval District 

Son of Samuel and Hannah Lowell (Jackson) Cabot; was born at 
Boston, Mass., Feb. 26, 1861. He was educated at the Brimmer, 
Latin, and Hopkinson schools, Boston; M.I.T., one year; Harvard 
College, four years; Polytechnic, Zurich, and University of Zurich. 
He took final honors (magna cum laude) in chemistry at Harvard. 
At college he took one prize in a wrestling match, and won many 
prizes at tennis. 

He was commissioned Ensign, A.D.C., M.V.M., on June 26, 

1916. On March 20, 1917, he was commissioned Lieut., U.S.N.R.F., 
at Cambridge, Mass. He practised flying at Marblehead, May to 
Dec, 1915; trained at Pensacola, Fla., in April, 1916; Marblehead, 
May to Dec, 1916; Pensacola, Jan., 1917; Salem Harbor, April, 

1917. He first flew as a pilot on April 12, 1917. For over two years 
he was on active duty, serving from March 20, 1917, to the spring 
of 1919. He originated and practised the art of picking up burdens 
in flight, reaching 155 kilometres on Oct. 3, 1919. 

Married, June 23, 1890, Maria Moors, of Boston. 

Sons in Service — 

James Jackson Cabot, 1st Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. 
Thomas Dudley Cabot, 2d Lieut., A.S., U.S.A., Instructor at 
Kelly Field, Tex. 



[ 154 ] 



JAMES JACKSON CABOT 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., One Hundred Eighty-Second 
and Eighty-Eighth Squadrons 

Son of Lieut. Godfrey Lowell and Maria (Moors) Cabot; was born 
at Cambridge, Mass., Sept. 24, 1891. He was educated at the 
Browne and Nichols School, Cambridge, and at Harvard College, 
class of 1913. He also took extra courses at M.I.T. 

Previous to enlistment he attended the Plattsburg Training 
Camp for two summers, qualifying as a sharpshooter. He enlisted 
on Sept. 29, 1917, and trained at the Curtiss School in Buffalo, 
N.Y., at M.I.T. Ground School, and at Fort Worth, Tex. He was 
commissioned 1st Lieut, in Jan., 1918. He sailed overseas in May, 
1918, and was first attached to Squadron 182; afterwards to 
Squadron 88. He piloted a number of aeroplanes from England to 
France, making his headquarters at different aerodromes in Eng- 
land. Six weeks before the Armistice was signed he flew about 
Verdun and Sedan. He sailed for America the last of Dec, 1918, 
and was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., in April, 
1919. 

Married, May 10, 1919, Catharine Rush, daughter of Com- 
mandant Rush, of the Navy Yard, Boston. 

Father in Service — 

Godfrey Lowell Cabot, Lieut., Aviation Aide, First Naval 
District. 

Brother in Service — 

Thomas Dudley Cabot, 2d Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. 



[ 156 ] 



THOMAS DUDLEY CABOT 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.SA., Instructor at Kelly Field 

Texas 

Son of Lieut. Godfrey Lowell and Maria (Moors) Cabot; was born at 
Cambridge, Mass., on May 1, 1898. He was educated at the Browne 
and Nichols School, Evans School, Arizona, and at Harvard Col- 
lege, class of 1919. 

He attended the Plattsburg Training Camp in the summer of 
1916 (sharpshooter), and trained with the Harvard Regiment. He 
took a course in aeronautics at the M.I.T. Ground School, and 
trained as a flyer at the Curtiss School, Buffalo, N.Y. On Aug. 27, 
1917, he enlisted as a private, 1st class, A.S., S.E.R.C., at Ithaca, 
N.Y. He trained at the M.I.T. Ground School during Oct. and 
Nov., 1917; was sent to Kelly Field, Tex., on Dec. 1, 1917, where 
he was attached to the cadet wing for further training as a flyer. 
He passed the R.M.A. tests on Jan. 17, and was commissioned 
2d Lieut., A.S.S.R.C., Jan. 31, 1918. He was in charge of officers' 
barracks during Feb., March, and April; and at the Instructors' 
School in May, where he acted as Flying Instructor from June to 
Oct.; he was sent to Miami, Fla., in Nov., where he trained as a 
pilot for flying-boats, and as coast patrol pilot. He was sent to 
Arcadia, Fla., and honorably discharged, at Carlstrom Field, on 
Dec. 14, 1918. 

Father in Service — 

Godfrey Lowell Cabot, Lieut., Aviation Aide, First Naval 
District. 

Brother in Service — 

James Jackson Cabot, Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. 



[ 15« ] 



* ORLANDO MERRITT LORD 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Killed in airplane accident, June 24, 1918 

Son of John L. and Susan A. Lord, of Rutherford, N.J. ; was born 
at South Boston, Mass., Nov. 9, 1890. He was educated in the 
public schools of South Boston, and at Cutter's Business School. 
He was prominent in athletics and played quarter-back on his 
high school football team. On leaving school he engaged in busi- 
ness, and relinquished a good position to enter the Aviation Service. 

He enlisted on Oct. 1, 1917, at Cambridge, Mass., and attended 
the Ground School, M.I.T. (Squadron A). On Jan. 7, 1918, he was 
sent to Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., where he remained until 
May 2, when he was sent to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex. He was 
transferred, on May 29, 1918, to Payne Field, West Point, Miss., 
where he became Instructor in Aviation Acrobatics. He was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., April 20, 1918. 

On June 25, 1918, Lieut. Lord was instructing a pupil, who was 
directing the plane, when the machine went into an accidental 
tail-spin, and before the Instructor could obtain control of the 
plane from the pupil, it had dashed to the ground, killing Lieut. 
Lord, and severely injuring his companion. 

Lieut. Lord was buried at Pine Grove Cemetery, Lynn, Mass. 
As his body was carried aboard the train at West Point, eight avi- 
ators flew overhead, in the form of a cross, and dropped flowers on 
the casket. Lieut. Lord was exceedingly popular with his associates, ' 
and after his death they presented his family with a loving-cup, 
inscribed: "From his comrades who esteemed him as a soldier, 
and loved him as a friend." 

Lieut. Lord was one of four aviators chosen to make long trips 
on behalf of the Liberty Loan drives, bombing different cities with 
Liberty Loan literature. Of this group he was the only one to re- 
turn without accident to either his plane or himself, and was of- 
ficially complimented on his flying. It was his one ambition to get 
across seas and engage in active scout work at the front. 

Grandfather in Service — 

In Civil War. Lost an arm at battle of Bull Run. 



[ 160 ] 



CARLETON SPRAGUE AYER 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Twenty-Fifth Squadron 

Son of Silas H. and Juliette Butterfield (Davis) Ayer; was born at 
Boston, Mass., on April 13, 1893. He was educated at the Boston 
Latin and De Merritt schools, and at M.I.T., where he was a 
member of Sigma Chi Fraternity. He rowed on the Boston Latin 
School crew in 1911; and on July 4 of that year received a gold 
medal, presented by the City of Boston, as stroke of the winning 
crew in the intermediate eight -oar shell race, Charles River Basin. 

He enlisted at Youngstown, Ohio, in the Regular Army, on 
Sept. 19, 1917, and served one month at Camp Sherman, Chilli- 
cothe, Ohio. He received honorable discharge, to enter the Aviation 
Service. On Jan. 12, 1918, he graduated from the U.S. School of 
Military Aeronautics, Ohio State University, Columbus. He then 
trained at Call Field, Wichita Falls, Tex., and was commissioned 
2d Lieut., Aviation Section, Signal Reserve Corps, on May 10, 1918. 

On May 22, 1918, Lieut. Ayer was assigned to active duty at 
Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex.; he was transferred on June 29, 1918, to 
Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., where he completed his work and 
was ready for overseas duty. He was honorably discharged from the 
Service in Jan., 1919. 

Brothers in Service — 

Nathaniel D. Ayer, Lieut., A.D.C., 4th Division, Canadian 
B.E.F. 

Silas H. Ayer, Jr., Bandmaster, U.S.N.R.F. 



[ 162 ] 



JAMES GREENLEAF ADAMS 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., One Hundred Thirty-Eighth 
Aero Squadron, Fifth Pursuit Group 

Son of James M. and Maria (Dame) Adams, of East Lake, Fla.; 
was born at Nashua, N.H., March 24, 1892. He was educated at 
the Hackensack, N.J., High School, class of 1909. 

In Jan., 1917, he volunteered for the American Ambulance Field 
Service in France, with Section 8, and served for six months under 
Major A. Piatt Andrew. In Aug., 1917, he enlisted in the U.S. Air 
Service, in France. He trained at Tours and Issoudun, receiving a 
Pilot's license at Tours, and training in acrobacy at Issoudun. He 
was commissioned 1st Lieut, in Nov., 1917, and has a record of 
some 800 flights since then. 

When the Armistice was signed, Lieut. Adams was flying near 
the Toul front, piloting observation planes of many types. In June, 
1919, he was still in service with the Army of Occupation. 

In a letter dated April 21, 1919, Lieut. Adams writes: 

Just a word saying we are here on the Rhine. We've all got here now 
and are comfortably settled at our field near a big German fort, half a 
mile from Coblenz. I flew up here in my Spad alone with my map and 
compass. Crossed No Man's Land, with its miles of old trenches, near 
St.-Mihiel, and followed them to Pont-a-Mousson on the Moselle River. 
Then went right up the river at about 1000 feet altitude to Metz and its 
circle of unconquerable forts. Then, after about ninety minutes of flying, 
got to Treves (Trier), where I landed for gas and oil at a U.S. field, for- 
merly a Zeppelin base, with a huge hangar, big enough for one hundred 
aeroplanes. . . . Started off again at 3 p.m. up the Moselle. A wonderful 
valley, but its huge hills, canyons, and mountains made it dangerous fly- 
ing. But the day was perfect and my motor, too, and I had no trouble at 
all. Passed over many world-famous Rhine castles and hundreds of towns 
along the river. A really great experience! Landed at Coblenz O.K., an 
hour later, where the Rhine and Moselle join, as you can see on a map. 
Right in the heart of Prussia, and Germans all about us, civilians, chil- 
dren, and militaries. Seems a different world, and impossible for a city 
like this to be absolutely dominated by an army of khaki ! 

Brothers in Service — 

Leon M. Adams, 2d Class Seaman, U.S.N. 

Lincoln D. Adams, 2d Class Seaman, U.S.N. 
Grandfather in Service — 

James P. Adams, Private, 7th Reg't, N.H. Volunteers, Civil 
War. Died in Service. 

[ 164 ] 



JOHN F. McNAMARA 



Lieutenant, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Eugene T. and Mary Agnes (McCarthy) McNamara, of 
Arlington, Mass.; was born at Somerville, Mass., April 3, 1898. 
He was educated at the Cambridge High and Latin Schools, and 
at Boston College. He entered Service at end of freshman year. 

He enlisted on April 28, 1917, at Boston, and was sent to Pen- 
sacola, Fla., for training. He was commissioned Ensign Dec. 21, 
1917, sailed overseas in Jan., 1918, and was stationed for three 
months at the Royal Naval Air Station at Portland, Eng. While 
operating there, on scout duty, he bombed and sunk a submarine, 
being the first American naval aviator to accomplish this feat. He 
was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.), April L 1918. He was transferred 
to the Royal Air Station at Felixstowe, Eng., where he remained 
until Aug., when he was attached to the U.S. Air Station, at Kill- 
ingholme; subsequently he was ordered to the U.S. Air Station at 
Wexford, Ireland, in command of a squadron of eight seaplanes. 
On Oct. 1, 1918, he was commissioned Lieut. 

He was placed on inactive duty at Bay Shore, N. Y., Jan. 15, 1919. 

Married, Oct. 8, 1919, Florence E. Riordan. 

To Ensign John F. McNamara: 

The Department quotes below for your information the report of Vice- 
Admiral Sims relative to your apparently successful operations while 
out on scout duty against enemy submarines, on March 25, 1918, under 
orders from the Commanding Officer of the Royal Naval Air Station, 
Portland, England, whose report was forwarded by Vice-Admiral Sims : 
"The attached correspondence relative to the performance of duty of 

Ensigns and John F. McNamara, U.S.N.R.F., reflects credit upon 

both those officers. It is recommended that adequate recognition of their 
services be granted." 

The Department wishes to avail itself of this opportunity to express to 
you the very high appreciation felt upon receipt of reports similar to the 
above. It is strong evidence of the fact that earnest cooperation exists 
between the Armed Forces of our Allies and the United States Armed 
Forces. It is work of this character that will impress our enemies with the 
realization that the United States is a power very much to be considered. 

Accordingly, you are hereby highly commended for your valiant and 
earnest efforts on this particular occasion when your attack on the enemy 
submarine apparently caused some damage. It is to be hoped that a con- 
tinuance of such work will be maintained in the future. 

Josephus Daniels 



[ 166 ] 



THEODORE WILLIAM KOCH 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., CO. Three Hundred 
Seventy-Second Aero Squadron 

Son of Theodore F. and Clara D. Koch; was born at St. Paul, 
Minn., Aug. 20, 1891. He graduated from the St. Paul High School, 
and went to the University of Minnesota for one year. He trans- 
ferred to Harvard College in 1910, and received his degree in 1914. 
In the meantime his parents moved to Houston, Tex., where after 
his graduation Lieut. Koch entered business with his father. He 
enlisted in the Ground Officers' Training School, at Kelly Field, 
Tex., in July, 1917. He received his commission as 1st Lieut., and 
was sent to instruct in the Wilbur Wright School of Administra- 
tion at Dayton, Ohio. 

On March 7, 1918, he sailed for England with the 47th Aero 
Squadron, and was stationed at Cramlington. Later he was as- 
signed as Commanding Officer to the 372d Aero Squadron sta- 
tioned at Hendon. On Oct. 2, 1918, the Squadron was mobilized 
at St.-Maixent, France, and fully equipped for service at the front. 
Then it was sent to the 3d A.I.C. at Issoudun for temporary duty. 
Late at night on Nov. 10, 1918, orders for the front arrived, but 
because of the Armistice these were cancelled the following day. 
Lieut. Koch was Adjutant at Field 10, Issoudun, from Nov. 2, 
1918, to Jan. 8, 1919. On April 20 he returned with his Squadron 
to Mitchel Field, Garden City, N.Y., for demobilization. 



[ 168 ] 



WILLIAM M. CONANT, Jr. 



Major, A.S.A., U.SA., School Staff, Third Aviation 
Instruction Centre 

Son of Dr. William M. and Mary B. Conant; was born at Boston, 
Mass., March 23, 1891. He was educated at the Noble and Green- 
ough School, and at Harvard College, A.B. 1912. In school he was 
a member of the football, track, and baseball teams; and played 
on the freshman baseball team at Harvard College. 

He served in the 1st Aero Squadron, N.G., of New York, in 1916, 
and flew at Mineola, N.Y. He enlisted at Mineola in July, 1917, 
and received his flying training there in Aug. On Oct. 8, 1917, he 
was commissioned 1st Lieut., and sailed overseas in the same 
month. He completed his training as "chasse pilote" in Dec, Jan., 
and Feb., at the 3d A.I.C., Issoudun, France. In Feb., 1918, he 
was made Tester of Planes, and in April was promoted to be Chief 
Tester of the School. He was commissioned Capt. on Oct. 3, 1918, 
and promoted to Major, on Feb. 21, 1919. He is still in the Service 
at Boiling Field, Washington, D.C. 

Married, June 4, 1919, Dinsmore Patrick, of Lexington, Ky. 



I 170] 




\ 



GEORGE W. BENEDICT, Jr. 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of George W. and Anna Louise Benedict, of Cambridge, Mass., 
was born at Boston, Aug. 14, 1895. He was educated at the Volk- 
mann and at St. George's schools, and at Harvard College, A.B. 
1917. 

He attended the Plattsburg Training Camp in July, 1916, and 
the Harvard R.O.T.C., from March to July, 1917. He enlisted at 
Cambridge on July 7, 1917, in the Signal Enlisted Reserve Corps, 
and began active service at the Ground School, M.I.T., on Aug. 20, 

1917. Graduating on Oct. 13, he was sent to Mineola Embarkation 
Camp, N.Y.; and on Nov. 14, 1917, sailed overseas. He waited at 
Tours and St.-Maixent until the end of March, 1918, when he was 
sent for flying instruction to the French school at Chateauroux. 
After preliminary training and the French brevet tests, he was 
stationed at Issoudun for further training, from July 12 to Aug. 17. 
While at Chateauroux he was commissioned 1st Lieut., May 18, 

1918. From Issoudun he was sent to the 2d A.I.C. at Tours, Aug. 
17, 1918, to take the course for " Corps d'Armee " Pilots. Shortly 
afterwards this centre began to train observers exclusively, so that 
the "Corps d'Armee" Pilots' course was discontinued, and Lieut. 
Benedict was transferred to the status of Staff Pilot, to fly in co- 
operation with the observers. He remained on this duty until his 
discharge in France, April 1, 1919. 



[ 172 ] 



WENDELL GAGE REYCROFT 



Ensign, U.S.N.A.S. Northern Bombing Group, France 

Son of Louis Wendell and Eliza Morgan (Gage) Reycroft, of 
Arlington, Mass.; was born at Boston on May 11, 1894. He was 
educated at the Arlington public schools, and at Dartmouth Col- 
lege, A.B. 1917. In high school he was captain of the football 
team in 1913, and of the hockey team in the same year. At Dart- 
mouth he played on the 'Varsity hockey team for three years. 

He enlisted at Arlington, and was trained at the M.I.T. Ground 
School, Cambridge. On graduation he was ordered to Key West, 
Fla., where he was commissioned Ensign, and then ordered to 
Miami, Fla., as Instructor in Flying. He applied for overseas serv- 
ice, and sailed for France in detail Aug. 1, 1918. He saw service 
with the Northern Bombing Group of Headquarters in Flanders 
and Belgium. At last reports he was still in Service at Norfolk, Va. 

Brothers in Service — 

Harlan Long Reycroft, Ensign, U.S.N.A.S. 
Harrie Fay Reycroft, Private, 26th Balloon Co., France. 
Louis Manning Reycroft, Private, Signal Corps. 
George Moulton Reycroft, Qualified Cadet, Officers' School, 
Camp Fremont. 



[ 174 ] 



HARLAN LONG REYCROFT 



Ensign, U.S.N.A.S. 

Son of Louis Wendell and Eliza Morgan (Gage) Reycroft, of 
Arlington, Mass.; was born at Boston, on Dec. 12, 1892. He was 
educated at the Arlington public schools, and at Harvard College, 
A.B. 1915. In high school he ran on the track team, was captain 
of the football team, 1911, and was on the baseball team, 1911. At 
Harvard he earned his "H" on the track and hockey teams. 

Previous to the war, he served in Mexico with Battery A, 1st 
Mass. Reg't, F.A., N.G. He enlisted at Arlington, Mass., in 1918; 
trained at M.I.T. Ground School, from which he graduated, and 
was ordered to Miami, Fla., on Aug. 3, 1918. Here he was com- 
missioned Ensign, and was appointed Naval Ensign and Instructor 
in Flying. At last reports he was still in Service. 

Married, July 6, 1918, Gladys M. Chamberlain. 

Brothers in Service — 

Wendell Gage Reycroft, Ensign, U.S.N.A.S., Northern Bomb- 
ing Group. 

Harrie Fay Reycroft, Private, 26th Balloon Co., France. 
Louis Manning Reycroft, Private, Signal Corps. 
George Moulton Reycroft, Qualified Cadet, Officers' School, 
Camp Fremont. 



[ 176 ] 



CLYDE C. MACKENZIE 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Frank E. and Hattie M. Mackenzie; was born at Taunton, 
Mass., July 17, 1892. He was educated at the Taunton High 
School and at M.I.T. Prior to his entrance into the U.S. Service 
he trained with various school and college cadet corps. 

On July 2, 1917, he enlisted at the M.I.T., where he attended 
the Ground School from July 2 to Aug. 23; he continued his 
training at Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, Aug. 23 to Dec. 
30. He was transferred to Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., and 
stationed there from Dec. 30, 1917, to July 5, 1918 (student and 
Instructor in day and night bombing). He was commissioned 2d 
Lieut., Feb. 21, 1918. He was ordered to Taliaferro Field, Fort 
Worth, Tex., July 5 to Aug. 17, serving as Instructor in Aerial 
Gunnery. 

He sailed overseas and was stationed at the 7th A.I. C, Clermont- 
Ferrand, France, from Sept. 30 to Oct. 22, 1918, as student and 
Instructor in Bombing. On Oct. 22, 1918, he was injured in wreck 
of a D.H. 4. He returned to the U.S. and at last accounts was in the 
Base Hospital, at Camp Devens, Mass. 

Lieut. Mackenzie was the first night-bombing and day-bombing 
pilot to be trained in the U.S. and sent abroad. He sailed with two 
others, Lieuts. Jenkins and Nichols; the three being at that time 
the only completely trained bombing pilots in the U.S. 

Married, Aug. 23, 1918, Margaret Traynor. 



[ 178 ] 



MARVIN SOMERSETT BOWMAN 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Seventh Aviation 
Instruction Centre, A.E.F. 

Son of Rev. John Elliot and Charly (Root) Bowman; was born at 
Somerville, Mass., Dec. 30, 1895. He was educated at Vermont 
Academy, Saxtons River, Vt., and at Harvard College, where he 
remained for two years with the class of 1916. Prior to his entry 
into the U.S. Service he was a member of the staff of the Boston 
Evening Record. 

He enlisted in Boston, Aug., 1917, as private in the 301st Field 
Artillery. In Feb., 1918, he was transferred to the Air Service, and 
trained at the Ground School, Cornell, at Dallas, Tex., and at 
Self ridge Field, Mich. He sailed overseas in Aug., 1918, and was 
stationed at Brest, St.-Maixent, and at Clermont-Ferrand. He 
was commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S.A., July 30, 1918, and was made 
a member of the instruction staff of the 7th A.I.C., Clermont- 
Ferrand, France. 

In the following communication he has graphically described 
the spirit of the French toward the American aviators, who have 
given their lives in France: 

Perhaps you know that a ship always flies overhead to escort the pro- 
cession to the grave and then drops flowers from the air. There is some- 
thing very impressive about this, the big ships circling overhead and 
leading the way to the grave. Seems like the Spirit of the Game welcoming 
one of its followers. Then a little service by the padre, a flutter of petals 
from the air as the ships swoop down to ten feet from the ground — three 
volleys and then "Taps." That bugle call sure gets a man. The point of 
the story is this: In that pouring rain there were nearly fifty French kids 
and women hard at work shaping the graves, patting them down, edging 
them with sod and covering the whole cemetery with flowers from God 
knows where. There was n't a grave in the place that was n't hidden from 
sight by blossoms. And they do this every day and have been doing it for 
months. And believe me, they will keep on doing it for a hundred years. 
The French never forget. At the cemetery gate they have erected a monu- 
ment with laurel wreaths and the inscription: 

"Aux soldats americains; morts pour la France, pour la Justice, le 
Droit et l'Honneur du monde; Honneur aux Braves." 

Lieut. Bowman was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., 
Feb. 4, 1919. 

Married, Dec. 19, 1916, Helen A. Dodge, of Cambridge, Mass. 



[ 180 ] 



GEORGE BEALE EMMONS, Jr. 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of George Beale and Marie (Dupont) Emmons, of Brookline, 
Mass.; was born at St. Louis, Mo., April 5, 1894. He was educated 
at the Volkmann School, 1913, and at Harvard University, class of 
1917. At Harvard he played on the freshman baseball team in 1914 
and on the 'Varsity soccer team, 1916-17. He was a member of Bat- 
tery A, 1st Mass. Reg't, F.A., N.G., and in 1916 saw four months' 
service on the Mexican Border. In April, 1917, he enlisted with the 
1st Harvard Regiment. He trained at the 1st Officers' Training 
Camp at Plattsburg, and after finishing the course was transferred 
to the Air Service. He attended the Ground School, M.I.T., and 
graduated the high honor man of the Squadron. He then had 
training in flying at Gerstner Field, La., and at Ellington Field, 
Houston, Tex. He was appointed Instructor at Baker Field, N.Y., 
and then at Langley Field, Va. 

He was commissioned 2d Lieut., May 3, 1918. At the time of the 
Armistice he was under overseas orders, at Newport News, being 
attached to the General Staff, Tours, France. 

Upon application, Lieut. Emmons was honorably discharged at 
Washington, D.C., on Dec. 13, 1918. 

Brother in Service — 

Arthur B.Emmons, 2d, Capt., Medical Corps, U.S.A.; Evacua- 
tion Hospital No. 2; appointed Head of Medical Dep't. 



[ 182 ] 



JOHN BROWN PAYSON 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Herbert and Sally Carroll (Brown) Payson; was born at 
Portland, Me., Oct. 1, 1897. He attended the public schools of 
Portland, and the Salisbury School, Salisbury, Conn. He entered 
Yale College in 1916, leaving to enter the Service in 1917. 

He attended the Plattsburg Training Camp in 1916, and was a 
member of the Yale R.O.T.C. Battery. He enlisted in the Air 
Service at Boston, Mass., Dec. 11, 1917. 

He began his training at the Ground School, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N.Y., in Feb., 1918; in March he was transferred to Camp 
Dick, Dallas, Tex., and from there was sent to Payne Field, West 
Point, Miss., where he was commissioned 2d Lieut., Aug. 20, 1918. 
He was assigned to the Armorers' School, Wilbur Wright Field, 
Dayton, Ohio, in Sept., 1918, and from there he was transferred to 
Field No. 2, Garden City, N.Y. On Dec. 18, 1918, he was honorably 
discharged at Garden City, N.Y. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

EDWARD TAPPAN BRACKETT 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Flying Instructor 
Selfridge Field, Mich. 

Son of M. L. and Helen R. (Tappan) Brackett, of Brookline, 
Mass., was born at Boston, Mass., Jan. 19, 1892. He graduated 
from Brown University in 1914; he was a member of the 'Varsity 
swimming and wrestling teams, and of his class baseball and gym- 
nasium teams. In 1915 he served for a few months in the Machine 
Gun Co., 8th Mass. Volunteer Militia. He enlisted at Plattsburg, 
N.Y., May 12, 1917, and was attached to the 2d Provisional Train- 
ing Squadron from May to Aug., 1917. He attended the M.I.T. 
Ground School during Oct. and Nov., 1917. He received further 
training at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., from Dec, 1917, to 
May, 1918; at Langley Field, Old Point Comfort, Va., through 
May and June; and at the Aerial Gunnery School, Taliaferro Field, 
Fort Worth, Tex., during July, 1918. He was commissioned 2d 
Lieut., April 20, 1918, and from Aug., 1918, to Jan. 30, 1919, was 
Flying Instructor at Selfridge Field, Mt. Clemens, Mich. He was 
honorably discharged at Selfridge Field, Jan. 30, 1919. 

[ 184 ] 



KARL HARROLD CRAIGIE 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of John H. and Florence C. Craigie, of Stoneham, Mass.; was 
born Aug. 22, 1898. He was educated at the Stoneham High School, 
and at Harvard College, member of the class of 1920. At school he 
won the MacDonald scholarship medal and stood first in his class. 
He trained for six months with the R.O.T.C., and on Sept. 20, 1917, 
enlisted at Cambridge, Mass. 

He trained at the Ground School, M.I.T.; at Ellington Field, 
Houston, Tex.; Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex.; Call Field, Wichita Falls, 
Tex.; and at Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio. He was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., April 3, 1918, and sailed overseas to France, 
continuing his training at St.-Maixent, then at Issoudun, where he 
completed Pursuit Pilot training, Nov. 10, 1918. He was trans- 
ferred to the Concentration Camp at Angers; sailed from Brest, 
Jan. 15, 1919, and was honorably discharged at Garden City, 
N.Y., Jan. 28, 1919. 

Brothers in Service — 

Hugh H. Craigie, Corp., Co. L, 33d U.S. (Reg.) Infantry, 
Laurence C. Craigie, Cadet, U.S.M.A., West Point. 



[ 186 ] 



JOHN JAY VAN SCHAACK 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., One Hundredth Squadron 
Independent Air Force, B.E.F. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. David Van Schaack, of Hartford, Conn.; was 
born at Brooklyn, N.Y., July 21, 1894. He was educated at the 
Pawling School, Pawling, N.Y., and at Williams College. 

He left college on April 10, 1917, to train for the Service, and on 
June 24 joined the Franco-American Flying Corps in New York 
City, sailing overseas, July 9, 1917. On reaching Paris and finding 
that his entry into a French flying school would be delayed, he 
obtained his release from the French Government and enlisted in 
the U.S. Air Service on Aug. 16, 1917. He trained at Tours from 
Aug. 19 to Oct. 19, 1917, when he was bre vetted as a Pilot by the 
French Government. He was then assigned to the 3d A.I.C. at Is- 
soudun, where he remained from Oct. 20, 1917, to Feb. 10, 1918, and 
where he was commissioned 1st Lieut., A.S., U.S.A., on Nov. 20, 
1917. In Feb. he trained at Clermont-Ferrand, and on April 16 was 
sent to England for further training at the First Aerial School of 
Navigation and Bomb-Dropping at Stonehenge. He was subse- 
quently transferred to Guillons, France, where he joined a French 
Voissain Group, from June 2 to June 29. He was then detailed 
to the First Air Depot at Colombey-les-Belles. From there he 
went to join the 100th Squadron, Independent Air Force, B.E.F., 
with which he remained from July 2 to Aug. 16, 1918. 

On the night of Aug. 16, while he was on a night-bombing trip 
against a German Squadron at Boulay, his motor was struck by 
machine-gun fire from the ground and he was forced to land. Lieut. 
Van Schaack and his observer, Capt. John A. King, of Chicago, 
were captured by the Germans, and held at various prison camps : 
Saint-Avoid, Strasbourg, Karlsruhe, Landshut, Villingen, and 
Constance. They were released on Nov. 29, 1918, and returned to 
France by way of Switzerland. Lieut. Van Schaack spent a week in 
the hospital at Allerey, and on Dec. 20 went to England, where he 
spent six weeks. On Feb. 5, 1919, he sailed for the U.S., where he 
was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., on Feb. 28, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Bulkeley Van Schaack, Private, U.S.A., 101st Machine Gun 
Battalion, 26th Division, A.E.F. 

[ 188 ] 



LELAND H. EMERY 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Second Aviation 
Instruction Centre, Tours, France 

Son of Frederick L. and Grace L. (Harrington) Emery; was born at 
Lexington, Mass., March 8, 1896. He was educated at the Volk- 
mann School, Boston, and at Harvard College, class of 1919. He 
rowed two years on his school crew. 

He attended the Harvard R.O.T.C. previous to enlisting. He 
sailed for France in April, 1917; and entered the American Ambu- 
lance Field Service, with the French Army, T.M., Section 526 B, 
Reserve Mallet, and remained in that service for six months. He 
then enlisted with the U.S. Army, Aviation Section, Signal Reserve 
Corps, on Dec. 1, 1917. He trained at Tours, Issoudun, and at St.- 
Jean-des-Monts, Gunnery School. From Dec. 1, 1917, to June, 1918, 
he was detained as cadet at St.-Maixent. He was commissioned 
2d. Lieut., A.S.A., on June 7, 1918, and from then to the signing of 
the Armistice was retained as Instructor at Tours and elsewhere, 
continuing in this capacity until his return to the U.S. He arrived 
in New York, April 27, 1919, and was honorably discharged May 7, 
1919, at Camp Devens. 



[ 190 ] 



JOHN LALLEY MORAN 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Instructor, Love Field 
Dallas, Texas 

Son of Walter Lawrence and Ella E. (Lalley) Moran; was born at 
Cambridge, Mass., June 30, 1896. He attended the Russell Gram- 
mar School and the Rindge Manual Training School, Cambridge. 
When he was fifteen years old he enlisted in Co. C, 8th Reg't, 
M.V.M., was made Corporal, and served three years, withdrawing 
finally because it was necessary for him to work during the evenings. 

He enlisted July, 1917, in the Aviation Corps, and entered the 
Ground School, M.I.T., Dec. 1, 1917. He was transferred to Prince- 
ton University, Dec. 29, 1917, and graduated with the class of 
Feb. 9, 1918. In the same month he was ordered to Love Field, 
Dallas, Tex., and thence to Kelly Field, and later to San Antonio, 
Tex. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., May 20, 1918, and appointed 
Instructor in Gosport System of Advanced Flying, at Love Field, 
Dallas, a few months later. He was at last account Officer in Charge 
of Transportation at Love Field. 



[ 192 ] 



JOHN FREEMAN BROWN, Jr. 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of John F. and Alice R. Brown; was born at Milton, Mass., 
May 27, 1893. He was educated at Phillips Andover Academy, and 
at Harvard University. 

He enlisted March 31, 1917, was appointed Sergeant, and trained 
for Aviation at Newport News, M.I.T., and Essington, Pa. He 
was commissioned 1st Lieut., R.M.A., in Nov., 1917. In the same 
month he sailed overseas for advanced training, which he re- 
ceived at Issoudun and Clermont-Ferrand. 

In March, 1918, he was sent to training school at Stonehenge, 
Eng., for a six weeks' course in night bombing. Returning to Cler- 
mont-Ferrand he was put in charge of one of the flying fields and 
later became Instructor there in Aerial Navigation. After the Armis- 
tice he was ordered to the 2d Army of Occupation as Navigation 
Officer, Dec, 1918. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

HAROLD THEODORE RAMSAY 

Cadet, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Alexander Theodore and Beda Elizabeth (Boigeson) 
Ramsay; was born at Cambridge, Mass., Oct. 4, 1897. He was 
educated at the Huntington Preparatory School, Boston, Mass., 
and at the Mass. Institute of Technology. At school he played 
football, baseball, and hockey. He enlisted in the Air Service at 
Washington, D.C., on Feb. 2, 1918, and was sent to Camp Dick, 
Dallas, Tex. He was then ordered to Cornell University, Ithaca, 
N.Y., for ground-school training, and thence to Camp Dick. Sub- 
sequently he was assigned to Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La., 
for work in flying. He was honorably discharged from the Service 
on Dec. 21, 1918, at Gerstner Field. 



[ 194 ] 



ROBERT LEWIS FISHER 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Samuel H. and Margaret (Sargent) Fisher; was born at New 
Haven, Conn., June 22, 1898. He was educated at the Taft School, 
Watertown, Conn.; the Thacher School, Ojai, Cal.; and at Yale 
College. 

He enlisted in the Air Service at New Haven, Conn., on Jan. 19, 
1918, and was assigned to the U.S. School of Military Aeronautics 
at Princeton, N.J.; after completing the course there he was sent to 
Payne Field, West Point, Miss., for flying instruction. Subsequently 
he was ordered to Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, for a course 
in Pursuit Pilot's gunnery. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, on 
Aug. 20, 1918. He was discharged from the Service at Garden City, 
N.Y., Dec. 12, 1918. 



[ 196 ] 



JOHN W. CRAIG 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Son of Arthur E. and Adelaide May (Starbird) Craig; was born at 
Portland, Me., July 9, 1895. He was educated at the Portland 
Grammar and High Schools, M.I.T., and at Cornell University. He 
enlisted from Cornell in June, 1917, and was sent to the Officers' 
Training Camp at Plattsburg, N.Y. Later he transferred to Avia- 
tion, and was assigned to M.I.T., Cambridge, Mass., for ground- 
school work. He was trained in primary flying at Park Field, Mem- 
phis, Tenn., where he remained from Jan. 1 to June 1, 1918; and in 
advanced flying at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., where he re- 
mained from June, 1918, to March, 1919. On completing the course 
at Ellington Field he was commissioned 2d Lieut, in April, 1918, 
and held as Instructor in Night Bomb Raiding. 

Lieut. Craig had several narrow escapes from death. On July 9, 

1918, while flying a new ship at Ellington Field, the engine refused 
to function at an altitude of 9000 feet. Fortunately he was able to 
plane to earth in safety, although his machine was badly smashed 
in colliding with a barbed-wire fence. On Dec. 9, 1918, he and 
another instructor had barely left Ellington Field when their en- 
gine stopped. In the forced landing which followed the plane was 
smashed and his companion was killed. Lieut. Craig escaped un- 
hurt. He was honorably discharged at Ellington Field in March, 

1919, and returned to Cornell to finish his college course. 



[ 198 ] 



CHARLES HENRY SMITH 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninth Aero Squadron 

Son of Charles E. and Albertine (Flanders) Smith; was born at 
Nashua, N.H., April 26, 1895. He was educated at Florida Mili- 
tary Academy, Green Cove Springs, Fla., and at Andover 
Academy, Andover, Mass. 

He enlisted in the U.S. Service on May 2, 1917, at Plattsburg, 
N.Y.; trained at Plattsburg, and at the M.I.T., where he finished 
his course on Dec. 18, 1917. He continued his training at Ellington 
Field, Houston, Tex., where he was commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S., 
U.S.A., on April 15, 1918, remaining there until he was sent over- 
seas, May 15, 1918. He trained at Tours, France, and at Clermont- 
Ferrand during which period trouble with his eyes necessitated his 
transference to a bombing squadron. After some weeks of this 
training it was evident that his previous experience in night 
flying, acquired at Ellington Field, had made him available for 
that branch of the Service, and he was sent as a replacement to the 
9th Aero Squadron, which was doing night reconnoitring for the 
American Aviation Headquarters. 

From Aug. 1 to Nov. 11, 1918, Lieut. Smith was at the front 
engaged in night-patrol work, flying as Pilot with the 3d Army 
Corps. After the signing of the Armistice he was sent into Germany 
with the Army of Occupation, and has since been doing photo- 
graphic work with the 9th Squadron. 

Married, May 8, 1917, Marrion P. Gould. 



[ 200 ] 



SAMUEL GARDINER JARVIS 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Assistant O.I.C. 
Gunnery Department, Gerstner Field, Louisiana 

Son of Leonard Jarvis, M.D., and Mabel (Howard) Jarvis; was 
born at Claremont, N.H., Jan. 6, 1896. He was educated at St. 
Paul's School, Concord, N.H., and at Trinity College, Hartford, 
Conn., class of 1919. He was a member of Psi Upsilon Fraternity 
and of the Senior Honorary Society. He played on the 'Varsity 
football team two years; 'Varsity track, two years; 'Varsity hockey 
team, one year. He left college in the middle of his senior year and 
enlisted on April 3, 1917. 

He served in Troop B, Hartford, Conn.; then in U.S. Ambulance 
Corps. He was sent to M.I.T. Ground School on Nov. 3, 1917, then 
to Cornell, where he remained until Jan. 12, 1918. He was then 
transferred to Gerstner Field, La., where he qualified as Pilot, and 
was commissioned 2d Lieut., May 6, 1918. On May 7 he was made 
Instructor in Aerial Gunnery, Flying Combat, and Martin Gun. 
He was ordered to Dayton, Ohio, Aug. 1918, and returned to 
Gerstner Field in Oct. as assistant O.I.C, Aerial Gunnery. In 
Nov. he was attached to the French and English Commission at 
Camp Beauregard. He was honorably discharged at Gerstner Field, 
Lake Charles, La., Jan. 7, 1919. 

Great-uncle in Service — 

Charles Jarvis, Major, U.S.A., 9th Vermont Regiment; 
killed in action in Civil War. 



[ 202 ] 



ROGER COOLIDGE 

First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Instructor, Third 
Aviation Centre, Issoudun, France 

Son of Herbert and Phila E. Coolidge; was born at Watertown, 
Mass., Feb. 23, 1897. He was educated at St. George's School, New- 
port, R.I., and at Harvard College, class of 1919. 

He enlisted at Cambridge, Mass., in July, 1917, and had three 
months' training at the M.I.T. Ground School. He was commis- 
sioned 1st Lieut, in Oct., 1917, and sailed overseas in that month. 
About Jan. 1, 1918, he was appointed Instructor in Bombing at 
Headquarters Detachment, 3d A.I.C, at Issoudun, France. 

Certain extracts from Lieut. Coolidge's letters are of interest : 

January 28, 1918 

I have been appointed an instructor in bombing for this camp, and have 
had to do some intensive studying before beginning my lectures. I find 
your honorable professor a very busy one, for besides giving four lectures 
a day, I have begun flying myself, in consequence of being a member of the 
Training Department, and this naturally is the best part of it all. How- 
ever, having taken this position, I shall remain in camp after the other 
fellows go, perhaps for several months. 

March 23, 1918 

Am back at my old job, but I certainly wish I could get into active 
flying work, especially now that the big German offensive is on, and while 
the work here is interesting, I don't intend to be a school teacher for the 
rest of the war. If I don't get to service flying soon, I shall try to get to the 
front as a bomber. 

November 16, 1918 

Everybody here is thinking up alibis for, "Why I did not get to the 
front." It is n't our fault the war stopped. The only difference to us caused 
by the Armistice is that we are not to fly on Sundays, which perhaps is 
just as well, as Sunday has been the day for getting killed . . . four last 
Sunday. 

Quentin Roosevelt and Hamilton Coolidge were here a long time, and 
I knew them very well. They were in my class at college, as you may re- 
member. They were fine fellows. Ham had gotten several Bodies, I under- 
stand, and had been made a Captain. 

We continue flying, when weather permits, and I am glad that I changed 
over from Nieuports to the de Haviland machines. The latter are easy to 
learn, but give one more work to manoeuvre at high speed. Have just led 
a formation in a cross-country trip, and that keeps one busy every minute. 



[ 204 ] 



HERBERT FRANKLIN COMSTOCK 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of John Moore and Persis (Dearborn) Comstock; was born at 
Chelsea, Vt., Feb. 12, 1893. He was educated at the Chelsea, Vt., 
High School; Manual Training High School, New Haven, Conn.; 
Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, N.H. ; and at Dartmouth Col- 
lege, one year, class of 1915. He took part in track athletics, and 
played baseball and basket-ball. 

He enlisted in the U.S. Air Service in Aug., 1917, at Sandusky, 
Ohio. He trained at the M.I.T. Ground School, and sailed over- 
seas in Nov., 1917. He spent the following winter in camp at St.- 
Maixent; training being hindered by lack of planes. In the spring 
and summer of 1918 he completed his training at Chateauroux, 
and Issoudun. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, on May 18, 1918. 
For a month he was assigned to motor transport service; and he 
served for some time as Instructor at the Issoudun training field. 
While so engaged he met with a serious accident which incapaci- 
tated him from active service for some weeks. He returned to Amer- 
ica in March, and was honorably discharged on March 17, 1919. 



[ 206 ] 



LELAND V. CLARK 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Son of Frederick W. and Carrie E. (Vining) Clark; was born at 
North Abington, Mass., June 3, 1893. He was educated in the Abing- 
ton public schools, and at the M.I.T. He played on his school foot- 
ball team; and at Technology was a member of the tug-of-war team. 

He enlisted on June 18, 1917, at M.I.T. Ground School, where 
he spent two months. He was then transferred to Belleville, 111., on 
Aug. 18, 1917, where he made his first flight from Scott Field on 
Sept. 11, 1917. He was commissioned 1st Lieut, in Jan., 1918, and 
sailed for overseas service on the ill-fated Tuscania, which was tor- 
pedoed off the Irish coast on Feb. 7, 1918. 

Lieut. Clark was in active service in France until the end of the 
war. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

Grandfather in Service — 

A. Elliot Vining, served in the Civil War. 

THOMAS R. TARRANT 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas R. Tarrant, of Brookline, Mass. He 
entered Dartmouth College in the class of 1918. In June, 1917, he 
enlisted in the American Ambulance Field Service, and sailed for 
France with the Dartmouth College unit. He was in the Camion 
Service for five months; was appointed Corporal by the French, 
and placed in charge of cars taking ammunition to the front. In 
Dec, 1917, he transferred to the Aviation Service, and trained 
with the French, receiving a French brevet. On May 18, 1918, 
he was commissioned 2d Lieut, in the U.S. Aviation Service, and 
served as an Instructor until the end of the war. 



[ 208 ] 



GELSTON TYLER KING 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Samuel Gelstonand Alice (Tyler) King; was born at Boston, 
Mass., July 20, 1894. He was educated at the Noble and Greenough 
School, Boston, class of 1912, and Harvard College, A.B. 1916. 

He attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg, in the 
summer of 1917, and the M.I.T. Ground School in the fall of 1917, 
leaving there in Dec. to continue his training at Ellington Field, 
Houston, Tex. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, and sent to Talia- 
ferro Field, Fort Worth, Tex., where he completed a course in ad- 
vanced flying, as Bombing Pilot. He was sent overseas in the fall of 
1918, and remained at Clermont-Ferrand until after the Armistice 
was signed, when he was sent to pilot some of the ships, that our 
American aviators had left at the front, back to their bases. He 
returned to the U.S. in Feb., 1919. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

HARRY W. SEELEY 
First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

He was one of the original members of the First Aeronautical Di- 
vision, called out on April 6, 1917. He received an honorable dis- 
charge from this organization to join the Lafayette Escadrille in 
France. He trained at Tours from Sept., 1917, to March, 1918. 
and at Issoudun from March to Aug., 1918. From Aug., 1918, to 
Nov. 11 he was employed as Ferry Pilot, flying machines to the 
squadrons at the front, from Orly, France. In Dec, 1918, he was 
assigned to the 28th Aero Squadron in the 3d Army of Occupation. 



[ 210 ] 



HENRY GOLDSBOROUGH MacLURE 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., One Hundred Thirty- 
Ninth Aero Squadron 

Son of Rev. Laurens and Ella T. MacLure, of Newton, Mass.; was 
bora at Oakhurst, Pa., Nov. 7, 1892. He attended the Newton 
High. School, and graduated from Harvard College in 1915. At 
school he was captain of the track team, and at college a member of 
the track team and captain of the cross-country team. 

In May, 1917, he attended the Officers' Training Camp at Platts- 
burg, and while there volunteered for the Air Service, and was one 
of twenty-five accepted by the Government and sent to the Royal 
Flying Corps School at Toronto, Can., in Aug., 1917. On Dec. 1 
he was transferred to Fort Worth, Tex., to continue his training, 
and in Feb., 1918, he was commissioned 1st Lieut., and sent over- 
seas, where he was attached to the 139th Aero Squadron. 

On July 17, 1918, he volunteered to protect a photographic plane 
going from the Marne back to the Aisne, some twenty miles behind 
the German lines; his engine failed as they started to return and he 
was overtaken by an enemy plane and forced to descend. Lieut. 
MacLure, who was badly injured, was captured and taken to a 
German prison hospital at Stuttgart, Wurtemberg, where he re- 
mained until Oct. 20, when he was able to be transferred to the 
prison camp at Landshut, Bavaria. He was sent from there to 
Villingen, from which camp he was liberated with other American 
officers on Nov. 29, 1918. Lieut. MacLure was repeatedly asked by 
the Germans during his imprisonment, "How many Americans are 
there in France?" And he always replied, "At least five millions." 
He was returned through Switzerland, and sailed from Brest in Feb. 
1919. He was honorably discharged at Mineola, N.Y., early in 
March, 1919. 



[ 212 ] 



HIRAM BINGHAM 

Lieutenant-Colonel, A.S.A., U.S.A.; Commanding Officer 
Third Aviation Instruction Centre, Issoudun, France 

Son of Rev. Hiram Bingham, D.D., and Clarissa (Brewster) Bing- 
ham; was born at Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 19, 1875. He was educa- 
ted at Punahou and Andover Academy, graduated from Yale Col- 
lege with the degree B.A. in 1898, took an M.A. at the University of 
California in 1900, an M.A. at Harvard University in 1901, and a 
Ph.D. at Harvard in 1905. He received the degree of Litt.D. from 
the University of Cusco, Peru. He was Capt. of Headquarters Co. 
of the 10th Militia, F.A. (Yale Batteries), from June to Oct., 1916; 
at Tobyhanna from July to Sept., 1916. 

He enlisted in the Air Service at Washington, D. C, on May 3, 
1917, from New Haven, Conn. He was trained at the Curtiss Flying 
School, Miami, Fla., in March and April, and passed his brevet 
test on April 30, 1917, when he was stationed at Washington, D.C., 
in charge of all ground schools, from May to Nov., 1917. He took 
his R.M.A. at Mineola in Aug., 1917. From Nov., 1917, until 
March, 1918, he was in charge of the Air Personnel. He was then 
ordered overseas. 

He was in charge of Air Personnel at Tours, France, from April 
to Aug., 1918. During this time he made one trip to the front on 
a tour of inspection to the 1st Pursuit Group, the 1st Observation 
Group, and the 1st Balloon Co., during the battle of fipieds, north 
of Chateau-Thierry, July 23 and 24, 1918. He was subsequently 
transferred to the 3d A.I.C., at Issoudun, France, where he was 
Commanding Officer from Aug. 27 to Dec. 26, 1918. During this 
time he flew Nieuport 23's and Auros. At the termination of his 
command at Issoudun, Lieut.-Col. Bingham received the follow- 
ing letter from the Chief of the Air Service of the A.E.F. : 

Lieutenant-Colonel Hiram Bingham December 17, 1918 

Commanding Officer 
Issoudun 

My dear Colonel Bingham : 

As the school at Issoudun is about to close you will soon be relieved 
from your present duty as its Commanding Officer and returned to the 
United States. Before your departure I desire to place on record my 
hearty appreciation of the excellent work you did while in command of 

[ 214 ] 



HIRAM BINGHAM 



this, our largest training-centre in France. The results achieved speak for 
themselves and evidence the interest you took in your work and your 
power to inspire those who were working with you. 

May I add that I was just about to recommend your promotion when 
the Armistice came and all advancement was stopped. While it was thus 
impossible to bestow upon you this well earned evidence of work well 
done, I want you to be assured that in my opinion it was your due. 
Very truly yours 

(Signed) Mason M. Patrick 

Major-General, U.S.A. 
Chief of the Air Service 

Col. Bingham returned to the U.S., and from Jan. to March, 
1919, was stationed in Washington, D.C., where he was honorably 
discharged, March 8, 1919. 

He was commissioned Capt., F.A., July 3, 1916. He was made 
Major, A.S., S.O.R.C., on June 6, 1917, and was promoted to the 
rank of Lieut.-Col., A.S.A., on Oct. 23, 1917. 

Married, Nov. 20, 1900, Alfreda Mitchell. He has seven sons. 

PHILIP SIMMONS YORK 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of James M. and Emily L. York; was born at South Portland, 
Me., May 24, 189.1. He was educated at the Mt. Herman School, 
and at Harvard College, class of 1918. He trained with the Harvard 
R.O.T.C., and was a member of Troop A, Cavalry, M.V.M. He 
attended the First Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg, and 
enlisted there, May 14, 1917. In July, 1917, he transferred to the 
Aviation Section, and from Oct. to Dec, 1917, trained at the 
M.I.T.; from there he went to Cornell University, completing the 
course Jan. 19, 1918, when he was sent to Ellington Field, Houston, 
Tex., Jan. to May. He trained at Camp Dick, Dallas, Call Field, 
Wichita Falls, Tex., Wilbur Wright Field, Fort Sill, Okla., and 
finally at Taliaferro Field, Fort Worth, Tex., where he was sta- 
tioned from Aug., 1918, to Jan., 1919. He was commissioned 
2d Lieut., R.M.A., May 14, 1918. On Jan. 19, 1919, he was honor- 
ably discharged at Taliaferro Field. 



[ 215 ] 



HAROLD COHEN 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA., Eighty-Fifth Aero 
Squadron, Fourth Observation Group 

Son of Adolph and Rachel Cohen; was born at Pawtucket, R.I., 
Sept. 12, 1891. He was educated at Phillips Andover Academy; 
Sheffield Scientific School, Yale; and at the Mass. Institute of 
Technology. 

He enlisted at Boston, Mass., on June 15, 1917; and attended 
the Ground School, M.I.T., from June to Aug., 1917, when he was 
sent to the Flying School at Belleville, 111., in the first Squadron 
there trained. He was commissioned 1st Lieut., Dec. 12, 1917, and 
sailed overseas, to France. He trained at Issoudun from Feb. 
to July; was attached to the 85th Aero Squadron at St.-Jean-des- 
Monts, Hill 402, in Sept. and Oct., 1918; at Toul Aerodrome from 
Oct., 1918, to Jan., 1919. On Sept. 15, 1918, he made his first flight 
alone. He was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., on 
Feb. 21, 1919. 

Lieut. Cohen was the originator of the "Soldiers and Sailors 
Day" idea, which was carried out on July 4, 1918. On the stated 
day every one in Rhode Island was, at the request of the Governor, 
expected to write to friends in service overseas. (Portrait on op- 
posite page.) 

Brother in Service — 
Dr. Bernhard Cohen, Lieut, (j.g.), U.S. Navy. 

CHARLES E. LITTLE 

Sergeant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Charles H. and Catherine H. (Wilson) Little; was born at 
Melrose, Mass., Jan. 6, 1896. He attended the public schools of 
Melrose, and entered the M.I.T., class of 1919, leaving at the 
end of his junior year. He enlisted on Dec. 8, 1917, and trained at 
the M.I.T. Ground School, at Princeton, N.J., and at Chanute 
Field, Rantoul, 111., where he was appointed Sergeant. He sailed 
overseas in July, 1918, and was stationed near Dover, Eng., until 
after the signing of the Armistice. He returned to the U.S. on Dec. 
3, 1918, and was honorably discharged. 

[ 216 ] 



WINTHROP WHEELER SPENCER 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Two Hundred Twenty-Second 
Aero Squadron; One Hundred Fourth Aero 
Squadron, First Observation Group 

Son of Charles W. and Ethel M. (Wheeler) Spencer; was born at 
Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 29, 1897. He was educated at the Cambridge 
Latin School, the Noble and Greenough School, and at Harvard 
College, class of 1918. 

Previous to entering the Air Service, he served for two years in 
the 8th Mass. Reg't, N.G., and attended the First Officer's Training 
Camp at Plattsburg. 

He enlisted on May 12, 1917, at Boston, and had preliminary 
training at Selfridge Field, Mt. Clemens, Mich. During Oct., 1917, 
he was stationed at Mineola, N.Y. He was commissioned 1st Lieut., 
Oct. 5, 1917, and was ordered overseas on Nov. 2, 1917, attached to 
the 104th Aero Squadron. On reaching England he was transferred 
to the Royal Flying Corps, and from Dec, 1917, to Aug., 1918, 
trained at Yatesbury and Salisbury, England. From May to Aug., 
1918, he was attached to the Staff, S.W. Area, R.A.F. He acted as 
a test pilot at No. 5 A.A.P., Bristol. He left England for France at- 
tached to the 222d Aero Pursuit Squadron, and in Sept., Oct., and 
Nov. was in active service in the Toul sector. 

Lieut. Spencer was recommended for promotion to C apt. by the 
Commanding Officer of the 1st Air Depot, France, on Jan. 2, 1919. 
He returned to the U.S. in the spring of 1919; was honorably dis- 
charged from the Service, and is now engaged in business in South 
America. 

Married, Nov. 12, 1917, Henrietta Brooks Faxon. 



[ 218 ] 



* CARLTON MERRILL BLISS 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.SA., Ninety-Second Aero 
Squadron 
Killed in airplane accident, Nov. 14, 1918 
Son of Francis Walker and Lina (Coe) Bliss; was born at Attle- 
boro, Mass., June 9, 1895. He was educated at the Attleboro High 
School, and at Colby and Brown Universities. At school he played 
on the baseball team, track, and football teams; he was two years 
captain of basket-ball, the last year winning sixteen out of seven- 
teen games played by the school. At Colby he played one year on 
the football team. 

On May 12, 1917, he attended the Officers' Training Camp at 
Plattsburg. From there he was assigned to the Ground School, at 
the M.I.T., graduating Dec. 22, 1917. On Jan. 2, 1918, he was sent 
to the Flying School at Kelly Field, Tex.; and on March 9, 1918, 
he was commissioned 2d Lieut, in the Aviation Service. He com- 
pleted his course at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., where in Aug. 
he received his overseas orders, sailing Sept. 2, 1918. 

On Nov. 14, 1918, Lieut. Bliss was killed while instructing a 
pupil, at Ford Junction Airdrome, Sussex, Eng. He was buried at 
Morn Hill Cemetery, Winchester, Eng. 

Brother in Service — 

Earle F. Bliss, Capt, 331st Reg't, FA.; served with the 86th 
Division. 



[ 220 ] 



HAROLD TOWLE HAMBLETON 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Son of William G. and Harriet (Towle) Hambleton, of West New- 
ton, Mass.; was born at Plympton, Mass., June 11, 1894. He was 
educated in the public schools of Newton, and at Boston Univer- 
sity. He left college after three years, to enter the theatrical pro- 
fession, in which he continued until his entry into the U.S. Service. 

He enlisted at Cambridge, Mass., in May, 1917, and began his 
training at the M.I.T. Ground School. In Nov., 1917, he sailed over- 
seas and completed his training at Tours, Gondrecourt, and at 
Cazaux, France. On May 16, 1918, he was commissioned 2d Lieut, 
and saw active service on the western front until July, 1918. From 
July until the signing of the Armistice, Lieut. Hambleton was 
Instructor in Aerial Gunnery at the French Aviation School at 
Cazaux. He was brevetted by the French Government, and made 
an honorary member of the Aero Club of France. He returned to 
the U.S., and was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., on 
Feb. 12, 1919. 

Married, March 26, 1919, Marion S. Bowen. 



[ 222 ] 



STEDMAN HANKS 

Major, A.S., U.S.A., Commanding Officer, Air Service 
Concentration Brigade 

Son of Charles Stedman and Clarina Bartow (Shumway) Hanks; 
was born at Manchester, Mass., July 17, 1889. He was educated at 
Groton School, Groton, Mass., and at Harvard College, A.B. 1912. 
He played on his class baseball team, and was a member of the 
'Varsity track team. 

Prior to the declaration of war he trained as civilian aviator, and 
received Pilot's certificate from the Aero Club of America, Aug. 16, 
1916; he had preliminary training at Governors Island, and at 
Mineola, N.Y. He enlisted May 26, 1917, at New York City, and 
was commissioned Captain, Signal Officers' Reserve Corps, May 26, 
1917. He served as Aide to Maj. -General Geo. O. Squier, Chief Sig- 
nal Officer, War Department, and subsequently, as Liaison Officer 
for Air Service with French, British, and Italian Aviation Missions. 
On Aug. 15, 1917, he was promoted to grade of Major, U.S.A., 
and later transferred to A.S.M.A. On Jan. 11, 1918, he passed his 
R.M.A. tests, at San Diego, Cal., where he was Commanding 
Officer of the 18th Aero Squadron. Major Hanks inspected many 
aviation fields, both by aeroplane and with Gen. Squier; was 
Commanding Officer of 2d Wing, Concentration Brigade, Aug. 19, 
1918; commanded Concentration Brigade, Aug. 30, 1918, and was 
officer in charge of review of 6000 troops, Air Service. He was also 
President of Special Court- Martial; and officer in charge of de- 
mobilization of Air Service, at Kelly Field, Tex., where he was dis- 
charged under special orders from the War Department, Jan. 7, 
1919. 

Married, Feb. 11, 1919, Margery Hancock. 

Relatives in Service — 

Seven cousins in Army: 2 Major-Generals; 2 Colonels; 1 Lieut.- 
Colonel (flying status); 1 Captain; 1 Lieutenant, killed in 
action. 



[ 224 ] 



RAY A. BARNES 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. F. A. Barnes, of Whiting, Vt. ; was born at New 
York City, Aug. 10, 1888. He was educated in the public schools, 
and at Bryant and Stratton Business College, Boston. 

He enlisted at Boston on July 19, 1917, and received his ground 
and flying training at Mineola, N.Y., Lake Charles, La., and Elling- 
ton Field, Houston, Tex. He was commissioned 1st Lieut., Dec. 20, 
1917, and has been recommended for promotion several times. 
While in flying service he acted in several capacities; was Officer in 
Charge of Officers' Club, at Gerstner Field, for nearly eight months; 
was Mess Officer, Cadet Mess Officer, and Tactical Officer for Ca- 
dets, at Gerstner Field. At this station he was on the overseas list 
at the time of the big storm that nearly wrecked the field. The Com- 
manding Officer removed Lieut. Barnes from the overseas list to 
help reconstruct the field. He had charge also of all transportation 
to town, during the influenza epidemic in the fall of 1918, and of 
food supplies at Gerstner Field. 

Lieut. Barnes was at last accounts still in service at Ellington 
Field, Houston, Tex. 



[ 226 ] 



ralph d. Mclaughlin 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., CO. Six Hundred 
Thirty-Seventh Aero Squadron 

Son of John Joseph and Annie Agnes (Brennan) McLaughlin; was 
born at Worcester, Mass., July 22, 1893. He prepared for college 
at St. John's High School, Worcester, and attended Holy Cross for 
three years. 

He enlisted at Boston on June 26, 1917. He attended the Ground 
School of the Univ. of Texas, graduating in Sept. ; he continued his 
training at Rockwell Field, Sept. 22 to Dec. 12, and at Kelly 
Field, Dec. 15 to Jan. 6, when the school was discontinued. He 
served as Barracks Officer, S.M.A., at Georgia Tech., Atlanta, Ga., 
and was subsequently assigned to the 83d Aero Squadron at 
Rantoul, 111. After graduating from the Armament and Gunnery 
School at Fairfield, O., he was commissioned 2d Lieut, in Feb., 
1918. He sailed overseas in June, 1918. 

From June 15, 1918, to Jan. 22, 1919, he was at the 1st Air Depot, 
and CO. 637th Aero Squadron. Though ordered to finish training 
as gunner and bomber on Aug. 3, 1918, Lieut. McLaughlin could 
not be spared from his duties as CO., on account of the scarcity 
of Officers. When relieved from flying, he served for some time as 
Instructor in Engines at San Diego, Cal. 



[ 227 ] 



JOHN HOPKINSON BAKER 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Commanding Officer, Third 
Aero Squadron, Fort Sill, Oklahoma 

Son of George Pierce and Christina (Hopkinson) Baker; was born 
at Cambridge, Mass., June 30, 1894. He was educated in the Cam- 
bridge public schools, and graduated from Harvard College in 1915. 
At school he played on the hockey team and rowed on the crew; at 
college he was on the soccer team. 

He enlisted on April 23, 1917, at Washington, D.C. He was 
trained for Aviation at Mineola, N.Y., and was commissioned 1st 
Lieut, on July 30, 1917. At different periods he acted as instructor 
in flying, liaison with artillery, liaison with infantry, and aerial 
gunnery, at Mt. Clemens and Fort Sill. He was Commanding Officer 
of the 3d Aero Squadron, Fort Sill, Okla; went overseas in Aug., 
1918, and was officer in charge of Field 1, for Biplace Machines, 
at the Aerial Gunnery School St.-Jean-des-Monts, Vendee, France, 
He returned to the U.S. and was honorably discharged. 
Brothers in Service — 

Edwin O. Baker, Assistant Paymaster, U.S.N. 

Myles P. Baker, Harvard R.O.T.C. 



[ 228 ] 



PHILIP L. C ARRET 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of James R. and Hannah T. Carret, of Cambridge, Mass.; 
was born on Nov. 29, 1896, at Lynn, Mass. He was educated at the 
Cambridge High and Latin School, and at Harvard College, grad- 
uating in 1917, A.B. cum laude. He completed one year at Harvard 
Graduate School of Business Administration during his senior year 
at college. 

He trained with the Harvard R.O.T.C., Feb. 1 to July 7, 1917, 
and enlisted in the Aviation Service, July 7, 1917. He attended the 
M.I.T. Ground School for eight weeks, to Oct. 6, 1917, and sailed 
overseas on Oct. 26. He trained in flying at Tours and Issoudun; 
and had three weeks at the Gunnery School at Cazaux. On May 13, 
1918, he was commissioned 1st Lieut. Having completed the full 
course of training for an Aviator, and having passed all tests for 
Chasse Pilot, he was sent to the front, 5th Air Depot, on Sept. 19, 
1918, and was engaged in ferrying planes (binets) until Oct. 20, 
1918. He returned to the U.S., and at his request he was honorably 
discharged on March 5, 1919, at Garden City, N.Y. 



[ 230- ] 



WILLARD PERRIN FULLER 



Captain, A.S., U.S.A. 

He graduated from the Milton High School, Milton, Mass., in 
1906, and from Harvard College in 1910. On Sept. 12, 1917, he 
was commissioned 1st Lieut., Aviation Section, Signal Reserve 
Corps. He was on duty, Personnel Section, Air Service, at Wash- 
ington, D.C., and was promoted to Capt., Signal Corps, Regular 
Army (temp.), Feb. 19, 1918. On May 27, 1918, he was appointed 
Executive Officer at Mather Aviation School, Sacramento, Cal., 
and was stationed there until Nov. 1, 1918. Reserve Military Avi- 
ator, Oct. 28, 1918. He was appointed Assistant Executive Officer, 
on flying duty, at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., serving from 
Nov. 4 to Dec. 5, 1918. On Dec. 12, 1918, he was chosen to serve 
on Peace Organization Committee for the Air Service, at Wash- 
ington, D.C. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

LAURENCE L. SHEA 

Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, Squadron 9 
Northern Bombing Group 

Son of John F. and Mary A. (Sullivan) Shea, of Somerville, Mass. ; 
was born at Springfield, Mass., Nov. 25, 1896. He was educated at 
the Somerville High School and at Boston College. 

He went to the Mexican Border with the National Guard in 
1916, and served with that body until his transfer to Naval Avi- 
ation in July, 1917. He was assigned to the Ground School, M.I.T., 
in Oct., and on graduation, Nov. 20, was sent to Hampton Roads, 
Va., where he remained until Jan. 1, 1918. He was then ordered to 
Pensacola, Fla., where he qualified as Naval Aviator. On May 5, 
1918, he was transferred to Miami, Fla., where he was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., U.S. Marine Corps, June 1, 1918. He sailed 
overseas July 1, and saw active service with the British First Army 
from Aug., 1918, to the close of the war. He was attached to 
Squadron 9 of the Northern Bombing Group, operating in Flanders. 

Brothers in Service — 

Joseph A. Shea, Sergeant-Major, 1st Division, A.E.F. 
Edwin P. Shea, Private, Base Hospital 7, A.E.F. 

[ 232 ] 



MELVIN W. COLE 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., One Hundred Fourth Aero 
Squadron, Fifth Corps, Observation Group 

Son of William S. and Mary A. (Wilson) Cole; was born at Boston, 
Mass., Feb. 28, 1893. He was educated at the Boston Latin School 
and at Harvard University. 

He enlisted at Boston in Aug., 1917, and was sent to M.I.T. 
Ground School, graduating with the class of Oct. 13, 1917. He sailed 
overseas, and trained at Issoudun, France, 3d A.I.C., from Nov., 
1917, till March, 1918; he was attached to the 2d A.I.C. at Tours, 
France, from March until June, 1918, and was commissioned 1st 
Lieut, on May 18, 1918. Lieut. Cole was again at Issoudun from 
June till July, 1918, and again at Tours 2d A.I.C. in July.and Aug. 
From Sept. 7, 1918, until Dec. 31, 1918, he was attached to the 104th 
Aero Squadron, 5th Observation Group. 

Returning to America, Lieut. Cole was discharged at Garden 
City, N.Y., on Feb. 19, 1919. 



[ 234 ] 



GARDINER FRANK GREENE 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Son of Frank Eugene and Mary A. Greene, of Monson, Mass. ; was 
born Nov. 10, 1884. He was educated at the Volkmann School, 
Brookline, Mass., and at Harvard College, graduating A.B. 1907. 
He pitched on the 'Varsity baseball team. 

He enlisted on June 17, 1917, and attended the M.I.T. Ground 
School from June 17 to Aug. 11, 1917. He went for further training 
to the Flying School at Mt. Clemens, Mich.; to Mineola, N.Y.; and 
to Kelly Field, Texas. He was commissioned 1st Lieut. Jan. 3, 1918, 
and in Feb. sailed overseas. On July 25, 1918, he graduated at 
the 3d Aviation Instruction Centre, Issoudun, France. At Orly 
he acted as Ferry Pilot and was in charge of testing machines. 

Married, Sept. 10, 1910, Gladys Gibbs; has one child, Gardiner 
Gibbs Greene, born Sept. 16, 1914. 

Brother in Service — 

Robert R. Greene, Sergeant-Major, A.S., U.S.A. 



[ 236 ] 



DUNCAN DANA 
Captain, A.S.A., U.S.A., Thirty-Second Aero Squadron 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Dana; was born Nov. 17, 1892, at New 
York, N.Y. He was educated at Groton School, Groton, Mass., 
and at Harvard College, graduating in 1914. He played end on the 
'Varsity football team in 1914-15. 

He was a member of Battery A, M.V.M., in 1912 and 1913. He 
enlisted on July 10, 1917, and received preliminary training at the 
M.I.T. Ground School. He sailed overseas on Oct. 26, 1917. He 
was stationed at Issoudun for the remainder of the war as com- 
manding officer in charge of the shop for repairing, testing, and 
improving planes. He was commissioned 1st Lieut., May 16, 1918; 
Capt., on Sept. 30, 1918, 32d Aero Squadron. He is still in Service. 

Married, June 10, 1916. 

Brother in Service — 

Anderson Dana, Capt., Battery A, 305th Reg't. 



[ 238 ] 



EDWIN THAYER MacBRIDE 



First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 




Son of Edwin Plympton and Carrie (Thayer) MacBride, of South 
Weymouth, Mass.; was born at South Weymouth, June 11, 1893. 
He was educated at Chauncy Hall School, and at the M.I.T. 

He enlisted in the Harvard R.O.T.C., May, 1917. He was 
trained at the Cornell Ground School for two months prior to 
going overseas. He was assigned to the 3d A.I.C. at Issoudun, 
where he remained for a year and three months. He was com- 
missioned 1st Lieut., May 16, 1918, and served as Staff Officer 
and Flying Officer at Issoudun, France. (Portrait on opposite 
page.) 



Son of Adolph Alexander and Louise Marie (Pinkert) Kuehl; was 
born at Medford, Mass., June 29, 1894. He graduated from the 
Medford High School and from the electrical engineering course 
at Northeastern College. He enlisted in the Air Service at Boston, 
Mass., Nov. 8, 1917, and received his ground school training at 
M.I.T. and at Princeton University. He was then transferred to 
Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., to Concentration Camp, and thence to 
the flying field at Taliaferro Field, Hicks, Tex. He was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut, at Barron Field, Everman, Tex., on June 22, 
1918, and began instructing there. After reassignment to Camp 
Dick, he was ordered to Payne Field, West Point, Miss., and 
finally to Love Field, Dallas, Tex., where he was honorably dis- 
charged, Dec. 13, 1918. 

Brothers in Service — 

Herman A. Kuehl; served at the Mexican Border. 

Otto E. Kuehl, Supply Co. 334, Q.M.C., Army of Occupation. 



ADOLPH A. KUEHL 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 



[ 240 ] 



LEON P. TUCK 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Whitfield L. and Susan E. Tuck; was born at Winchester, 
Mass., May 25, 1891. He was educated in the Winchester public 
schools, and at Dartmouth College, B.S. 1915. He played football 
and hockey at school and college. 

He enlisted at Boston, on May 2, 1917, attended the First 
R.O.T.C. at Sackett's Harbor, and the Cornell Ground School. 
Receiving overseas orders, he sailed for France in Oct., 1917, and 
had flying training at the 3d A.I.C. and at A.A.A.P. No. 1, in 
France. 

In May, 1918, he was commissioned 1st Lieut., and up to 
Nov. 10 was on duty taking planes from England to the front. 
After the signing of the Armistice he was ordered back to Amer- 
ica and was honorably discharged at Camp Devens, Mass., on 
May 28, 1919. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

' ROBERT WHITNEY 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Whitney, of Lexington, Mass.; was 
born Dec. 8, 1895. He enlisted in the American Ambulance Field 
Service and sailed for France June 9, 1917. He served until Oct. 1, 
1917, when he transferred to the U.S. Aviation Service, in France. 
He was commissioned 1st Lieut, in June, 1918, and continued in 
the Aviation Service in France until after the signing of the 
Armistice. 



[ 242 ] 



EVERETT PRESTON WELCH 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.R 

Son of Martin L. and Margaret (Arnold) Welch, of Gloucester, 
Mass.; was born at Salem, Mass., on Feb. 10, 1891. He was edu- 
cated at the Gloucester High School and at St. John's Preparatory 
School, Danvers, Mass. At school he was a member of the football, 
baseball, and basket-ball teams. 

He enlisted in Aug., 1917, and was trained at Pensacola, Fla.; 
at Miami, and at M.I.T. He sailed overseas and continued his 
training at various stations in France and England. On Aug. 13, 
1918, he was commissioned Ensign; and was still in Service at the 
U.S. Naval Air Station, Chatham, Mass., at last accounts. (Por- 
trait on opposite page.) 

Brother in Service — 

Martin L. Welch, Private, U.S. Marine Corps; killed in action 
at Belleau Wood, France, June 13, 1918. 

ISIDOR RICHMOND 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Hyman and Lena (Tanzer) Richmond; was born at Chelsea, 
Mass., Dec. 2, 1893. He was educated at the Revere High School 
and at the Mass. Institute of Technology, from which he graduated 
in 1916. He enlisted in the U.S.N.R.F. at Boston, Mass., July 24, 
1917. From July 24 to Nov., 1917, he was held at the Boston Navy 
Yard, and from Feb. 18 to May 1, 1918, he was trained with the 
Naval Aviation Detachment at the M.I.T. He was then sent to 
the Naval Air Station at Pensacola, Fla., where he remained for 
flight training from May 4 to Aug. 17, 1918. He was transferred to 
the Naval Air Station, Chatham, Mass., for patrol and convoy 
duty, Aug. 20, 1918. He was commissioned Ensign, Aug. 6, 1918. 



[ 244 ] 



CHARLES RICHARD STEEDMAN 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Charles John and Mary B. (Lippitt) Steedman, of Prov- 
idence, R.I.; was born at San Francisco, Cal., July 31, 1897. He 
was educated at St. Mark's School, Southboro, Mass., and Har- 
vard College, class of 1920. He attended the 2d Officers' Training 
Camp at Plattsburg, in July, 1916, and trained with the Harvard 
R.O.T.C. from May 8 to Aug. 15, 1917. He enlisted in the Aviation 
Service on Sept. 18, 1917, at M.I.T., Cambridge, Mass. He attended 
the Ground School at Princeton, N.J., graduating with honor, 
Feb. 9, 1918, and was then sent successively to Camp Dick, 
Dallas, Tex., and Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex. He was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., A.S., on June 5, 1918, and transferred to 
Camp Dick on June 10; to Payne Field, West Point, Mississippi, 
on July 25. He was transferred to Air Service Depot, Garden City, 
N.Y., on Oct. 3, 1918, for overseas duty; but the Armistice in- 
tervened. He was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., 
on Dec. 11, 1918, and returned to Harvard College to finish his 
course. 



[ 246 ] 



FREDERICK H. WARNER, Jr. 

First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Son of Frederick H. and Eleanor (Skinner) Warner; was born at 
Boston in 1885. He was educated at the Volkmann School, Boston, 
and graduated from Harvard College, A.B. 1907. He trained with 
the Harvard R.O.T.C. in 1917, and attended the 2d Plattsburg 
Training Camp in 1917, where he was commissioned 1st Lieut, 
on Nov. 28, 1917. He was assigned to the Aviation Corps, Uni- 
versity of Illinois; was transferred to Columbus, Ohio; then to 
Waco, Tex.; and later to Camp Greene, Charlotte, N.C., remain- 
ing about three months in each place. He was next transferred 
to Garden City, N.Y., for a short time, then assigned as Instructor 
in the Students' Army Training Corps, University of New York. 
(Portrait on opposite page.) 

PAUL EDWIN FENTON 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., One Hundred 
Twenty- Ninth Aero Squadron 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Wilbur Fenton; was born at Thomas- 
ton, Conn., Jan. 23, 1895. He graduated from the Thomaston 
High School, and from Trinity College, class of 1917. On Nov. 10, 

1917, he enlisted at Boston, Mass., and after completing the ground 
courses at M.I.T., and at Princeton University, he was ordered to 
Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex. He was transferred to Scott Field, Belle- 
ville, 111., where he was commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S.A., June 15, 

1918, and passed his R.M.A. flying tests. After further training at 
Brooks Field, San Antonio, Tex., he acted as Flying Instructor at 
Taylor Field, Ala., from Aug. to Dec, 1918. He was honorably dis- 
charged at Taylor Field, Montgomery, Ala., Dec. 16, 1918. 



[ 248 ] 



JUNIUS ALEXANDER RICHARDS 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninth Aero Squadron 

Son of Reuben Francis Richards (deceased) and Maria Louisa 
Alexander (now Mrs. Charles Frost Aldrich); was born at Cam- 
bridge, Mass., Oct. 7, 1892. He was educated at St. Mark's School, 
Southboro, Mass., graduating in 1911, and at Harvard College, 
graduating in 1915. At St. Mark's he played on the football team. 
At Harvard he was one of the authors of the 1915 Hasty Pudding 
play. He was a member of the 1st Corps of Cadets, M.V.M., 1911- 
14; served with them on strike duty in Lawrence, Mass., in 1911. 

He enlisted in the Aviation Service, on April 16, 1917, and 
trained in the first Government Aviation class at Mineola, N.Y. 
On July 16, 1917, he was commissioned 1st Lieut. (R.M.A.), 
x4..S.S.R.C, and stationed as Instructor and Supply Officer, 9th 
Aero Squadron, at Selfridge Field, Mt. Clemens, Mich. On 
Nov. 20, 1917, he sailed for England, where he organized and com- 
manded two American Aviation sections of several squadrons each, 
serving in conjunction with the Royal Air Force; at Grantham 
and Spittlegate. After five months of service at these fields, he was 
transferred to the American Air Service Headquarters, at London, 
in charge of the technical training of all enlisted men in the Amer- 
ican Army Air Service in Great Britain. In July, 1918, Lieut. 
Richards was ordered to Scotland to command all American Army 
Aviation units there; squadrons being trained under his direction 
for service at the front. He was three times recommended for pro- 
motion to a Captaincy, but the promotion did not go through. He 
was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., Dec. 23, 1918. 

Recommendation for Promotion, by Major Fitzgerald 

Headquarters Base Section 3, Service of Supply, A.E.F. 

London, March 27, 1918 

This is to certify that 1st Lieut. J. A. Richards, Sig. R.C., A.S., is now 
on duty in charge of several squadrons of the U.S. Aviation Section, 
Signal Corps, at Spittlegate, Grantham, Eng. This officer has been under 
my personal observation since September, 1917. He has given every satis- 
faction, is a fine disciplinarian, and has his command under excellent 
control. He gets along exceptionally well with the British authorities, and 
it is my belief that he should be promoted. 

I, therefore, take great pleasure in recommending that 1st Lieut. 
J. A. Richards, Sig. R.C., A.S., be promoted to Captain, Sig. R.C., A.S., 
believing that such promotion will be for the best interests of the Service. 

[ 250 ] 



JUNIUS ALEXANDER RICHARDS 



Commendations 
To Officer Commanding Mth Wing, R.A.F. 

Spittlegate, May 11, 1918 
I have the honour to bring to your notice the assistance I have had 

from Lieut. J. A. Richards, U.S.A., Aviation Section, from the date I 

took over this Squadron. 

Owing to his ready cooperation and tact, difficulties incident to the 

amalgamation of British and American Sections have been successfully 

overcome. 

I have never had occasion to take disciplinary action against any of the 
N.C.O.'s or men under his administration. 

(Signed) H. S. Lees-Smith, Captain 

Commanding No. 37 T.S. 

Royal Flying Corps 

Headquarters, 24th Wing, R.A.F. 
Grantham, May 14, 1918 

Dear Colonel Morrow : 

Lieut. Richards has left my Wing to report at your Headquarters, 
and I wish to express to you how much I and everybody have appreciated 
his services. 

As you know four Squadrons and a Flight of Americans are in my Wing, 
and to get this party settled in, presented no small task, yet it was at- 
tained, and my thanks are in a great part due to the extraordinary ability 
and powers of cooperation of Lieut. Richards. I am 

Yours sincerely 

A. B. BURDETT 

From Officers' Record 

December 4, 1918 

Lieut. Richards has shown marked ability in the execution of various 
duties requiring executive ability and tact in connection with the U.S. 
Air Service Units stationed in England. 

December 5, 1918 

Lieut. J. A. Richards has been on duty under my supervision for almost 
a year. He has initiative, energy, ability, and is an excellent leader of men. 
As CO. of a large post, he discharges his duties most efficiently. 



[ 252 ] 



PAUL RICE DOOLIN 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. William Doolin; was born at St. Albans, Vt., 
July 24, 1897. He was educated at St. Albans High School, at Phil- 
lips Andover Academy, graduating in 1916, and at Harvard Col- 
lege, class of 1920. On graduating from Andover he was made a 
member of the Cum Laude Society, and received the John Harvard 
Scholarship in the first class (1917); Detur (1917). At Phillips 
Academy he was a member of the track team in 1916. 

He attended the R.O.T.C. at Plattsburg from July 5 to Aug. 8, 
1916, and the R.O.T.C. at Harvard in April and May, 1917. He 
served with the American Ambulance Field Service in France, 
T.M. 526, from June 25 to Oct. 1, 1917, sailing with the Phillips 
Andover Unit. 

On Oct. 1, 1917, he enlisted in the U.S. Army, at Jouaignes, France, 
applying for entrance to an Aviation training school. As the schools 
were at that time full, he was not admitted until the following 
spring, serving in the meantime at Field Service Headquarters, part 
of the time as interpreter. On March 19, 1918, he was transferred 
from Division Motor Transportation to the 496th Aero Squadron; 
and assigned to Air Service Concentration Barracks No. 3, at St.- 
Maix^nt, on March 29, as Cadet. He attended the French Flying 
School at Voves from May 29 to July 22, and was brevetted by the 
French on July 21. He had Sop with training at the French School 
in Avord from Aug. 1 to Sept. 3; and Nieuport training at Issoudun, 
until Dec. 16, 1918. On Sept. 25, 1918, he was commissioned 2d 
Lieut., dating from Aug. 26, 1918. Lieut. Doolin's training was in- 
terrupted for about six weeks by ground-glass poisoning, followed 
by influenza. At the time of the Armistice he was just completing 
his training as a Combat Aviator. 

Lieut. Doolin was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., 
March 27, 1919. 



[ 253 ] 



ERROLD BANKS THOMAS 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.SA. 

Son of Frank Henry and Alice Lucy (Stearns) Thomas, of Newton, 
Mass.; was born at Cambridge, Mass., Feb. 16, 1893. He graduated 
from the Cambridge Latin School in 1912, and from Harvard Col- 
lege in 1916. He was assistant manager of the Harvard Crimson, 
1914-16. 

He enlisted on May 12, 1917, at Plattsburg Barracks, N.Y., in 
the 1st Provisional Training Regiment, Battery 3. On Aug. 14, 
1917, he transferred to the Aviation Section, Signal Corps, and 
entered active service as Flying Cadet, at the M.I.T. Ground 
School. He was assigned to Ellington Field, Tex., where he received 
primary and advanced flying instruction. He was commissioned 2d 
Lieut., A.S., U.S.A., April 6, 1918, and classed as Bombing Pilot, 
continuing his advanced training until he received overseas orders, 
Aug. 23, 1918. He sailed on Sept. 8, and continued his training in 
England. Lieut. Thomas was assigned to the 92d Squadron, at 
Field 1, Ford Junction, Sussex, for night bombing, and was engaged 
in this training at the time of the signing of the Armistice. He sailed 
for the U.S. on Dec. 4, 1918, and was honorably discharged at 
Mineola, N.Y., Jan. 4, 1919. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

Married, Feb. 14, 1919, Louise Ames Smith, of Newton Centre, 
Mass. 

ROYCE B. CRIMMIN 

Cadet, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of C. Hollis and Gertrude Ethel Crimmin, of Bradford, Mass.; 
was born at Haverhill, Mass., Feb. 9, 1896. He was educated at the 
Haverhill High School, where he played basket-ball, and was a mem- 
ber of the track team; and at the Mass. Agricultural College, Am- 
herst, Mass. He entered the Air Service on May 25, 1918, at Cam- 
bridge, Mass. After finishing the course at the M.I.T. Ground 
School he was sent to the concentration camp at Camp Dick, Dal- 
las, Tex., with Squadron 11. From there he was ordered to Kelly 
Field No. 2, San Antonio, Tex. 



[ 254 ] 



* GEORGE W. KILLORIN 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 
Killed in airplane accident, Sept. 27, 1918 
Son of Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Killorin, of Wakefield, Mass. He grad- 
uated from Holy Cross College in 1917. In June, 1917, he enlisted 
in the Air Service, and attended the M.I.T. Ground School. He con- 
tinued his training at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex. In April, 1918, 
he was commissioned 2d Lieut., and appointed Instructor of Aerial 
Gunnery at Taliaferro Field, Fort Worth, Tex. While acting in this 
capacity he was killed in an airplane accident at Taliaferro Field, 
on Sept. 27, 1918. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

BRICE S. EVANS 

Private, First Class, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Charles R. and Henrietta (Thompson) Evans, of Water- 
town, Mass.; was born at Boston, Mass., March 16, 1888. He was 
educated at the Boston Latin, the Volkmann, and the De Meritte 
Schools; and at Amherst College. In 1906 he was runner-up in the 
Canadian Golf Championship, and Schoolboy Golf Champion. He 
enlisted at Boston, Mass., on Jan. 24, 1918. From June 1 to July 3 
he was in training at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., and from July 5 to 
Sept. 7 at the M.I.T., Cambridge, Mass. He was assigned to the 
Ground School at Cornell University, where he remained from 
Sept. 8 to Nov. 6, 1918. He was transferred to Camp Dick, Dallas, 
Tex., on Nov. 8, and was honorably discharged from the Service 
there, Dec. 4, 1918. 

Married, March 5, 1919, Dorothy Ruggles. 



[ 256 ] 



FRANK EMMONS ALEXANDER 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.SA. 

Educated at St. George's School, Concord, N.H., and at Harvard 
College, class of 1919. He enlisted in the Aviation Corps in June, 

1917, and was sent to the M.I.T. Ground School. He finished his 
training at Belleville, 111., and was commissioned 1st Lieut., 
A.S., U.S.A. He was appointed Instructor, first at Gerstner Field, 
Lake Charles, La., then at Call Field, Wichita Falls, Tex. In 
Sept., 1918, he sailed overseas, and was in training for a Pursuit 
Pilot, at Issoudun, France, when the Armistice was signed. (Por- 
trait on opposite page.) 

DWIGHT FLETCHER BARNES 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of J. Fletcher and Anna E. (Baldwin) Barnes, of Bedford, 
Mass. ; was born at Hubbardston, JMass., Jan. 23, 1890. He was 
educated at Mt. Hermon School, Mass., and at the Mass. Agricul- 
tural College, Amherst. 

He enlisted, Nov. 3, 1917, and attended the M.I.T. Ground 
School; going from there to Cornell University. He trained in flying 
at Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La.; and had advanced training 
at Call Field, Wichita Falls, Tex.; at Wilbur Wright Field, Day- 
ton, Ohio; at Post Field, Fort Sill, Okla.; and at Taliaferro 
Field, Fort Worth, Tex. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., May 14, 

1918. He sailed for France, and was stationed at Issoudun for final 
training. He was attached to the 186th Aero Squadron, 1st Army 
Observation Group. After the signing of the Armistice he was sent 
into Germany with the 3d Army of Occupation. 

Married, Dec. 23, 1916, Mary Baker. 



[ 258 ] 



HAROLD ARTEMAS PACKARD 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Frederick C. and Mary (Winchester) Packard; was born 
at Roslindale, Mass., Aug. 10, 1894. He graduated from the Boston 
Latin School, and from Harvard College (with honors) in 1915. He 
enlisted in the U.S.A. in April, 1917, and was sent to Fort 
Monroe, Va., and commissioned 2d Lieut, (provisionally), on 
Oct. 26, 1917. In Jan., 1918, he was commissioned 2d Lieut., and 
in March, 1st Lieut. He volunteered for the Air Service in May, 
1918, and trained at Langley Field, Old Point Comfort, Va., and 
at Selfridge Field, Mt. Clemens, Mich. On Sept. 1 he was ordered 
overseas, and continued his training at Tours, France; he was later 
attached to the 88th Squadron, and ordered to the front just at the 
time of the signing of the Armistice. Lieut. Packard was then as- 
signed to the Army of Occupation. Subsequently he spent three 
months at the University of Poitiers, France, after which he 
served in the Department of Rents, Requisition, and Claims. 
Lieut. Packard had two brothers also in the Service. (Portrait on 
opposite page.) 

LAWRENCE EARLY 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Bernard and M. Alice Early; was born at Newton, Mass., 
July 27, 1896. He was educated at the Newton High School, and 
at Holy Cross College. He enlisted in the Air Service at Boston, 
Aug. 20, 1917. He attended the Ground Schools at the M.I.T., 
and at Princeton University. He trained in flying at Taliaferro 
Field, Fort Worth, Tex., and at the Gunnery Schools, Taliaferro 
Field, and Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio. He then pro- 
ceeded overseas, and was assigned to the 3d A.I.C. at Issoudun, 
France, for advanced training. He was subsequently transferred 
to the school at St.-Jean-des-Monts. He was then detailed as Staff 
Pilot to the 4th Artillery Aerial Observers' School at Meucon, 
France. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., June 17, 1918, and was 
honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., Feb. 8, 1919. 



[ 260 ] 



* LEROY AMOS SWAN 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.SA. 
Killed in airplane accident, June 19, 1918 
Born at Norwich, Conn., June 5, 1894. He was educated at the 
Norwich Free Academy, and at the Mass. Institute of Technology, 
class of 1917. He entered the Service at the M.I.T., Oct., 1917, and 
attended the Army Aviation School. He trained at Wilbur Wright 
Field, Dayton, Ohio, and was there commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S., 
Signal Corps. On June 19, 1918, he was killed at Wilbur Wright 
Field, when his machine collapsed. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

DAVID W. GORDON 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., S.C., Second Provisional 
Squadron, Ellington Field, Houston, Texas 

Son of William W. and Harriet (Covil) Gordon; was born at 
Hazardsville, Conn., May 31, 1894. He attended the Central High 
School, Springfield, Mass., where he was president of the senior 
debating society and captain of the crew. He graduated from 
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn., where he was a member 
of the football and track teams. He enlisted at Boston, Mass., 
May 11, 1917, with the Medical Corps, Ambulance Section, and 
transferred from the station at Allentown, Pa., to Army Aviation, 
at Mineola, N.Y., Aug. 29. He attended the Ground School at the 
M.I.T., from Nov. 3, 1917, to Jan. 12, 1918. He continued his train- 
ing at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., from Jan. 18 to April 5; 
there he was commissioned 2d Lieut, on April 5, 1918, and was sent 
to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex. He was stationed at Hoboken, N.J., 
awaiting overseas orders, from May 5 to May 29, and then sent to 
Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., for advanced training in bombing. 
He remained there from June, 1918, to Jan. 11, 1919, when he was 
honorably discharged. 

Married, Sept. 2, 1918, Doris Clark". 

Grandfather in Service — 
Andrew Gordon, served in the Civil War. 



[ 262 ] 



JOSEPH V. HUGHES 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of John L. and Mary E. (Ford) Hughes; was born at Brighton, 
Mass., July 15, 1894. He was educated in the public schools of 
Brighton, and at Boston College. He enlisted on July 2, 1917, at the 
MI T. In Sept., 1917, he continued his training at Wilbur Wright 
Field, Dayton, Ohio; he was transferred to Ellington Field, Hous- 
ton, Tex., in Jan., 1918. He served as Instructor at Camp Dick, 
Dallas, Tex., at Call Field, Wichita Falls, and at Love Field, Dallas. 
He was commissioned 2d Lieut, in April, 1918. In Sept., 1918, he 
sailed overseas and continued his training in France. He returned 
to the U.S. in May, 1919, and was honorably discharged in June, 
1919. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

CHARLES LESTER MORSE 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Morse, of Lancaster, N.H.; was born 
at Colebrook, N.H., June 2, 1893. He was educated in the public 
schools of Lancaster, N.H., at the Lancaster Academy, and at the 
Mass. Institute of Technology. At the Lancaster Academy he 
belonged to the baseball, basket-ball, football, and track teams, 
making a record in the 100-yard dash, and in a high jump, of five 
feet, three inches. At the M.I.T. he was a member of the class base- 
ball, football, basket-ball, and track teams, and of the 'Varsity 
basket-ball team. He enlisted in the Air Service, July 17, 1917, at 
Mineola, N.Y. He was assigned to the Cornell University Ground 
School, whence he proceeded to Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La., 
and then to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex. He was subsequently trans- 
ferred to Taliaferro Field, Fort Worth, Tex., where he was de- 
tailed as Instructor in Aerial Gunnery. He was then ordered to 
the School of Aeronautical Engineering at the M.I.T., and later to 
McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio. 



[ 264 ] 



EDWIN LAWRENCE NOBLE 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of William F. and Sarah (Savage) Noble, of Newton Centre, 
Mass.; was bora Aug. 23, 1891. He was educated at Andover 
Academy, graduating in 1912, and at Yale University, graduating 
in 1915. He enlisted in the Air Service in 1917, and trained at the 
Ground School at Columbus, Ohio. In Nov., 1917, he sailed for 
France and continued his training at Issoudun. He was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut, in May, 1918. Lieut. Noble was taken ill 
with influenza, which for a long period prevented him from flying, 
and kept him from seeing active service at the front. He was at- 
tached to the Requisition and Claims Department, and after the 
signing of the Armistice was stationed at Tours, and at Villel, 
France. He was honorably discharged in Sept., 1919. He has since 
joined the Kosciusko Escadrille in Poland, as pilot, and is en- 
gaged in fighting the Bolsheviki forces. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

Brother in Service — 
Arthur W. Noble, Corp., 302d Inf., 76th Division, A.E.F. 

ROBERT A. SLATER 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Robert and Martha (McLennon) Slater, of South Royalton, 
Vt.; was born at Charlestown, Mass., Aug. 24, 1895. After grad- 
uating from the South Royalton High School, he attended Den- 
ison University, Granville, Ohio, for one year. At both institu- 
tions he played baseball, basket-ball, and football. He enlisted in 
the Aviation Service at Boston, Mass., Oct. 14, 1917, and reported 
for active duty Dec. 15, 1917, at the M.I.T. He was transferred 
to the Ground School at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., on 
Jan. 7, 1918, and was ordered to Dallas, Tex., March 22, 1918. He 
was sent to Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., April 23, and after 
completing his training there, was commissioned 2d Lieut., Oct. 18, 
1918. He was subsequently assigned to North Island, San Diego, 
Cal., for scout flying. On Nov. 28 he took part in a flight in which 
212 planes were in the air at one time. He was honorably dis- 
charged at San Diego, Cal., Jan. 8, 1919. 



[ 266 ] 



WOLDEMAR E. CROSSCUP 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 
Killed in seaplane accident, July 6, 1918 

Born Dec. 30, 1895. He attended the Quincy (Wollaston) Grammar 
School, and Wilbraham Academy. He was later associated with 
his father in the printing business. Following the declaration of 
war, he enlisted in the Aviation Service, and was assigned to the 
Squantum Aviation Field, in May, 1917. After the breaking-up 
of the Squantum Field he was transferred to Pensacola, Fla. He 
was ordered overseas in Feb., 1918, and served in France until 
July, 1918. He was killed in a seaplane crash, on July 6, 1918, at 
Moutchic-Lacanau. He was buried at Lacanau, Gironde, France. 
(Portrait on opposite page.) 

WESLEY L. KEOUGH 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Henry Edward and Charlotte Adaline (Rogers) Keough of 
Lowell, Mass.; was born at Chelsea, Mass., Jan. 23, 1891. He grad- 
uated from the Winthrop High School, Winthrop, Mass., and from 
the Lowell Textile School in 1910. From 1911 to 1915 he served 
in K Co., 6th Inf., Mass. N.G. He enlisted at Plattsburg, N.Y., 
May 14, 1917, and attended the 1st Officers' Training Camp. He was 
then transferred to the M.I.T. Ground School, and subsequently 
served as a cadet at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex. He was commis- 
sioned 2d Lieut, on Feb. 14, 1918. He served as Instructor in flying 
at Kelly Field, and later at South Field, Americus, Ga. He was or- 
dered to Garden City, N.Y., for overseas service, but was prevented 
from sailing by the signing of the Armistice. He was then ordered to 
duty at Rockwell Field, San Diego, Cal., where at his own request 
he was discharged, Jan. 9, 1919. 



[ 268 ] 



HENRY SOUTHER 



Major, A.S., U.S.A., Signal Officers' Reserve Corps 
Died in Service, Aug. 15, 1917 
Born at Boston, Mass., Sept. 11, 1865. He was educated in the 
Boston public schools, and at the Mass. Institute of Technology, 
graduating in 1887. After leaving the M.I.T. he took post-grad- 
uate work in metallurgy in Germany, and was subsequently asso- 
ciated with the Pennsylvania Steel Co., at Steelton, Pa. He estab- 
lished a testing laboratory at Hartford, Conn., for commercial work. 
He enlisted in the U.S. Service, in 1917, and was commissioned 
Major in the Signal Officers' Reserve Corps, and was appointed 
Assistant Chief of Division of Aviation. 

Major Souther died at Fort Monroe, Va., Aug. 15, 1917, after a 
surgical operation. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

FRANK NICHOLS FERRONE 
Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Michael A. and Annie A. Ferrone, of Jamaica Plain, Mass.; 
was born at East Boston, Aug. 21, 1889. He was educated at the 
Mechanic Arts High School, Boston, and at the Thomson Houston 
Engineering School. 

He enlisted in the Naval Air Service at Boston, April 24, 1917, 
and was assigned to the Ground School, M.I.T. For flight training, 
he was sent to Pensacola, Fla. He was commissioned Ensign, 
Aug. 27, 1918, and was subsequently attached to the Naval Air 
Service Headquarters, London, Eng. 

Ensign Ferrone was placed on inactive duty at Boston, June 15, 
1919. 



[ 270 ] 



ARTHUR PARKER TEULON 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F., Attached to Two Hundred 
Twenty-Eighth Squadron, Seventy-Third Wing, R.A.F. 

Son of Arthur Mitchell and Ruth (Leavitt) Teulon, of West New- 
ton, Mass.; was born at Dorchester, Mass., Sept. 3, 1893. He gradu- 
ated from the Newton High School, where he was a member of the 
track and hockey teams; he was also a member of the swimming 
team of the Newton Y.M.C.A. 

He enlisted in the U. S. Naval Aviation Service, at the Boston 
Navy Yard, on May 23, 1917, and received his ground training at 
the M.I.T., when he was sent to Pensacola, Fla., for flying training. 
He was commissioned Ensign, Dec. 27, 1917. In Jan., 1918, he 
sailed overseas, and was stationed at Great Yarmouth, Eng., where 
he was attached to the 228th Squadron, 73d Wing, R.A.F., and en- 
gaged in patrolling and scouting over the North Sea from Jan. to 
July 1, 1918. For some time he was detained in the Naval Hospital 
with an attack of influenza. 

On Aug. 1 he was detached from the British Service and sent to 
the U.S. Naval Air Station at Lough Foyle, Ireland, where he re- 
mained as Squadron Commander until Jan. 1919. He was commis- 
sioned Lieut, (j.g.), Oct. 1, 1918. On April 7, 1919, Lieut. Teulon 
was placed on the inactive service list at Washington, D.C. He was 
cited for bravery while stationed at Pensacola, for risking his life by 
swimming out into the bay to rescue some Government property. 
In April, 1918, he was recommended for promotion for the good 
work performed in hunting the German submarines in the North 
Sea. 



[ 272 ] 



A DETACHMENT OF FIFTEEN AVIATORS 



United States Naval Reserve Flying Corps 
at Roehampton, London, England 
December, 1, 1917 

These fifteen Americans (the officer in the centre is an Englishman) en- 
tered the U.S. Service as Seamen, 2d Class, U.S. Naval Reserve, early in 
1917. 

Standing — Left to right 

Eugene I. Wolfe, Baltimore, Maryland 

Alfred Gardner, Garden City, New York 

Ralph Hawthorne Norris, Chelsea, Massachusetts 

Max J. Baehr, St. Louis, Missouri 

Donald H. Merrill, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

R. L. Piper, Jr., Tyrone, Pennsylvania 

George Dana Anderson, Somerville, Massachusetts 

Albert A. Bailey, Norfolk, Virginia 

Thomas R. Punnett, New York, New York 

Seated — Left to right 

Addison C. Burnham, Jr., Newton Centre, Massachusetts 

Thomas E. McCracken, Brooklyn, New York 

Philip J. Barnes, Minneapolis, Minnesota 

English Officer, London, England 

N. J. Learned, Elmira, Neio York 

Joseph Warren Homer, Jr., Brookline, Massachusetts 

Harrison S. Goodspeed, Grand Rapids, Michigan 

August 20th, 1917, they were enrolled in the Naval Aviation Detach- 
ment Corps, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, at that time a Ground School for Aviators. In October, 1917, 
they were sent to England, some of them going voluntarily to "learn to 
fly 'blimps'" (dirigibles). v 

They left Boston October 15, and New York, October 27, 1917. 

They were the first U.S. A viators who went in a body to England to 
become pilots and assist the Royal Naval Air Service in observation and 
convoy work off the English coast. 

(This photograph was taken December 1, 1917, by F. N. Birkett, 
London.) 



[ 274 ] 



WINGED FORCES OF THE U.S. NAVY 



By Lieutenant Clifford A. Tinker 

The building-up, from a small nucleus, of a Naval Aviation Corps 
with a personnel, in service and training, almost as large as was the 
entire Navy before the war; the building of scores of stations in 
Europe as well as in America ; the exploits of naval aviators in the 
war zone, make up one of the most interesting chapters of America's 
part in the war. 

Previous to the declaration of war, the United States Navy main- 
tained the Naval Air Station at Pensacola, Florida, with a comple- 
ment of thirty-eight naval aviators and one hundred and sixty- 
three enlisted men, with twenty-two seaplanes, five kites, and two 
free balloons. A certain amount of flight training and mechanical 
training was given at this station, but, in a word, Pensacola with 
its small personnel and material summed up most of the aviation 
activities of the United States Navy. 

The remarkable growth of the Service from April, 1917, to Armis- 
tice Day, in November, 1918, reflects the greatest credit on the 
officers in charge of Naval Aviation. 

Captain Irwin gathered around him as his aides and executives a 
group of enthusiastic naval aviators, selected from those at Pensa- 
cola, who handled the departments over which they had charge with 
extraordinary ability, and pushed the work with untiring energy, so 
much so that at the close of hostilities there had been enrolled and 
trained over fifteen hundred naval aviators, over thirteen hundred 
ground officers, and over thirty -five thousand enlisted men; and 
there were in training four thousand flight officers and ten thousand 
enlisted men. There were in commission, in round numbers, four- 
teen hundred seaplanes and airplanes and about three hundred 
lighter-than-air craft. There had been sent abroad over twelve hun- 
dred officers and nineteen thousand enlisted men for aviation, to- 
gether with three hundred and eighty-eight seaplanes, one hundred 
and forty airplanes, and forty-two kite balloons. At the close of 
hostilities there was, either in Europe or en route, a sufficient num- 
ber of seaplanes to supply all our stations abroad, and to replace 
losses and crashes which might occur during the year 1919. 

It is a fact worth recalling that the Aviation Detachment which 
left the United States in May, 1917, in charge of Commander Ken- 



[ 276 ] 



WINGED FORCES OF THE U.S. NAVY 



neth Whiting, U.S.N., was the first detachment of any American 
armed force to set foot in Europe after the United States entered the 
war. Closely following the arrival of Commander Whiting and his 
organization, Captain Hutch I. Cone and a board of officers reached 
France for the purpose of studying the types of planes in use by 
our allies and formulating methods of cooperation with the Naval 
Aviation Forces of England, France, and Italy, and our policy 
abroad was based upon the report of this board. 

At the end of the fighting the number of stations in this country 
had increased from one to seven training stations, ten patrol sta- 
tions, nine rest and refuelling stations, two experimental stations, 
and a number of additional stations for various purposes had been 
authorized and were under construction. These stations extended 
from North Sydney, Nova Scotia, to Coco Solo, Canal Zone, and a 
large station was located at San Diego, on the Pacific Coast. In 
Europe there had been established and were in commission twenty- 
eight stations, two training stations, and twelve bombing squadrons 
located in England, Ireland, France, and Italy, including a Marine 
Aviation station at the Azores. 

To the flyers themselves too much praise cannot be given. They 
are the men who, by the very nature of their duty, were called upon 
to exhibit not only the highest qualities as naval officers, but the 
utmost skill and daring as aviators. They were in competition with 
the world's best, but they did not suffer in the least by the com- 
parison. Aside from the dogged, monotonous work of patrol, they 
proved themselves heroes in action. Many of them were decorated 
by the Allied Powers of Great Britain, France, Belgium, and Italy. 

Admiral Sims sums up the place held by our naval aviators in the 
war in the following despatch sent to Washington at the cessation 
of hostilities: 

Please express to the Naval Aviators of America my most sincere appre- 
ciation of their courageous and loyal performance of duty at home and 
abroad throughout the war. Their brilliant exploits, their determination to 
win, will ever remain one of the highest tributes to American manhood. The 
performance of duty of these young Naval Aviators under my command 
has not only been in keeping with the very best traditions of our Naval 
Service, but has in addition won for America the enthusiastic praise of her 
allies. 



[ 277 ] 



WINGED FORCES OF THE U.S. NAVY 



The real measure of success of Naval Aviation was, of course, its 
ability to engage in actual war operations. This was done on a large 
scale. In home waters new stations were put into commission in or- 
der to cover by patrol all the waters threatened by the enemy sub- 
marines. These patrols covered all the important harbors and most 
of the coast from the north of Nova Scotia to the waters at the 
mouth of the Rio Grande. Each seaplane on patrol covered an 
area of three thousand square miles, and it is interesting to note 
that the total distance covered by naval coastal patrols in American 
waters during the month of August, 1918, was 360,000 miles; in 
September, 480,000 miles were covered, and in October, 465,000 
miles. 

The seaplane patrols and convoys were especially successful. 
After the installation of our seaplane patrols and during thousands 
of miles of convoy, only one ship in such convoys was ever success- 
fully attacked by enemy submarines. Prior to our patrols on the 
French coast the sinkings by the enemy submarines averaged one 
Allied ship each day, but in the ten months our patrols were active, 
only three ships were lost on the patrol area between Penmarch and 
He d'Yeu, a ninety-nine per cent reduction. Credit is given us by 
the British, French, and Italians of attacking ninety-five per cent 
of all submarines sighted on our patrols, of damaging forty-five per 
cent, and sinking twenty-five per cent of those attacked. Many 
mines were also sighted and destroyed, which is another important 
part of the work performed by our seaplanes in the war zone. 

During the Great War, in the North Sea sector, "lighter than 
air" was one of the most important fleet adjuncts in use by the 
British, and on more than one occasion their use by the Germans 
baffled the best- laid plans of the Admiralty. No less an authority 
than Admiral Jellicoe gives to the airship the credit of the German 
escape at Dogger Bank; or, if not the entire credit, then the most 
important place in the scheme of observation and intelligence used 
by the Hun in that epoch-making battle. 

The German Zeppelin was in no sense a failure. Scouting and 
observation for the High Seas Fleet was only a part of its function. 
They maintained regular patrols over the North Sea and kept a 
very close watch of the Allied navies. They made possible the 
destroyer raids on Yarmouth and other English coastal towns, 

[ 278 ] 



WINGED FORCES OF THE U.S. NAVY 



working in close touch with the Hun flotillas, giving ample in- 
formation regarding the location of the British in order that the 
attacks could be made and a get-away successfully accomplished 
before the possible arrival of the Allied ships. 

The frightful Zeppelin raids over London were a side issue with 
the German airship fleet. As soon as the British developed suf- 
ficient anti-aircraft defence to push the "Zepps" up to a high 
ceiling and make inland raids particularly dangerous, the giant 
airships were recalled to their main duty with the fleet; the Ger- 
mans being sensible in this respect that they could not afford to 
lose their supremacy in naval observation, however enticing other 
activities might be. Before the installation of the London aerial 
defences, Zeppelins were able to fly as low as 9000 feet above the 
city and plant bombs with astonishing accuracy. 

The British, early in the war, began a systematic development 
of the lighter-than-air section of the Royal Air Force. The coast 
of Scotland and England, being the most exposed portion of the 
British Isles, and also the gathering-place of the major portion of 
the Allied fleets, naturally provided the location for the large air 
stations to which airships were assigned. And at these stations 
were posted our own airship pilots, first as students, and then, as 
they progressed in skill, as pilots and captains. 

Free balloons, kite balloons, dirigibles, both non-rigid and semi- 
rigid, and the right type of airship were among the list of ships and 
lighter-than-air craft with which our pilots became experts. Para- 
chute jumping, bombing, patrolling, scout duty, convoying, navi- 
gation and signalling, and squadron manoeuvres were among the 
arduous tasks which these young men were obliged to perform, and 
they became so skilful as to excite the admiration of their com- 
manding officers as well as their comrades. 

Letter after letter of commendation and citations with decora- 
tions were won by the American lighter-than-air pilots, although 
their exploits have seemingly never come to light, but have been 
overshadowed by the speedier and more spectacular heavier-than- 
air craft. In a letter to Admiral Sims, dated June 22, 1918, Brig- 
adier-General E. M. Maitland, Superintendent of Airships, writes: 

It is desired to bring before your notice the most excellent work which 
has been done by the United States officers who are lent for training. Since 

[ 279 ] 



WINGED FORCES OF THE U.S. NAVY 



their graduation all these officers have done very useful patrol work. . . . 
The work done by Ensign Barnes has been specially noticeable; the officer, 
besides being the Captain of his ship, is also in charge of a mooring-out 
station, which is run very efficiently and to the present station's entire 
satisfaction, and it is suggested that its officer deserves to receive special 
recognition. 

Below is given the actual number of hours flown by each of these 
officers, including the times as pilot and passenger, for your information : 





Hours 


Min. 


Ensign G. D. Anderson 


368 







114 


41 




254 


20 




30 


30 




245 


35 




214 


40 




301 


10 


Ensign D. H. Merrill 


90 


45 


Ensign R. H. Norris 


143 


15 


Yours faithfully 








E. H. Maitland 



With about half the complement strength, Barnes (in May 
and June, 1918) operated the Royal Air Station at Lowthrope, 
Yorkshire, to the utmost satisfaction of the Royal Air Force, for 
which success he was named to command His Majesty's airship 
C-Star-9, and after a brilliant series of exploits with this ship he 
was further honored by the Admiralty. 

During this time Barnes was the first pilot to fly a single-engine 
airship for a period of more than twenty-four hours, winning the 
world's record by a non-stop flight of twenty-five hours and forty 
minutes. Shortly after, not being content with this record, he in- 
creased it by making a sustained flight of thirty hours and eighteen 
minutes, a feat which brought a special commendation from the 
Commanding General. While convoying ships, in which he was 
engaged for a total of more than two hundred hours without the 
loss of a single ship from any cause, Barnes destroyed nine enemy 
mines which had been planted in the ship-lanes off the British 
coast. 

[It is of interest to note in the above record of hours flown that 
Ensign G. D. Anderson heads the list, and that Ensign J. W. 
Homer ranks second in the list. Ed.] 

[ 280 ] 



*JOSEPH WARREN HOMER, Jr. 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.C. 

Died of pneumonia, Nov. 9, 1918 

Son of Joseph Warren and Constance (Smith) Homer; was born at 
Roxbury, Mass., April 11, 1897. He attended the Brookline public 
schools; the Stone School, Boston; entered the Mass. Institute of 
Technology in the class of 1919; played on his class football team, 
rowed on his class crew, was associate editor of The Tech, and mem- 
ber of S.A.E.Fraternity. On Aug. 14, 1916, he enrolled in the Civil- 
ian Naval Training Cruise on U.S.S. Virginia, returning to M.I.T. 
in Sept. to remain until Dec, when he left to enter the Potomska 
(Cotton) Mills, New Bedford. 

On June 26, 1917, he enlisted in the U.S. Naval Reserve; on Aug. 
20 he joined the Aviation Detachment at M.I.T., and in Oct. was 
one of fifteen men who volunteered to go to England to learn to 
fly "blimps" (dirigibles), sailing Oct. 27, 1917. He and his asso- 
ciates were the first U.S. aviators to land in a body in England to 
become pilots, and assist the Royal Naval Airship Service. During 
Nov. and Dec. he trained at Aviation Ground Schools at Roehamp- 
ton and Cranwell. In March, 1918, he received his Pilot's license 
and was ordered to the Royal Air Force Station, Polegate, Sussex, 
for "active duty," and engaged in observation and convoy work 
over the English Channel. He was twice lost in fog, once blown sixty 
miles north of his course, his airship being damaged after landing, 
and again blown eighty miles south, landing "for a few minutes" 
on the north coast of France. May 16, 1918, he was commissioned 
Ensign. 

On Aug. 13 he was ordered to the R.A.F. Station at Portsmouth, 
then to Howden, East Yorks, and on Aug. 23 to East Fortune, Scot- 
land, flying over the North Sea. In Oct. he returned to London, 
and engaged in studying the design and construction of airships. 
While there he was taken ill with influenza, and died of broncho- 
pneumonia at the U.S. Naval Hospital, London, on Nov. 9, 1918. 
On Dec. 24, 1918, he was buried at Mount Auburn, Cambridge, 
Mass., following an impressive memorial service conducted by the 
Rev. Abbot Peterson at Brookline, Mass. 

The following extracts from Ensign Homer's letters give an ex- 
cellent idea of the dirigible pilot's training in England: 



[ 281 ] 



JOSEPH WARREN HOMER, Jr. 



London, Sunday, Dec. 9, 1917 

We have made our solo balloon flights, and are now ready for balloon 
pilot's licenses. It was a lot of fun going up in a balloon all alone, 'way up 
over the clouds 4000 or 5000 feet where you can't see the earth or any- 
thing. That is n't high, but the balloons we use are n't much good except 
for training. From now on we will be using the real blimps. 

The other night we went up for a night flight, and went over London. 
We got home about midnight, and about three hours later the air raid of 
twenty-five gophs started. . . . 

Our job will be to escort transports and supply ships through the 
danger zone into port, we going out to meet the ships in our airships. . . . 

The real front is only about eighty miles from here, and yesterday we 
heard the guns thundering all day. . . . But you would never know there 
was a war here — it's so peaceful. . . . 

And beyond the hills the War, in all its horror of the latest enormous 
Hun offensive — I don't feel a bit like killing any one, but in a few minutes 
an orderly will report my ship ready, and I '11 slide over the hills and away 
to the Channel to hunt for U-boats. 

Polegate, May 12, 1918 
Yesterday, I went on patrol at 6 a.m. and got into the fog (we are almost 
always out of sight of land) and flew around for about four hours. I was 
just going to lay a course for home when I sighted land to the south 
where it ought not be. On investigation it was Cape Barfleur. So I. flew 
inland until I reached a French Airship Station and landed for a few 
minutes. . . . Then I went home (about eighty miles, arriving at 7 p.m. 
thirteen hours over the water). It was just a matter of sticking to it. . . . 
Coming home I laid a course, and arrived within two miles of the place 
I headed for, steering seventy miles out of the eighty by compass only, so 
you see you can get along pretty well without seeing land. . . . Am Cap- 
tain of a ship of my own now, her name is "Sea Scout Zero 39" and she 
has "S S Z 39" in enormous letters on the envelope. . . . 

Have been for five hours without seeing anything except gray sea below 
and gray fog all around — and have come home when it was so thick that 
I could n't see the station a quarter of a mile off — just had to find 
the beach, then find the town I knew, then follow roads and railways about 
a hundred feet off the ground until I got to the station. 

On Sept. 8, 1918, he wrote from East Fortune, where he had been 
made 3d Officer of the R 29: 

Skipped all intervening types of ships and have gone from the smallest 
to the largest ship in the service. The CO. of my ship is a peach of a boy 
and I 'm all happy. It seems funny to go to bed a thousand feet up in the 
air! But very nice. . . . We do patrols of one or two days usually. . . . 

Previous to this, his Commanding Officer had written on Aug. 17: 
[ 282 ] 



JOSEPH WARREN HOMER, Jr. 



Group Headquarters, Royal Air Force 
Warsash, Hants 

My dear Ensign Homer, 

It is with much regret that you leave this Command to go to bigger 
ships. However, it is all for your good, and that is the only consolation 
that I have personally. During the time you have been under my com- 
mand at Polegate and the Mooring-out Stations you have set a very high 
example in all-round efficiency in anti-submarine patrols and you are 
destined to do big things, I think, before this war is over. Au revoir, and 
the best of good luck go with you. I am 

Yours very sincerely 

Fraser 
Lt.-CoL, R.A.F. 

On Sept. 20, Homer wrote from East Fortune to Lieut. W. A. 
Edwards, U.S.N., Aide for Aviation, Grosvenor Gardens, London, 
saying: 

I am getting a good deal of experience in the handling of the Rigid, but 
Major Thomas thinks that I could learn more of the construction by 
going for short periods to other stations devoted entirely to constructional 
work; especially to Barlow, where the new R 34 is building, and to White 
City where the fabric work is done. 

On Oct. 8 lie was ordered to Wormwood Scrubbs, London, where 
he had an opportunity to follow the construction of the R 34, des- 
tined to make the famous trans- Atlantic flight. And it is of interest 
to note that when this British airship landed at Roosevelt Field, 
one of its officers conveyed a message of sympathy to the parents 
of Ensign Homer, testifying to the appreciation of those that had 
trained with their son in England. 

The final extract is Ensign Homer's description of a sunrise 
viewed from the air: 

The sunrise over the clouds is gorgeous — sublime — incomparable — 
untenable. One does n't feel very poetic after one has been out in the 
darkness and fog all night — but when the sun rises and lights up the tops 
of the mist one forgets the war, the cold, the cramped legs, and glories 
in the beauty of the scene. The sun comes up out of its cloud of gray, 
turning it to a shell-pink. Then, as it climbs higher, it sets the whole sea 
of clouds sparkling and seething — a myriad of rainbows, a mass of 
majestic, rolling, heaving beauty. There is no use in my trying to explain 
it — one must be in it and surrounded by it — the only bit of humanity 
in all the vast firmament — then only can it be appreciated. 

[ 284 ] 



DONALD T. HOOD 

Lieutenant, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Frederic C. and Myra (Tucker) Hood; was born at Brook- 
line, Mass., Feb. 13, 1893. He was fitted for college at St. George's 
School, Newport, R.I., and in 1914 graduated from Harvard Col- 
lege, where he had acted as manager of the Harvard baseball team. 
He attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg, N.Y., in 
Aug., 1916. 

He enrolled at Washington, D.C., on Nov. 20, 1917, as Lieut, 
(j.g.). He was ordered to Akron, Ohio, where he was put in charge 
of the construction and testing of lighter-than-air craft for the 
Navy. He qualified as a Naval Aviator on June 28, 1918, and was 
a member of the first crew to make the flight from Akron to the 
Atlantic Coast. He was promoted to Lieut, on Oct. 1, 1918, and was 
released from active service on March 4, 1919. 

Lieut. Hood has kindly written the account of the lighter-than- 
air construction which follows: 

Lighter- than- Air Construction in the United States 

Lighter-than-air construction in this country previous to the war had 
consisted, as far as the Navy was concerned, in one non-rigid dirigible 
balloon, the DN 1, which was built about 1914, and used at the Naval 
Air Station, Pensacola, Florida, and several kite and free balloons. 

When the United States entered the war it had had practically no ex- 
perience with lighter-than-air craft, whereas Germany had developed it 
to a very marked degree with their rigid airships previous to the war, and 
England had led the Allies in development during the war, with France 
and Italy following. 

The first dirigibles built during the war were approximately 160 feet 
long by 35 feet in diameter, having a capacity of 77,000 cubic feet, and a 
displacement of about 5400 pounds. The fuselage used in these first diri- 
gibles was taken from a standard Navy training seaplane, using a single 
100-horse-power Curtiss motor, which gave the dirigible speed of about 
forty-eight miles an hour, an endurance of about ten hours at full speed, 
and a ceiling of about 6000 feet. 

During the war about twenty of these dirigibles were built, and all used 
in this country at our Naval Air Stations for patrol purposes. At first, 
due to lack of experience both in construction and operation, many diffi- 
culties were encountered, but as the manufacturers had more experience 
in the construction of dirigibles and the Navy more experience in their 
operation this first type of dirigibles became very successful and was 
used to great advantage. 

[ 285 ] 



DONALD T. HOOD 



The main objection to the first dirigibles was their almost certain loss 
if serious motor trouble developed, since they had only one motor, and at 
most of our coastal stations on the Atlantic Coast there is a prevailing 
westerly wind which would drive them out to sea in case the motor stopped. 

Early in 1918 plans for a twin-engine dirigible were got out and the 
first dirigible was flown successfully in the late summer of the same year. 
This dirigible was about 192 feet long, 41 feet in diameter, had a capacity 
of approximately 180,000 cubic feet, and a displacement of about 12,600 
pounds; a maximum speed of about 60 miles an hour; a cruising speed of 
about 45 miles an hour, carrying two 150-horse-power motors, and had 
considerable bomb equipment and complete wireless installation. The car 
was especially built for dirigibles, being about 40 feet long, and provided 
space for five to seven men with available space which could be used for 
bunks or storage. The two motors were mounted on outriggers amidships 
of the car. 

The first dirigible C 1 was built and tried out at Akron, and after being 
successfully tested was flown from Akron to the Naval Air Station at 
Rockaway Beach, N.Y., with a stop at Washington. This was the first suc- 
cessful long flight over land made in a dirigible in this country, although 
this same flight had been twice attempted before. This same dirigible was 
used at the Naval Air Station at Rockaway for several months, and was 
then flown by three stages to the Naval Air Station, Key West, Florida. 
Several duplicates of the C 1 were built and it was planned to fly one of 
them, the C 5, across the ocean. 

Kite balloons, which were built in large numbers, and used for observa- 
tion purposes from battleships, destroyers, and smaller craft, formed a 
most important part of the Navy's lighter-than-air programme. 

Free balloons, which were built in small quantities, were used in ele- 
mentary flight training by all lighter-than-air officers in order to instruct 
them in the effects of varying atmospheric conditions upon a balloon. The 
free balloon consists of a spherical envelope around which a net is placed 
which supports a basket, and the balloon having no propelling forces, 
moves with the wind, and can only be controlled up or down by throwing 
over ballast or valving gas. Training in free balloons was essential, as the 
effects of varying atmospheric conditions on the gas in the envelope are 
the largest factors in the operation of lighter-than-air craft. Also, when 
the motor of a dirigible stops or a kite balloon breaks away, they both 
become essentially free balloons and must be treated as such. 

Akron was really the centre of balloon manufacturing and development 
because of the rubber companies situated there. The companies were the 
logical manufacturers of lighter-than-air craft, because a balloon envelope 
is made of a rubberized light-weight cloth or silk, and the development of 
this fabric is of utmost importance. 

The Navy purchased and built a station near by Akron for test and 
construction purposes where the dirigibles were assembled and tested. 



[ 286 ] ' 



GEORGE DANA ANDERSON 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of James Robb and Katharine Dana Anderson, of Somerville, 
Mass. ; was born at Denver, Col., June 6, 1895. He attended the 
Somerville public schools, and entered the Mass. Institute of Tech- 
nology, where he remained for two years. He took three years at 
Boston University, being granted leave of absence in May, 1917, to 
enlist. He trained with the R.O.T.C., and on June 30, 1917, en- 
rolled as seaman, second class, in the U.S.N.R.F., and was ordered 
to the Naval Aviation Ground School at M.I.T., where he trained 
until ordered overseas Oct. 20, 1917. 

On reaching London he was sent to Roehampton, for kite bal- 
loon and dirigible training, and from there, on Dec. 10, he was or- 
dered to the Royal Naval Air Station, Cranwell, Lincolnshire. On 
Feb. 20, 1918, he was sent to the Royal Naval Air Station at East 
Fortune, Scotland, where his duties consisted of fleet reconnaissance, 
anti-submarine work, and convoy duty. He was commissioned En- 
sign, with Pilot's license, in March, 1918. 

After a few weeks as Second Officer, at East Fortune, he acted as 
Captain of one of the ships at this station, where he remained for 
seven months. In Oct., 1918, he was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.), and 
was ordered to the Royal Naval Construction Station, at Kings- 
north, for a course in designs and the rigging of airships. On Nov. 15 
he was sent to the U.S. Naval Aviation Headquarters, London, and 
attached to the Bureau of Construction; there he did special work on 
repairs and testing, and on parachutes, being one of two men who 
volunteered for, and actually made two daring parachute jumps. 

On April 1, 1919, Lieut. Anderson was ordered to Washington, 
D.C., for duty in the Office of Naval Operations. On Sept. 1, 1919, 
he was appointed Aide for Aviation Recruiting. He performed ap- 
proximately 500 hours of patrol duty during the war. He is still in 
the Service. 



[ 288 1 



RALPH H. NORRIS 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F.C. 

Son of Charles H. and Elizabeth M. Norris; was born at Chelsea, 
Mass., March 29, 1892. He attended the Chelsea public schools and 
Sanborn Seminary, and graduated from Dartmouth College. 

He enlisted in May, 1917, in the U.S.N.R.F.C. at Boston, Mass., 
and was assigned to the Naval Aviation School at M.I.T., where he 
received instruction in the main rudiments of dirigible and balloon 
work. Upon completing this course he" was ordered overseas to 
London, Oct. 20, 1917, and thence to Roehampton for kite balloon 
and dirigible training with the Royal Naval Air Service, where he 
qualified as a Free Balloon Pilot. On Dec. 10, 1918, he was assigned 
to the Royal Naval Air Station at Cranwell, Lincolnshire, to qual- 
ify as a Dirigible Pilot. He was commissioned Ensign, March, 1918, 
and Lieut, (j.g.) in Sept., 1918. 

He was assigned to the Royal Naval Air Service Station at Tern- 
broke, Wales; from there he went to Mullion, Cornwall, and thence 
to the U.S. Naval Air Station at Paimbceuf, France, for dirigible 
duty in connection with the location of enemy submarines. He is 
credited with two Hun submarines. 

Lieut. Norris returned to the U.S. on Dec. 15, 1918, being as- 
signed duty at Montauk Point, N.Y., in charge of the C 4 and two 
smaller dirigibles. He represented the Naval Air Service at Mineola, 
during the landing of the British trans-Atlantic dirigible R 34. He 
has been assigned to the North Island Naval Air Station, Cal., 
where he is still in Service. 

Married, June 25, 1917, Erdine L. Gay. 

Brother in Service — 

Clarence W. Norris, Sergeant, U.S.A., Permanent Detach- 
ment, Overseas Casual, Oct. 5, 1917, to March, 1919. 



[ 290 ] 



ARTHUR DOUGLAS BREWER 



Lieutenant, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Clifford M. and Harriette W. Brewer; was born at Medford, 
Mass., May 4, 1896. He was educated at Medford High School, 
Phillips Exeter Academy, and at Harvard College, class of 1919. 

He enlisted on May 21, 1917, at the Charlestown Navy Yard, in 
U.S.N.R.F. From June to Sept., 1917, he studied at the Goodyear 
Balloon School, Akron, Ohio. He was commissioned Ensign on 
Oct. 27, 1917, and ordered to overseas duty. In France he trained 
at U.S.N. Air Station, Paimbceuf, France, from Nov., 1917, to 
Oct. 31, 1918, where he did excellent convoy and patrol work in a 
zone mined and patrolled by the enemy. He was attached to the 
Naval Air Station at Guipavas, from Nov. 1 to Nov. 23, 1918. He 
was commissioned Lieut, (j.g) on March 23, 1918, and Lieut, on 
Oct. 1, 1918. He was ordered back to the U.S. and stationed at 
Bay Shore, N.Y., from Dec. 6, 1918, to Jan. 8, 1919. He was then 
sent to U.S. Naval Air Station at Chatham, on Jan. 11, 1919, as 
Dirigible Officer. 

Lieut. Brewer was cited by the French Government, and by the 
U.S. Government. 

Citations 

{From copy of French citation) 

I have the honor to inform you that following the ascension of twenty- 
five hours and forty-three minutes made on the 27th of April, 1918, by 
Dirigible AT 1, at the American Dirigible Centre at Paimbceuf, during a 
wind of five to twelve metres, and in a zone mined and patrolled, I have 
decided to record an official statement of satisfaction to: 
Lieutenant Culbert, Commanding 
Ensign Deleno 
Ensign Brewer 
Ensign MacCracken, and to the crew of the AT 1 
with the following motive : 

Have given proof, during the course of an ascension of twenty-five 
hours and forty-three minutes, which constitutes by its duration a re- 
markable performance, of the most excellent qualities of endurance, of 
energy, of sang-froid, and technical ability. 

(Signed) Vice-Admiral Salaun 

Director-General of Submarine Warfare 



[ 292 ] 



ARTHUR DOUGLAS BREWER 



(From Bureau of Navigation, Washington, D.C.) 

To Lieut, (j.g.) A. D. Brewer, U.S.N.R.F. 

The Bureau is pleased to quote below a communication received from 
Vice-Admiral Salaun, Director-General Submarine Warfare, French Re- 
public, commending you for the performance of the Dirigible AT 1, follow- 
ing the ascension made on April 27, 1918. (Then follows quotation of 
French citation.) A copy of this letter will be filed with your official effi- 
ciency record. 

(Signed) Hanis Laning 

Chief of Bureau 

DONALD HERSEY MERRILL 

Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Ernest W. and Helen L. (Hersey) Merrill; was born at Som- 
erville, Mass., Jan. 22, 1896. He attended the public schools of 
Somerville, and in the fall of 1916 entered Tufts College, taking an 
engineering course. Early in 1917 he enlisted in the U.S. Naval 
Reserve, and during the summer was engaged in road construction 
at Camp Devens, and also worked for the Mass. Highway Com- 
mission. About Aug. 20 he entered the Naval Aviation Ground 
School at M.I.T., as a member of Flight C, and on graduation in 
Oct., 1917, was one of fifteen men sent to England for training. 

He was in active service in England, engaged in patrolling the 
west coast in search of submarines, until July, 1918, when he was 
sent to France and stationed at Paimbceuf . He was commissioned 
Ensign while in England, and Lieut, (j.g.) after his arrival in France. 
He returned to the U.S., June 22, 1919, and after a short furlough 
was sent to Norfolk, Va. In the middle of Aug. he was transferred to 
Panama, where he was stationed at last accounts. 

Married, Aug. 9, 1919, Marion Roop, of Arlington, Mass. 



[ 294 ] 



* KENNETH MacLEISH 



Lieutenant, U.S.N.R.F.C., Northern Bombing Group 
Killed in action, Oct. 14, 1918 

Son of Andrew and Martha (Hillard) MacLeish; was born in Glen- 
coe, III., Sept. 19, 1894, of distinguished New England ancestry. He 
prepared for college at the Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, Conn., and 
at Treat's Tutoring School, Helenwood, Tenn. He entered Yale Col- 
lege in the class of 1918. He was a member of the freshman and 
'Varsity track teams, and of the 'Varsity water polo team. 

Before the U.S. entered the war, he associated himself with a 
group of Yale men whose purpose was to establish a naval flying 
corps to be placed at the service of the Government in case of war. 
He enlisted in the Naval Reserve Flying Corps, as an electrician, 
second class, on March 24, 1917, and late in March left college for 
West Palm Beach, Fla., for training in the use of hydroplanes. In 
June he finished his training at Huntington, N.Y., where he was 
commissioned Ensign in Aug. 1917, and served as Officer Instruc- 
tor at Langley Field, Norfolk, Va. He sailed overseas in Oct., 1917, 
to France, and was detailed for a brief time as Instructor; then as- 
signed to important inspection work at the Navy Assembly and 
Repair Bases. From the middle of Dec, 1917, to the middle of 
March, 1918, he trained at Moutchic-Lacanau, France, Eastleigh 
and Gosport, Eng., and at Turnberry and Ayr, Scotland. He was 
ordered to the front, March 27, 1918, on a chasse machine at- 
tached to the British Naval Air Service. He received a commis- 
sion as Lieut, (j.g.) on June 23, 1918, and was promoted to Lieut, 
in Aug., 1919. From April 20 to May 24, 1918, he was attached 
to the U.S. Naval Air Station at Dunkirk. Most of his flights at 
this time were made with the British Royal Air Force, against the 
enemy submarine bases at Zeebrugge and Ostend, the object being 
not only to damage the mole and harbor works, but also to catch 
the submarines as they came out at high tide. On May 24 he was 
transferred to the 7th A.I.C. at Clermont-Ferrand for a course at the 
U.S. Aviation Bombing School. In the middle of July Lieut. Mac- 
Leish returned to Flanders and flew a two-seater bombing machine 
with the British R.A.F. in raids upon Zeebrugge, Bruges, and other 
points behind the enemy lines. Early in Sept. he returned to East- 
leigh, Eng., where he became the First Flight Officer. Early in Oct., 



[ 295 ] 



KENNETH MacLEISH 



1918, he declined a furlough to return for a few weeks to the U.S., 
and applied for the opportunity to go to the front with the famous 
British Combat Squadron No. 213, R.A.F., in the great offensive 
which the Allies were just beginning in Flanders. On Oct. 13 he 
was given permission to join this Squadron, and on the morning 
of Oct. 14, 1918, he went out over the lines bringing down an 
enemy plane. In the afternoon of the same day he went out, and was 
seen to bring down a second enemy plane, and then, with assist- 
ance, a third enemy plane. At this juncture he and his British com- 
panions were attacked by Germans in numbers three to one. Mac- 
Leish headed right into the enemy and was heavily engaged, when 
his five comrades, seeing his desperate position, turned to help 
him. Four of the British were brought down immediately, but Lieut. 
MacLeish and the Flight Commander fought off the Germans in a 
running fight of sixteen miles, at the conclusion of which the Com- 
mander was brought down in flames and MacLeish killed in the 
air, over Schoorl, Belgium. Not until Dec. 26, 1918, was his body 
found by the owner of the Belgian farm in Leffinghe, where he 
fell. He is buried where he fell, his grave marked by a headstone 
brought over by his comrades of the U.S.N.B.F.C. The Royal Air 
Force has planned a permanent memorial to mark the spot. 
The night before he left for the front Lieut. McLeish wrote: 

If I find it necessary to make the supreme sacrifice, always remember 
this — - 1 am so firmly convinced that the ideals I am going to fight for 
are right and splendid that I am happy to be able to give so much for 
them. I could not have any self-respect, I could not consider myself a 
man, if I saw these ideals defeated when it lies in my power to defend them. 
So I have no fears; I have no regrets; I have only to thank God for such 
a wonderful opportunity to serve Him and the world. No, if I must make 
the supreme sacrifice I will do it gladly 'and I will do it honorably and 
bravely, as your son should, and the life that I lay down will be my pre- 
paration for the grander, finer life that I shall take up. I shall live! You 
must not grieve. I shall be supremely happy — so must you — not that 
I have "gone West," but that I have bought such a wonderful life at so 
small a price and paid for it gladly. 

Brothers in Service — 

Norman Hillard MacLeish, 2d Lieut., 53d F.A. 
Archibald MacLeish, Capt., 146th F.A. 

[ 296 ] 



RICHARD L. COOLEY 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Levi and Agnes (Stimson) Cooley; was born at Newtonville, 
Mass., Aug. 10, 1895. He fitted for college at the Mitchell Military 
School, and at Phillips Exeter Academy, and entered Dartmouth 
with the class of 1918. 

On May 5, 1917, he left college to enter the American Ambulance 
Field Service, sailing for France with the first Dartmouth Unit. He 
returned to this country in Oct., 1917, and enlisted in Naval Avia- 
tion, Nov. 20, 1917, at Boston, Mass. He was called to active duty 
Feb. 18, 1918. 

While training at the Ground School, M.I.T., he was drafted for 
lighter-than-air service, and sent to the Naval Air Station, Akron, 
Ohio, April 27, 1918. After a preliminary course in lighter-than-air 
work, he was assigned to Pensacola, Fla., for dirigible training, 
June 20, 1918. He received his commission as Ensign, Aug. 22, 1918, 
and acted as an Instructor at Pensacola. In Oct., 1918, he was 
placed in charge of bombing instruction in the lighter-than-air 
section. At the end of Oct., he was recommended for junior lieu- 
tenancy. 

He was returned to inactive duty, Dec. 9, 1918. He received pro- 
motion to Lieut, (j.g-), March 1, 1919; commission to date back to 
Jan. 1, 1919. 



[ 298 ] 



* CLYDE NORTON PALMER 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Northern Bombing Group 
Killed in accident, Sept. 14, 1918 
Son of Winfield H. and Mary E. (McGrath) Palmer; was born at 
Maiden, Mass., May 17, 1897. He was educated at the Maiden High 
School, and at the Wentworth Institute, graduating in 1917. He 
attended the Plattsburg Training Camp in July, 1916. 

In Aug., 1917, he enlisted in the U.S.N.R.F. at Boston, Mass.; 
trained at M.I.T., and later at Pensacola, Fla. He was sent over- 
seas in April, 1918, having received his commission as Ensign in 
Feb., 1918. He trained in France until June, at Moutchic-Lacanau, 
Gironde. He was then sent to Italy to train for night bombing with 
Caproni machines, at Malpensa. Ensign Palmer was brevetted in 
Italy in July, 1918, and was made First Pilot in the same month. 
After finishing his training, he was sent on a special mission, to test 
out and pilot a new 600-horse-power Caproni bombing-machine, 
ordered by the U.S. In this machine he flew from Milan over the 
Alps to Paris. The flight was made in seven hours, actual flying 
time, with landings at Turin, Lyons, Dijon, and Paris. From Paris 
he was ordered to the Northern Bombing Group, Field A. 

He was killed in an accident at St. -Ingle vert, France, on Sept. 14, 
1918, and was buried in the Military Cemetery at Calais, France. 

Married, March 23, 1918, Dorothy Keniston. 



[ 300 ] 



WILLIAM PENN WHITEHOUSE, Second 



Lieutenant, U.S.N. A.F. ; Chief Pilot, U.S. Naval Am 
Station, Paimboeuf, Fkance 

Son of Eobert Treat and Florence (Brooks) Whitehouse; was born 
in Portland, Me., on Aug. 9, 1895. He graduated from Harvard 
College in 1917. 

He volunteered for Naval Aviation at the Charlestown Navy 
Yard on April 16, 1917, and was at once assigned to the Dirigible 
Training Camp at Akron, Ohio. After six months' training, he was 
graduated as a balloonist and Dirigible Pilot, being among the first 
six officers qualified for that service in America. He received his 
commission as Ensign on Oct. 31, and in Nov., 1917, was ordered 
overseas. 

He was stationed at Rochfort-sur-Mer, France, where he re- 
mained for two months, and from there he was transferred to 
Paimboeuf on the south side of the Loire River, where the largest 
lighter-than-air station on the coast of France was situated. There 
he organized the first meteorological weather bureau station for air 
service on the coast of France. Subsequently he was sent to England 
to make a special study of aviation gunnery at the leading English 
stations. On his return to Paimboeuf, he was detailed to patrol the 
coast for submarines and convoy the transports to the port of St.- 
Nazaire. He was one of the officers on the dirigible ordered to con- 
voy the George Washington with President Wilson on board, into 
the port of Brest. He was promoted to Lieut, (j.g.) on March 29, 
1918, and to Lieut, on Oct. 1, 1918. For the last four months of the 
war Lieut. Whitehouse was Chief Pilot at Paimboeuf. Before he 
left for the U.S., he was appointed to compile the history of all the 
American Naval Air Stations in France. 

Lieut. Whitehouse was given his inactive service papers at the 
U.S.N. Air Station, Bay Shore, N.Y., on March 28, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 
Robert Treat Whitehouse, Jr., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.C., U.S.N. 
Air Station, Le Croisic, France. 



[ 302 ] 



ROBERT TREAT WHITEHOUSE, Jr. 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.C., U.S.N. Am Station, Le Croisic, France 

Son of Robert Treat and Florence (Brooks) Whitehouse; was born 
at Portland, Me., Jan. 10, 1897. He was educated at Phillips Exeter 
Academy, and at Harvard College. At college he was a member of 
the 1919 cross-country team, and belonged to the Harvard R.O.T.C. 
During his sophomore year he enlisted at Newport, R.I., on May 11, 

1917, in the U.S. Naval Reserve, for active duty on patrol boats. 
On Oct. 1, 1917, he was transferred to Naval Aviation, and assigned 
to the Ground School, M.I.T., with Flight 6. On Dec. 1, 1917, he 
was sent to the Naval Air Station, at Hampton Roads, Va., for 
flying instruction. He was later ordered to Pensacola, Fla., for 
further training. 

He was commissioned Ensign, N.R.F.C., on Feb. 12, 1918, and 
sailed overseas in March. He was then assigned to the Naval Air 
Station at Moutchic-Lacanau, France, for a four months' course on 
seaplane piloting and bombing. Subsequently he was transferred to 
the Naval Air Station at Le Croisic, on the northwest coast of 
France, at the mouth of the Loire River, near St.-Nazaire, the port 
at which a large portion of the American troops disembarked. Here 
he was on active submarine patrol duty from July 11 to Dec. 12, 

1918, as seaplane pilot, flying the (French) Tellier type of seaplane, 
convoying Allied ships, patrolling, and bombing submarines. He 
returned to the U.S. on Dec. 24, 1918, and was placed on inactive 
duty in the U.S. Naval Air Force, Jan. 9, 1919. He then completed 
his course at Harvard College. 

Brother in Service — 

William Penn Whitehouse, 2d Lieut. U.S.N.A.F., Chief Pilot, 
U.S. Naval Air Station, Paimboeuf, France. 



[ 304 ] 



ALBERT CUSHING READ 



Lieutenant-Commander, NC 4, A.S., U.S.N. 

Son of the Rev. and Mrs. Joseph B. Read; was born at Lyme, N.H., 
in 1887. He attended the public schools at Lyme, and later the 
Whitman High School, Whitman, Mass., from which he graduated 
in 1903. He was immediately appointed to the Naval Academy at 
Annapolis, and graduated with high honors. 

As an Ensign, he saw considerable service on various battleships 
and cruisers. In 1908 he was sent to the Pacific Station, serving 
there until 1911, when he was ordered home from Nagasaki, Japan. 
In July, 1915, when interest in Aviation was being stimulated by 
the Great War, he was sent to the aeronautical station at Pensa- 
cola, Fla., for a course in Aviation. At that time he held the rank of 
Lieut. In May, 1916, he was detached from the Aviation Service and 
sent to the battleship North Carolina, but he was ordered back to 
air work again in June, 1917, when he was placed in charge of the 
Air Station at Bay Shore, N.Y.; he was then a Lieut.-Commander. 
When the battleship North Carolina was equipped with hydro- 
planes for experimental flights from the decks, Lieut.-Commander 
Read and Lieut.-Commander Bellinger were assigned, with others, 
for special service, and visited the Navy Yard at Portsmouth, N.H. 
While he was there, Lieut.-Commander Read had an accident : his 
plane fell, and he was thrown into the water, but escaped injury. 
Subsequently, he served at several naval air stations, including those 
at Rockaway Beach, Montauk, Garden City, and Port Washing- 
ton, N.Y. 

While he was stationed on Long Island during the war, he was in 
charge of a number of important tactical air manoeuvres, and made 
many flights offshore while the German submarines menaced the 
coast. At this time he was also on the staff of the Chief of Naval 
Operations at Washington, and was detached for temporary duty 
in connection with the camouflaging of seaplanes at Hampton 
Roads, Va- 
in March, 1919, he was selected to command one of the three 
NC planes in the first trans-Atlantic flight, and joined Commander 
John Henry Towers and Lieut.-Commander Patrick Nelson Lynch 
Bellinger at Rockaway. On May 8 he left Rockaway at 10.04 a.m. 
in the NC 4 for Halifax, N.S., but was forced down off Chatham, 



[ 306 ] 



ALBERT CUSHING READ 



Mass., by motor trouble. His plane rode the sea all night, and put 
in at Chatham Bay in the morning. On May 14 he left Chatham for 
Halifax at 9.05 a.m., arriving at 1.15 p.m., flying 340 miles in 4 
hours and 10 minutes. On May 15 he left Halifax for Trepassey at 
9.52 a.m., but was compelled to land on the water thirty minutes 
later, at Storey Head. The NC 4 arose again at 11.47, and arrived at 
Trepassey at 5.37 p.m., having made a flight of 461 miles in 8 hours 
and 45 minutes elapsed time, or 6 hours and 20 minutes actual fly- 
ing time. On May 16 he left Trepassey for Ponta Delgada, Azores, 
at 6.07 p.m., arriving at Horta, Azores, at 9.25 a.m., on May 17, 
and completing a journey of 1200 miles in 15 hours and 18 minutes. 
On May 20 he left Horta for Ponta Delgada at 8.40 a.m., arriving 
at 10.24 a.m., and making the trip of 150 miles in 1 hour and 45 
minutes. He was held up for a week by bad weather, but on May 
27 left Ponta Delgada for Lisbon at 6.18 a.m., arriving at 4.01 p.m., 
flying 800 miles in 9 hours and 43 minutes. On May 30 he left Lis- 
bon for England at 1.24 a.m., but, after flying 100 miles, was forced 
to land at the mouth of the Mondego River on account of engine 
trouble. He resumed flight at 9.38 a.m., and arrived at Ferrol, 
Spain, at 12.45 p.m., having travelled 330 miles in 11 hours and 21 
minutes elapsed time. On May 31 he left Ferrol at 2.27 a.m., ar- 
riving at Plymouth, Eng., at 9.26 a.m., flying 475 miles in 6 hours 
and 59 minutes, and completing the trans-Atlantic voyage, the 
first successful venture of its kind in the world's history. 



[ 307 ] 



GEORGE CHURCH 



Chief Quartermaster, U.S.N.R.F., Balloon Section 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. John H. C. Church; was born at Great Bar- 
rington, Mass., Nov. 26, 1896. He graduated from the Berkshire 
School, Sheffield, Mass., in 1915, and attended the Sheffield Scien- 
tific School, Yale, class of 1918. 

He enlisted on April 16, 1917, at Newport, R.I. Until Oct. 29, 

1917, he was in active service with the Naval Reserve, driving a car 
for a medical officer. From Feb. 18, 1918, to April 29, 1918, he 
trained at the Naval Aviation Ground School, M.I.T. From April 
30, 1918, to May 2, 1918, he trained at Akron, Ohio. On May 2, 

1918, on his first balloon flight, he was thrown from the car when it 
struck a tree, and his back was broken. He was on sick-leave from 
May 2 to June 12, 1918, at the hospital in Warren, Ohio, and was 
honorably discharged on Oct. 25, 1918. He is still living, but help- 
less, at his home in Great Barrington, Mass., being paralyzed from 
the waist down. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

EDWARD ROGERS HASTINGS, Jr. 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Edward Rogers and Caroline Bartlett (Tirrell) Hastings, 
of Milton, Mass.; was born at South Weymouth, Mass., June 19, 
1893. He was educated at Milton Academy and at Harvard College. 
He enlisted at Cambridge, Mass., on Nov. 12, 1917, and was 
assigned to the M.I.T. Ground School, where he remained from 
Nov. 24, 1917, to Jan. 6, 1918. He was then transferred to Prince- 
ton, N.J., where he was stationed from Jan. 6 to Feb. 2, 1918. He 
received further training at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., from Feb. 2 
to April 1; at Chanute Field, Rantoul, 111., from April 1 to July 2; 
and at Brooks Field, San Antonio, Tex., from July 20 to Sept. 7. 
He was subsequently ordered to Call Field, Wichita Falls, Tex., 
where he remained from Sept. 7, 1918, until Jan. 3, 1919, instruct- 
ing, and transporting aerial mail. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, 
at Chanute Field, June 12, 1918, and appointed Instructor. He 
was honorably discharged on Jan. 3, 1919, at Call Field. 



[ 308 ] 



GEORGE RICHMOND FEARING, Jr. 

Lieutenant-Commander, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of George R. and Harriet (Graves) Fearing, of Boston, Mass. ; 
was born in New York City, Feb. 20, 1871. He attended the Cutler 
Preparatory School, N.Y., graduated from Harvard College, A.B. 
1893, and from the Harvard Law School. He was a member of the 
Harvard track team four years, football team one year, crew one 
year, and was once U.S. champion in court tennis, and five times at 
racquets (doubles). 

He attended the First Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg, 
and in Feb., 1916, enlisted in the Mass. Naval Militia, Aviation 
Section, and trained at Marblehead, Mass., receiving instruction 
in Aviation at Misery Island for two weeks in Sept., 1916. 

Early in 1917 he was elected to the Mass. Public Safety Com- 
mittee, as head of Aviation Section of Committee on Naval Affairs. 
This committee examined about 1000 candidates for U.S. Naval 
Aviation, accepting about 350, who entered the Naval Reserve 
Flying Corps. On May 7, 1917, he enrolled in U.S.N.R.F. as En- 
sign, having resigned from the Mass. Naval Militia on the same day. 

He was ordered overseas Aug. 16, 1917, to Paris; from there he 
was ordered to Houstin, Gironde, aFrench flying school, and placed 
in charge of the American aviators in training there. About Nov. 1 
he was transferred to Paris to the U.S. Naval Aviation Head- 
quarters. 

He was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.) as of Feb. 1, 1918; and Lieut, 
as of March 23, 1918. Lieut. Fearing was made liaison officer with 
U.S. Air Service; also one of executive committee of five of Naval 
Aviation; in addition, he served as a Naval member of the Foreign 
Committee of Aircraft Production Board while it functioned; he 
was subsequently made Chief of Aviation, U.S. Naval Aviation 
Foreign Service. He removed to London when the U.S. Naval Avia- 
tion Headquarters was transferred, and acted as head of the Plan- 
ning Section there. He was promoted to Lieut.-Commander, as of 
Sept. 30, 1918. Returning to the U.S., Lieut. -Com. Fearing was 
placed on inactive duty, Jan. 14, 1919. 

Married, March, 1897, Hester Sullivan Cochrane. 



[ 310 ] 



HENRY FORSTER 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Northern Bombing Group 

Son of Frederick Prentiss and Edith (Allen) Forster, of Milton, 
Mass.; was born in New York City, March 21, 1889. He was edu- 
cated at Groton School, Groton, Mass., and at Harvard College, 
A.B. 1911. At Harvard he rowed on the freshman eight-oared crew 
in 1908, and on the 'Varsity f oar-oared crew in 1909 and 1910. Pre- 
vious to the war he served two and a half years in Squadron A, 
Cavalry, National Guard, N.Y., and six months in the 2d Battal- 
ion, Naval Militia, N.Y. 

He enlisted in the French Army Aviation Service on June 21, 
1917, and was assigned to the Lafayette Flying Corps. He trained 
at Avord, France, from June 22 to Nov. 24, 1917, graduating as 
"Caporal Pilote" on Nov. 1, 1917. He was then ordered to Pau, 
where he remained from Nov. 27 to Dec. 17, 1917. On Dec. 19 he 
was transferred to the Aviation Depot at Plessis-Belleville and 
stayed there until Jan. 27, 1918. From April to July, 1918, he served 
at the front on patrol duty. After he had spent the required number 
of hours over the enemy's lines, he was promoted to "Sergent 
Pilote" on May 16, 1918. He worked with Division Nieuport and 
Spad, and on June 1, 1918, was attached to Escadrille, C 74, Sec- 
tion Spad, Br. 224, Section Spad, Spa 102, and Spa 15, G.C. 13. 

He was transferred to the U.S.N.R.F., with an Ensign's com- 
mission, on July 19, 1918. He served at the Dunkirk Station from 
Aug. 8 to 24, 1918, and then attended the Bombing School at Bos- 
combe, Devon, Eng., from Sept. 7 to Oct. 22, 1918, learning to fly 
big machines. He was then ordered to Calais, France, with the 
Northern Bombing Group. He was honorably discharged at Boston, 
Mass., on Feb. 26, 1919. 

Brothers in Service — 

Frederick A. Forster, 2d Lieut., U.S.A., 305th Infantry; killed 
in accident. 

Horace W. Forster, Capt, U.S.A., Troop K, 2d Cavalry, 
A.E.F. 

Reginald Forster, Private, U.S.A., 11th Field Artillery, A.E.F. 
Gardner Forster, Driver, Italian Ambulance Field Service. 



[ 312 ] 



*BRADSTREET PARKER 



Cadet, U.S.N. Aviation Detachment 
Died of pneumonia, Sept. 21, 1918 

Son of George S. and Grace M. Parker; was born at Salem, Mass., 
April 13, 1897. He attended the public and private schools of Salem; 
graduated as president of his class, from the Hackley School, Tarry- 
town, N.Y., and entered Harvard College, class of 1919, where he 
remained until the end of his sophomore year, when he left to 
enter business with his father, in Parker Bros. Inc., of Salem and 
New York. At college he played football, baseball, and hockey. 

He attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg in the 
summer of 1916, receiving his diploma on Aug 8. On June 18, 1918, 
he enlisted in the U.S. Naval Aviation Detachment at M.I.T., 
Cambridge, Mass., attached to Co. 28, which graduated on Oct. 7, 
1918. After three months of training, he died of pneumonic-influ- 
enza on Sept. 21, 1918, before finishing this course. His record 
called forth high praise from his Commanding Officer, who wrote 
to Parker's family regarding his admirable work. 

Pr. Parker's record here was excellent, both in academic work and in 
his aptitude for the Service, and there is no doubt that he would have 
proved a great credit to our school and the Navy at large had his life 
been spared. 

Married, Dec. 15, 1916, Ruth Comfort Mansfield, of Brookline, 
Mass. 



[ 314 J 



RALPH ROBY McCORMACK 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.R 
Killed in seaplane accident, Feb. 7, 1919 
Son of Thomas and Mary J. McCormack; was born at East Bos- 
ton, Mass., Jan. 8, 1897. He was educated in the public schools of 
East Boston, the High School of Commerce, Boston, and at the 
Mass. Agricultural College. He was coxswain in his junior year at 
the High School of Commerce, and won medal for high jump at 
interscholastic meet in 1912. 

He enlisted in the Naval Aviation Detachment at M.I.T., on 
May 29, 1918, and after ten weeks' training there, was sent to Key 
West, Fla.; then to Miami, and subsequently to Pensacola, where 
he was commissioned Ensign on Dec. 11, 1918. 

On Feb. 7, 1919, he was killed with two other naval aviators, 
when the seaplane in which they were flying fell into Pensacola Bay. 
The machine was seen in a nose-dive over the channel, but nothing 
was thought of it until the men failed to return; then an alarm was 
sounded and the wreckage was discovered. The bodies were later 
recovered, and Ensign McCormack was buried at Winthrop, Mass. 

Ensign McCormack wrote home enthusiastically of his work: 

Flying is wonderful! I had my first "hop" on Tuesday, just at sundown, 
and I really cannot do it justice. After climbing to 2000 feet, spiralled 
down to 1500, nose-dived to 1000, and then glided, long and easily, to the 
water with the "stick" (propeller) purposely dead. It only lasted nine 
minutes, but in that time we covered fifteen miles. I was n't at all afraid, 
and all my senses were alive to new sensations. 

"Taking-off," leaving the water for the air, was far different than I 
expected. Just a deliciously free sensation, accompanied by great speed, 
excessive wind pressure, the roar of the exhaust, and the slight tilting and 
bucking of the plane as she first takes the air. You climb steadily and 
gradually higher and higher, taking care all the time to keep on the course. 
Soon the harbor unfolds beneath you. We are now approaching the fort 
and soon pass directly over it and on and out over the ships. Our air speed 
has varied from 85 to 95 miles an hour, but our tachometer and ther- 
mometer indicate a healthy engine condition. 

We now bank and turn sharply to the right; the floor of the ocean is 
plainly seen and several sharks and porpoises are easily seen. We dart 
through a low-hanging cloud and glimpse on the far horizon several white 
sails. Directly before us stretch the Keys for miles and miles, and in the 
west a large red sun is sinking. 

The cloud effects are wonderful, and we do some tall thinking. 
[ 316 ] 



PHILIP DUDLEY MOSSER 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Enlisted in April, 1917, at which time he was a senior at Cornell 
University. He entered the coast patrol, and served on a patrol 
boat in Long Island Sound. In Oct., 1917, he transferred to the 
Naval Aviation Service, and was sent to the M.I.T. Naval Avi- 
ation Ground School. Upon completion of the course there, he was 
transferred to the Naval Air Station, at Bay Shore, N.Y. He was 
commissioned Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. On May 4, 1918, he fell in his 
hydroplane, and his skull was fractured. He recovered from this 
accident, although the injury to one eye prevented him from 
further flying. He was subsequently appointed a ground officer, 
and stationed at Pensacola, Fla. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

CHARLES B. MILLER 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Nathan and Emma F. Miller; was born at Fall River, Mass., 
May 14, 1889. He was educated at the Durfee High School and at 
Phillips Exeter Academy. He enlisted in the Air Service at Boston, 
Mass., on Jan. 16, 1918, and was assigned to the M.I.T. Ground 
School. He received further training at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex.; 
at Carruthers Field, Benbrook, Tex., and at Barron Field, Ever- 
man, Tex. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., March 10, 1919, and 
honorably discharged from the Service at Barron Field, Everman, 
Tex. March 12, 1919. 



[ 318 ] 



RALPH TUPPER ROGERS 



Ensign, U.S.N.A.S., Eighth Squadron 
Died in Service, Jan. 8, 1919 
Son of George F. and Ida M. Rogers, of Roslindale, Mass.; was 
born at Cambridge, Mass., Oct. 9, 1893. He was educated at the 
Medford High School and at the Mass. Institute of Technology. 
At the high school he won honors in French. Previous to enlisting 
he took a course in Aviation at the M.I.T. He was a sergeant in the 
Boys' Brigade at Medford, and was attached to the Church Cadets 
in high school. 

On May 25, 1918, he enlisted in U.S. Aviation, at Cambridge, 
Mass. He was trained at Miami, Fla., being attached to the 8th 
Squadron. He was then sent to Pensacola, Fla., to finish his flying 
courses. He was commissioned Ensign, and had just completed his 
training when he was taken ill and died at Pensacola, on Jan. 8, 
1919. He is buried at Forest Hills Cemetery, Mass. 

Ensign Rogers worked very hard and with great enthusiasm for 
the Service that he loved. He had intended remaining in Aviation 
after the war, had he lived. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

PHILIP L. CHENEY 
Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Charles Willie and Flora (Hutchinson) Cheney; was born at 
Brookline, Mass., Dec. 29, 1897. He was educated at the Mohegan 
Lake School, the Volkmann School, and at Harvard College, 
where he trained with the Harvard R.O.T.C. On May 29, 1918, 
he enlisted at the Boston Navy Yard, and was assigned to Co. 24, 
at the M.I.T., for the ground school course, from May 31 to 
Aug. 20, 1918. He was sent to Miami, Fla., where he was trained, 
from Aug. 23 to Oct. 26, in elementary flying. For advanced work 
in flying he was ordered to Pensacola, Fla., where he remained 
from Oct. 28 to Dec. 28. He was then transferred to Hampton 
Roads, Va., for work in aerial navigation. He was stationed there 
from Dec. 30, 1918, to March 6, 1919, and was commissioned 
Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Jan. 13, 1919. He was relieved of all active 
duty at Hampton Roads, March 8, 1919. 



[ 320 ] 



*JOHN SQUIRE BUCHANAN, Second 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 
Drowned in seaplane accident, April 25, 1919 

Son of Neil Ellsworth and Ella J. Buchanan; was born at Boston, 
Mass., Oct. 31, 1895. He was educated at the Rice Grammar, Me- 
chanic Arts High School, and at the Mass. Institute of Technology. 

He served at the Mexican Border from July 2 to Oct 28, 1916, 
with Battery F, 1st Mass. Regiment, F.A., N.G. 

On June 13, 1917, he enlisted in the U.S.N.R.F., for Aviation, at 
Boston, and was trained with the U.S. Naval Aviation Detachment, 
M.I.T., from Aug. 9 to Sept 29, 1917; and at Pensacola, Fla., 
Oct. 4 to Dec. 22, 1917. On Dec. 22, 1917, he was appointed Naval 
Aviator, No. 276, at Pensacola; and served at Pensacola in that 
capacity until Feb. 9, 1918. On Jan. 17, 1918, he was commissioned 
Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., and was ordered overseas to France, Feb. 7, 
1918. 

Lieut. Buchanan saw service in France at U.S.N.A.S., Moutchic- 
Lacanau, Gironde; Panillac; Le Croisic, Loire; and St.-Trojan, 
Charente-Inferieure. He won the Croix de Guerre for a number of 
rescues made in the Bay of Biscay, famous for its perilous winds 
and waves, and for many other attempted rescues in near-by re- 
gions. He was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.) on Aug. 5, 1918. 

He sailed for the U.S. on Dec. 22, 1918, and was detailed to the 
U.S.N.A.S. at Chatham, Mass., where he remained up to the time 
of his death. 

Lieut. Buchanan was drowned in Cape Cod Bay on April 25, 
1919, the day of the parade in honor of the 26th Division. With 
him were Ensign John G. Howard, of Rochester, N.Y., and Elec- 
trician Bernard Tornes. The plane was one of a patrol which had 
been performing in the air above the parade, and was returning to 
Chatham Air Station, with a heavy gale blowing. Carrier pigeons 
brought back the news that their engine was disabled, and rescuers 
searched in vain for them. The plane was wrecked and the three 
aviators drowned. 

One of the last things Lieut. Buchanan did after the parade, 
before leaving for Chatham, was to circle the house in Boston where 
his family were watching him, and as he made a turn to the south 
he waved them a last greeting. 



[ 322 ] 



* CHARLES L. OSTRIDGE 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 
Browned in sea-plane accident, May 19, 1919 

Son of Anselm Arthur and Elizabeth A. (Bradlee) Ostridge; was 
born at Watertown, Mass., April 18, 1893. He attended the public 
schools of Watertown, and graduated from Boston College in 1917; 
at college he played on the football team, and during vacation 
time was for two years Life Guard, at the Metropolitan Parkway, 
at Watertown. 

On May 14, 1917, he enlisted at Boston, Mass., and on June 26 
was sent to Pensacola, Fla., for training; there he was commissioned 
Ensign, Dec. 21, 1917, and ordered overseas. Arriving in England 
he was stationed at Calshot and Benbridge, and subsequently at 
Wight, and at Lough Foyle, Londonderry, Ireland; later he was 
transferred to Queenstown, Ireland. On Oct. 1, 1918, he was com- 
missioned Lieut, (j.g.). He returned to the U.S. and was stationed 
at Hampton Roads, Va., and then at Chatham, Mass. He had 
been but about three weeks stationed at Chatham, when he was 
lost in a seaplane accident, on May 19, 1919 

Lieut. Ostridge was present at the garden-party given in Lon- 
don on June 27, 1918, for the American officers, and was one of a 
group to be photographed on that occasion, with the King and 
Queen of England. Since his death his memory has been especially 
honored by the Town of Watertown. 



[ 324 ] 



*ERIC LINGARD 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 
Died of pneumonia, Oct. 29, 1918 
Son of Adrian Alexander and Adele Randolf (Liberick) Lingard; 
was born at Boston, Mass., Nov. 7, 1891. He attended the Middle- 
sex School, Concord, Mass., where he rowed on the crew and played 
on the football team. He graduated from Harvard College in 1913, 
and entered the Law School, leaving there in the middle of his 
second year. At Harvard he played on the 'Varsity football team, 
and was rated the second strongest man in college. 

In the spring of 1917 he worked at the Fore River Ship Yards, 
where he remained until his enlistment, Sept. 12, 1917, at Wash- 
ington, D.C. On Oct. 1 he entered the Naval Aviation Ground 
School at the M.I.T., and, after completing the course, he finished 
his training at Pensacola, Fla. In April, 1918, he was commissioned 
Ensign, and on April 20 was detailed to the station at Chatham, 
Mass., for patrol duty, pending foreign orders; soon after his arrival 
he was made Ordnance Officer, in addition to his other duties, and 
was in charge of this department up to the time of his death. 

For six weeks during the U-boat trouble, Chatham, the only Air 
Station on the coast from Cape Cod to Canada, had only eight 
pilots available for a patrol of 12,000 square miles, covered from 
daylight to dark. Most of these pilots (including Lingard) flew 
seven or more hours daily. 

Lingard's participation in the U-boat attack off Orleans, Mass., is 
described in the following extract from the Service Record issued by 
the Commanding Officer of the U.S. Naval Air Station, Chatham, 
Mass. Jan. 3, 1919: 

Ensign Eric Lingard . . . was the first aviator to ever engage an enemy 
vessel on this side of the Atlantic. This was on July 21, 1918, when a German 
submarine shelled a tug and four barges off Orleans, Mass. Lingard was 
the first pilot to reach the scene, flying one of the H.S. boats, and Special 
Mechanic Howard, 1 who was his observer on that flight, said: "Lingard 
is the most wonderful pilot I ever rode with. He flew exactly over the 
centre of the submarine." The bomb dropped within a few feet of the 

1 "Special Mechanic Howard," an expert on Liberty motors (which he tested as they were in- 
stalled), had flown with pilots of every Air Station on the Atlantic Coast. Howard was later as- 
signed to the NC IV as Engineer for the first trans-Atlantic flight, but a few hours before the start 
his hand was cut off by the propeller. 



[ 326 ] 



ERIC LINGARD 



submarine. If the bomb had functioned, the submarine would have been 
done for. 

(Signed) P. B. Eaton 

Captain of Engineers, U.S.C.G. 

Commanding 

Lingard, with Ensign E. M. Shields, assistant pilot, and E. H. 
Howard, observer, was over the U-boat fourteen minutes after 
being ordered out for combat, and flew as low as 400 feet into the 
enemy's gunfire, facing destruction from his own bomb which was 
designed for altitude of 1500 feet. The U-boat, 250 x 30 feet, used 
six-inch and anti-aircraft guns. After Lingard had spent his one 
bomb, he "stood by" without amunition of any kind, and with a 
shaky plane, circled low over the U-boat to mark the place, and 
keep the U-boat firing at him and therefore "awash," until the ar- 
rival of Captain Eaton, whose bomb also failed to function. Al- 
though the U-boat was not destroyed, yet the Chatham Air Patrol 
accomplished its purpose, as shown by the following extract from 
affidavit made by Lieut. E. E. Williams, then Executive Officer of 
the Chatham Naval Air Station, and initialled by the Command- 
ing Officer: 

The enemy was attacked and driven away and never again appeared so 
near the shores of the United States. It is reasonably certain that had the 
U-boat not been attacked from the air, she would have destroyed Chatham 
and Orleans (both towns less than four miles away), not because of any 
possible military value, but for the decided moral effect that such destruc- 
tion would have had — just as the English coast-towns were shelled. 

This was the only engagement of the Great War on this side of 
the Atlantic. Several shells from the U-boat struck land, about 
three miles away. Because Seaplane H.S.I.L. 1695, commanded by 
Lingard, was the first aircraft ever to defend the shores of the 
United States from direct enemy attack, this plane became of his- 
torical interest. At the request of the City of Gloucester, and by 
order of the Navy Department, the hull was turned over to the 
city officials, on July 3, 1919, so that, in accordance with a letter 
from Secretary Daniels, "it may be set up in the Marine Park as a 
historical relic of the war." 

On Sept. 27, while searching for a lost aviator, Lingard and his 
crew were wrecked at sea and taken to New York by a Quebec 

[ 328 ] 



ERIC LINGARD 



steamer. The following is an extract from "Officers' Fitness Re- 
port," Sept. 30, 1918: 

Very high sea running. Picked up by S.S. Parima after four hours. 
Lingard swam from Parima to wrecked flying boat with line through 
heavy sea. Made line fast around engine. Liberty motor saved through his 
efforts. 

Recommended that he be promoted to next higher rank. 

(Signed) P. B. Eaton, Commanding 

On Oct. 10, in response to an S.O.S. from a South American 
steamer reporting U-boat attack, Lingard volunteered as gunner, 
eager to use the Davis machine gun, just arrived at the station. 
The wind was blowing forty miles an hour, and his plane was forced 
down with engine trouble. In order to lessen resistance to the waves, 
the fabric had to be stripped from the wings. One wing was battered 
to pieces, and to keep the plane from sinking, Lingard and the as- 
sistant pilot lay all day and night stretched on the bare framework 
of the other wing with the sea breaking over them — too cold and 
weak to touch food or water. Lingard's companion soon became 
unconscious, and had to be held on to the wing. After tossing for 
twenty-seven hours, the flyers were rescued by an S.P. boat, and 
although the storm made it almost impossible to transfer them, 
Lingard and Ensign Shields, pilot, insisted on saving the machine 
gun. This long exposure resulted in Lingard's death from influenza- 
pneumonia on Oct. 29, 1918. He was buried at Annisquam, Mass., 
with full military honors, seaplanes flying over from Chatham to 
drop flowers. 

Dr. Henry van Dyke, then Chaplain, Lieutenant-Commander, 
U.S.N. R.F., in an address to the officers and men of the Chatham 
Naval Air Station, said of Lingard: 

Early this morning one of your best comrades, a brave youth, a faithful 
officer, a daring and skilful aviator, passed out of this life. His death was 
the immediate consequence of injury and exposure which came to him in 
the course of duty as an air scout guarding the shores of our country. 

Hon. Franklin D. Roosevelt, then Acting Secretary of the Navy, 
in a letter of June 24, 1919 (initialled by the Chief of the Ordnance 
Department and the Director of Naval Aviation), wrote to Lin- 
gard's sister, his only surviving relative, as follows: 

Your brother lived up to the best traditions of the Navy and I cannot 
speak too highly of his gallant work. 

[ 329 ] 



THOMAS DURFEE 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Samuel Slater and Eliza (Weeden) Durfee; was born at 
Providence, EX, June 3, 1899. He was educated at the Middlesex 
School, and at Harvard College, member of class of 1921. At 
Middlesex he played on the baseball and football teams. 

Prior to entering the Service, he trained at the Fort Perry Train- 
ing Camp, in 1916. On July 2, 1917, he enlisted in the U.S.N.Jt.F.C. 
at the Boston Navy Yard, and trained at the Naval Aviation 
Ground School, M.I.T., beginning Oct. 1, 1917; he continued 
training at the Naval Air Station, Hampton Roads, Nov. 25, 1917, 
and at the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla., Jan. 12, 1918. He 
was commissioned Ensign, Feb. 28, 1918, and on March 8, 1918, 
was stationed at the Naval Air Station, Chatham, Mass., as Patrol 
Pilot. There he discharged the duties of Lieut., March 15 to June 1 ; 
Squadron Commander, June 1 to July 30; Flight Commander, 
July 30 to Oct. 1. From Nov. 15 to April 19, 1919, he served as 
Flight Commander, and for three months as Assistant Executive 
Officer. 

Ensign Durfee's report of the submarine engagement in which 
he took part off Orleans, Mass., follows: 

On July 21, 1918, at 10.48, word was received that a submarine was 
shelling a tug and four barges off Nauset Harbor, about five miles from 
the station. I immediately had bombs put on two planes which were on 
the point of leaving for Portland. At 10.50 the first plane left the beach 
with Durfee and Hicks as pilots, and Cleary as observer. Due to spark- 
plug trouble we were unable to take off, and returned to the beach. Two 
minutes after we left, the second plane, with Lingard and Shields, pilots, 
and Howard, observer, shoved off. They arrived on the scene while the 
submarine was still on the surface. The first bomb was then dropped, 
landing within forty feet of the submarine, but did not function. After 
firing a few shots at the plane, it submerged, but came up shortly, and 
Lingard dropped his second bomb. In the meantime Capt. Eaton and 
Ensign Brown arrived in two monoplanes and both dropped a bomb. 
Finally, my plane was fixed and we got there after the submarine had sub- 
merged a second time, but it was still visible, and we dropped a bomb, 
which fell about thirty feet from it. All the bombs failed to function owing 
to two reasons: too many safety devices, and too small a detonator and 
booster charge. In all, five bombs were dropped, four of which would have 
probably totally disabled it. All the planes made the attack from a height 



[ 330 ] 



THOMAS DURFEE 

of under four hundred feet. About a dozen shots were fired at the first two 
planes, several passing within a few feet of their target. 

On Oct. 4, 1918, four planes left Chatham at 6 a.m., en route for 
the Philadelphia Navy Yard. The pilots were Ensign Durfee, 
Flight Commander, Ensigns Hudson, Shields, and Walker. At 
9.30 they reached Bay Shore, completing the first leg of the trip, 
168 miles. They left Bay Shore for Cape May at 12 m. arriving at 
4 p.m., 180 miles. Then after re-fuelling and a slight rest, they left 
for Philadelphia, arriving without mishap. This was set down as a 
record distance for a single day, and especially remarkable as the 
planes were being taken down for overhauling as unfit for further 
patrol duty. Ensign Durfee holds the altitude record for H.S. 2 
with full fighting equipment. He was commissioned Lieut, (j.g), 
dating from April 1, 1919, and was placed on inactive duty at the 
Navy Yard, Boston, April 19, 1919. 



DUDLEY BOWLES MURPHY 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of H. Dudley and Caroline Hutchinson (Bowles) Murphy, of 
Lexington, Mass.; was born at Winchester, Mass., July 10, 1897. 
He was educated at Milton Academy, Milton, and at the Mass. 
Institute of Technology. Prior to the declaration of war he spent 
one year at an Army training camp at Monterey, Cal. He enlisted 
in the Air Service, April 29, 1917, at Cambridge, Mass. He was 
trained at Squantum, Mass., and then at Norfolk, Va., from 
May 10, 1917, till Jan. 1, 1918. He was commissioned Ensign, 
Dec. 26, 1917. Ensign Murphy went overseas, Jan. 25, 1918. He 
was stationed at Killingholm, Eng., for nine months, and spent 
one month with the Royal Navy, at East Fortune, Scotland. He 
did 250 hours of enemy submarine patrol in the North Sea from 
Feb. 10 to Nov. 20, 1918. He was credited with one enemy sub- 
marine by Commander Kenneth Whiting. 

He received inactive duty orders at Bay Shore, N.Y., Feb. 18, 
1919. 



[ 332 ] 



NUGENT FALLON 



Lieutenant-Commander, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of John B. and Jennie E. (Murphy) Fallon; was born at Bos- 
ton, Mass., March 22, 1884. He was educated in the Boston public 
schools, and at the Mass. Institute of Technology. In school he 
won the Franklin Medal; and at Tech. he was a member of the 
crew and of the track team. In 1916 he went on the civilian cruise 
of the U.S.S. Kearsarge, as a preparation for enlistment. On May 9, 
1917, he enlisted at New York, in the U.S.N.R., Class 5 (A.). He 
began training with the N.A. Detachment, Newport News, Va., 
at the Curtiss Co. School. He then moved to Naval Operating 
Base, Norfolk, Va. 

He was commissioned Ensign in May, 1917; was ordered over- 
seas and stationed at Headquarters, London; then at Head- 
quarters, Paris. He was ordered in turn to U.S.N. Aviation Base, 
Moutchic-Lacanau; French Flying Corps, at Hourtin, Gironde; 
and Royal Naval Air Station, Felixstowe, Eng. He engaged in 
numerous bombing raids over Germany, and in exciting engage- 
ments in the North Sea. 

On Nov. 24, 1917, he was recommended for a British medal for 
gallant conduct during an encounter with a German submarine, 
but was not allowed to accept such an honor from a foreign Gov- 
ernment. 

On March 12, 1918, while he was attached to the Royal Naval 
Air Fleet at Felixstowe, Eng., he engaged in two air fights over the 
North Sea, and was commended to the British Admiralty by the 
Admiral at the base. He was flying at the time in a British hydro- 
plane, and his wireless operator was shot and wounded seriously in 
the neck. Ensign Fallon left his seat, climbed over the wounded 
man, administered first aid, and returned to his place, bringing the 
plane safely to landing. It was in reference to this deed that Lieut. 
Edwards, Aide for Aviation, U.S.A., wrote to him in part as 
follows : 

Accept my hearty congratulations on the splendid fight which you put 
up against the Huns. I think I may safely say that in consequence your 
promotion is assured, and that you will be sent a very strong letter of 
commendation on the fine work which you have accomplished. 



[ 333 ] 



NUGENT FALLON 



He was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.) in March, 1918; Lieut, in 
June, 1918; and Lieut. -Commander in Oct., 1918. 

In recognition of his service Lieut.-Commander Fallon was 
ordered back to the U.S. and appointed Aide to the Commanding 
Officer at Pensacola, Fla. Later he was ordered to Washington, 
D.C., in charge of the Ground School, and following that to the 
Naval Detachment, M.I.T., Boston, as Executive Officer. He was 
put on inactive duty at Boston, Mass., Feb. 1, 1919. 

Married, June 26, 1918, Elizabeth S. Fitzpatrick, of Boston. 

Brother in Service — 

Robert M. Fallon, Capt., Q.M.C., A.E.F. 

{From a Commendation, dated April 24, 1918, signed 
Franklin D. Roosevelt) 

1. The Department is pleased to quote below for your information an 
extract from the report of J. C. Porte, Wing Commander, R.N., dated 
March 9, 1918, which is concurred in by Rear Admiral G. C. Gayley, 
R.N., both officers attached to the Royal Naval Air Station, Felixstowe! 
England : 

"I have the honour to bring to your notice the name of Ensign N. Fal- 
lon, who acted as second pilot in Seaplane N 4582 during the engage- 
ment of two of our machines against five enemy seaplanes, which took 
place on the 12th inst. Ever since this officer has been on the Station he 
has done excellent work and always shown the greatest courage and re- 
source. During the present engagement he handled his machine gun with 
great skill and it was very largely due to him that our machines did so 
well." 

And follows an Extract from the report of Vice-Admiral Sims, trans- 
mitting the above to the Department : "Ensign Nugent Fallon, U.S.N.R.F., 
has conducted himself in a manner which has reflected great credit upon 
the U.S. Naval Service, and has proven himself to be a gallant officer 
under fire." 

2. The Department avails itself of this opportunity to highly commend 
you for the splendid work performed during the engagement described 
above. It is work of this character that will tend toward the successful 
prosecution of the war, and the Department cannot express itself too 
warmly in terms of praise for such exemplary work. Cooperation between 
our personnel and that of our allies is very greatly to be desired, especially 
during the present urgent emergency; and acts such as you have per- 
formed denote very clearly that such cooperation is very much in evidence. 
It is hoped that a continuance of this good and effective work will be 
maintained. 



[ 334 ] 



SAMUEL ABBOT SMITH 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F., Squadron Commander at 
U.S.N. Air Station, Cape May, N.J. 

Son of George A. and Anna (Putnam) Smith; was born at Arling- 
ton, Mass., Dec. 9, 1895. He graduated from Milton Academy, 
Milton, and entered Harvard College with the class of 1918. He 
left college at the end of his junior year to enter the U.S. Service, 
having never received lower than honor grade during the three 
years of his attendance; was awarded Harvard College Scholar- 
ship, 1915-16, and 1918-19, and the John Harvard Scholarship, 
1916-17; he was awarded Detur in his junior year, and elected 
member of Phi Beta Kappa. He played football, and held Harvard 
championship in wrestling (145 lb. class), in 1915. 

On July 16, 1917, he enrolled in U.S.N.R.F. (Aviation) at the 
Charlestown Navy Yard, and attended the Ground School, M.I.T. 
On Nov. 24, he was sent to the Naval Air Station at Hampton 
Roads, Va., and on Jan. 10, 1918, was transferred to the Naval 
Air Station, at Pensacola, Fla. 

He was commissioned Ensign, March 11, 1918, and Lieut, (j.g.), 
to rank from Oct. 1, 1918. Lieut. Smith was sent to the Coast 
Patrol Station at Cape May, in Aug., 1918, where he was Squadron 
Commander engaged in active service hunting submarines. He 
was one of the aviators to meet and welcome the fleet on its return 
to New York, Dec. 26, 1918. On Dec. 30, 1918, he was ordered to 
inactive duty at Cape May, returning to Harvard, Jan. 2, 1919, to 
complete his college course. He holds Pilot's licenses for land and 
seaplanes from the Aero Club of America; also U.S. Naval Pilot's 
license. 

Brother in Service — 

Charles Putnam Smith, 2d Lieut., U.S.A., Infantry. 

Grandfather in Service — 
Charles Putnam, Ensign, U.S.N. , under Farragut, in Civil 
War. 



[ 336 ] 



ERNEST F. HENDERSON, Jr. 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F., Squadron A, Northern 
Bombing Group 

Son of Ernest F. and Bertha Henderson; was born at Chestnut 
Hill, Mass., March 7, 1897. He was educated at the Noble and 
Greenough School, and at Harvard College, A.B. 1918 (war de- 
gree). He rowed on the freshman inter-dormitory crew. 

He enlisted at Cambridge, Mass., on April 3, 1917, as Radio 
Operator, U.S.N.R.F., and on April 28 was called to active duty; 
after two months he asked to be transferred to the Aviation Service. 
He trained at the Naval Aviation Ground School, M.I.T.; at 
Hampton Roads, Va.; and at Pensacola, Fla. He sailed overseas, 
March 29, 1918, and was stationed for three months at U.S.N. 
Seaplane Station, Moutchic-Lacanau, Gironde, France, when he 
was sent to Italy to fly Caproni biplanes back to France. The first 
machine in which he was sent out caught fire while flying over 
Turin, Italy, but with the flames streaming about him he suc- 
ceeded in making a safe landing. The planes were imperfectly con- 
structed, and five of the nineteen aviators who attempted to fly 
them to France lost their lives on the way. Lieut. Henderson finally 
accomplished his flight over -the Alps and reached Lyons on' 
Sept. 21, his time from Turin being three hours and five minutes. 
He was subsequently stationed at St.-Englevert, France, with the 
Northern Bombing Squadron, which was preparing to begin oper- 
ations when the Armistice was signed. Lieut. Henderson had a 
second narrow escape when his machine was wrecked on landing, 
owing to defective gear. 

He was commissioned Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Feb. 28, 1918; Lieut, 
(j.g.), Oct. 1, 1918. He returned to the U.S. on Feb. 9, 1919, and 
was placed on inactive duty, March 15, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

George B. Henderson, 1st Lieut., U.S.A., A.E.F. 



[ 338 ] 



CHARLES PRESCOTT STEWART 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Charles M. and Nettie (Prescott) Stewart; was born at 
Worcester, Mass., July 10, 1895. He was educated at the Bancroft 
School, Worcester; Worcester Classical High School; Milton 
Academy, Milton; and at Harvard College, class of 1917. At Milton 
he was monitor and baseball manager in 1913, playing second base 
on the team. At Harvard he was a member of the Delphic Club, 
Hasty Pudding, D.K.E., and Institute of 1770; and was on the 
staff of the Lampoon. He trained with the Harvard R.O.T.C. from 
Feb. to May, 1916. When war was declared he left college, and on 
April 30, 1917, enlisted in U.S.N.R.F., at the Brooklyn, N.Y., 
Navy Yard. From May 8 to Oct. 25, 1917, he served as Quarter- 
master on board the U.S.S. Tarantula (S.P. 124), guarding the 
entrance to New York Harbor. From Feb. 18 to May 1, 1918, 
he studied at the Aviation Ground School, M.I.T., acting as 
C.Q.M. (Aviation). From May 4 to July 14 he had elementary 
training at U.S.N.A. Station, Miami, Fla. From July 17 to 
Sept. 25 he took advanced training at Pensacola, Fla. He was com- 
missioned Ensign, Sept. 14, 1918, and was ordered to England. 
From Nov. 4 to Dec. 1, 1918, he was attached to the U.S.N.A. 
Station, at Moutchic-Lacanau, France. He returned to the U.S. 
and received inactive duty orders, Jan. 13, 1919, at Bay Shore, 
N.Y. 



[ 340 ] 



CARL ELLIOT SHUMWAY 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F., First Naval Kite Balloon 
Unit 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Franklin P. Shumway; was born at Melrose, 
Mass., June 30, 1890. He graduated from the Melrose High School, 
and from Dartmouth College, class of 1913. At college he was 
member of the freshman track team in 1909, and of the football 
squad in 1911. He was high-point winner at the Dartmouth Winter 
Carnival in 1913, and second in one-mile New England swimming 
championship, 1914, 1915, and 1916. 

On July 10, 1917, he enlisted in the U.S. Navy Aviation Corps, 
and trained at Akron, Ohio, from Oct. 10 to Jan. 21, 1918. He 
completed training at Rockaway Beach, N.Y., Jan. 30, and sailed 
overseas for Liverpool, Feb. 26, 1918. From March 9 to April 6 he 
was stationed at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Queenstown, Ire., 
when he was transferred to the Royal Navy Station at Castletown, 
Berehaven, Ire., as representative of U.S.N.A. forces. On April 29, 
1918, this station was taken over by the U.S., and Lieut. Shum- 
way was appointed Commanding Officer. From May 18 to July 
3, 1918, he served as Executive Officer, and from then to Aug. 21 
as Commanding Officer. The Castletown Station was the first of 
the five Irish stations under the U.S. to operate, as well as the 
first Kite Balloon Station in Europe to fly and operate patrols. 

On Aug. 23, 1918, Lieut. Shumway was transferred to the U.S. 
Naval Base at Plymouth, Eng., where, until Nov. 29, he was Com- 
manding Officer of the U.S. Naval Kite Balloon Detachment, at- 
tached to S.S.T.B.D. Parker, flying from R.A.F. Balloon Base 
No. 16. 

He was commissioned Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Jan. 24, 1918; and 
Lieut, (j.g.), May 1, 1918. He returned to the U.S. on Jan. 14, 1919. 



[ 342 ] 



EDWARD ANDRUS TERHUNE, Jr. 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Squadron B, Northern 
Bombing Group 

Son of Edward Andrus and Emma G. Terhune; was born, 
June 3, 1895, at Dorchester, Mass. He was educated at the Dor- 
chester High School and at Tufts College, graduating in the class 
of 1917, cum laude (B.S. in Structural Engineering). He played 
quarterback on the 1917 football team, and pitched on the 
1917 baseball team. 

He enlisted at Boston, Feb. 18, 1918, and was trained at the 
M.I.T. Ground School, and U.S. Naval Air Station, Key West, 
Fla., at which latter place he was Temporary Instructor. He 
studied flying-boats at the U.S.N. A.S., Miami, Fla.; and land- 
planes with the U.S. Marines, Curtiss Field, Miami, Fla. He was 
commissioned Ensign, July 10, 1918. 

He was sent overseas, and trained in bombing and gunnery at 
Moutchic-Lacanau, France; he was then attached to the Northern 
Bombing Group at Calais, France (Champagne, Field B). Later 
he was stationed with the Italians at Malpensa, Italy, and re- 
ceived an Italian brevet, on Caproni bombing-machines. He 
returned to the U.S., and was stationed at Chatham, Mass., 
U.S.N.A.S. He was released from active duty, March 25, 1919. 

After leaving the Service, Ensign Terhune inaugurated an Aerial 
Taxi and Transportation Company operating between Boston and 
the North Shore, using machines of the Canadian training-plane 
type, with wireless telephone connections. 

Brother in Service — 

Howard Haven Terhune, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 



[ 344 ] 



THOMAS T. HOOPES 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of the Rev. and Mrs. Wilford L. Hoopes, of Newbury, Mass.; 
was born at Boston, Mass., March 31, 1898. He was educated at 
the Choate School, Wallingford, Conn., and at Harvard College, 
leaving at the end of his sophomore year to enlist. He was a mem- 
ber of the Harvard Flying Corps in 1915-16, and flew at Wright 
Field, Mineola, N.Y., in the summer of 1916, as a member of that 
corps. 

He enlisted at Boston, on April 28, 1917, having in March en- 
rolled for the Mass. School for Naval Air Service at Squantum, 
Mass. He remained at Squantum until Oct., 1917, when he was 
ordered to the U.S. Naval Air Station, Hampton Roads, Va., 
from Oct. 17, 1917, to Jan. 10, 1918. He was stationed at U.S.N. 
Air Station, Pensacola, Fla., from Jan. 10 to June, 1918, and was 
commissioned Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., June 13, 1918. 

Ensign Hoopes was appointed Radio Officer at U.S.N. Air Sta- 
tion, Chatham, Mass., and has served there from June 17, 1918, 
to the present time. At last accounts he was still in Service. 



[ 346 ] 



RUSSELL NOYES HYDE 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of William Whitcomb and Flora M. (Valiquet) Hyde; was 
born at Lynn, Mass., Oct. 15, 1896. He was educated at the 
Classical High School, Lynn, and at the Northeastern College, 
Boston. 

He enlisted in the U.S.N.A.S. at Boston, in April, 1917, and re- 
ported July, 1917, at the M.I.T. for ground training, being a mem- 
ber of Flight A. He had flight training at Pensacola, Fla., from 
Sept., 1917; and was commissioned Ensign in Dec, 1917. He was 
ordered overseas for active duty in Jan., 1918, and was in special 
service in England, Ireland, Scotland, and France, instructing and 
testing at various stations, and doing much patrol flying in search 
of enemy submarines and aircraft. In Oct., 1918, he was com- 
missioned Lieut, (j.g.). 

After the Armistice, Lieut. Hyde returned to the U.S. in Dec, 
1918; but remained in the Service, reporting at the Naval Air 
Station, Key West, Fla., where he was stationed at last accounts. 

Relatives in Service — 

Great-great-grandfather: Jedediah Hyde, Capt., Revolution- 
ary War. 

Great-grandfather: Russell Brown Hyde, Major, Mexican 
War. 

Grandfather: Breed Noyes Hyde, Col., Civil War. 
Grandfather: Thomas Valiquet, Major, French Army. 



[ 348 ] 



ELMER LEIGHTON MITCHELL 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Sidney A. and Maude A. (Canning) Mitchell; was born at 
Boston, Mass., Nov. 16, 1896. He was educated at the Stone School, 
Boston, and at Harvard College. He was coxswain of the Boston 
interscholastic crew, 1912-14; a member of the Stone crew, 1915; 
and of the Harvard freshman four-oared crew, 1916. 

He enlisted at the Charlestown Navy Yard, as Machinist's Mate, 
2d class, and was stationed at Pensacola, Fla., Sept. 6 to Nov. 26, 

1917. He was later transferred to Student Officer, and completed 
work at the Ground School, M.I.T., Feb. 16, 1918. 

He qualified as a Naval Aviator in May, 1918, and was ordered to 
Pensacola, Fla. He was commissioned Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., June 12, 

1918. From May to Aug., 1918, he acted as Instructor to the 6t]i 
Squadron at Pensacola. On Aug. 3, 1918, he was made Division 
Commander, 6th Squadron, and on Dec. 23, 1918, he was com- 
missioned Lieut, (j.g.). 

Lieut. Mitchell, on Jan. 28, 1919, was made 6th Squadron Com- 
mander, and on Feb. 20, Commander of the Navigation School at 
Pensacola. He was ordered to inactive duty, March 12, 1919, at 
Pensacola, Fla. 



[ 350 ] 



JOHN MATTHEW MILLEE 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of John Matthew Miller and Fannie (Paddock) Miller, of 
Wellesley, Mass.; was born at Tacoma, Wash., June 3, 1896. He 
was educated at the Kent School, Kent, Conn. 

He enlisted at Boston, Mass., July 23, 1917, and was assigned to 
the Naval Aviation School, M.I.T. He was subsequently trained at 
the Naval Air Stations at Hampton Roads, Va.; Pensacola, Fla.; 
and Rockaway Beach, N.Y. 

He was commissioned Ensign, March 16, 1918. On the cessation 
of hostilities he was ordered to inactive service, and on Dec. 15, 
1918, was appointed to the Post-Office Department, Aerial Mail 
Service, as manager of the Philadelphia Field, and later of the Mail 
Field, at Belmont Park, Queens, N.Y. 

Ensign Miller comes from a family notable for its military record: 
one ancestor, Charles Fanning, was at Valley Forge; another, Na- 
thaniel Fanning, was second in command to John Paul Jones, on 
the Bonhomme Richard; a third, William Bradford Whiting, was on 
the staff of Commodore Perry in the expedition to Japan, 1854. His 
family records show that thirty-five members served in the Revolu- 
tionary War, fifteen in the War of 1812, thirty-two in the Civil War, 
and nine in the Great War. 



[ 352 ] 



EDWARD SLOCUM BREWER 



Lieutenant, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Joseph and Helen (Slocum) Brewer; was born, April 10, 
1896, at Milton, Mass. He was captain of the football team at Mil- 
ton Academy in 1914, and graduated in 1915, entering Harvard 
College in the class of 1919. 

He attended the Plattsburg Training Camp from July 5 to 
Aug. 8, 1916. In March, 1917, he enlisted in the Naval Reserve at 
the Charlestown Navy Yard, and was sent to Marblehead with the 
patrol fleet. On May 3, 1917, he was transferred to the Naval Avia- 
tion Service, and was trained at Pensacola, Fla. He was commis- 
sioned Ensign on Dec. 17, 1917. On Dec. 22 he was ordered to 
France, and arrived in Paris, Jan. 29, 1918; on Feb. 3, he was trans- 
ferred to London. 

He was attached to the R.N.A.S. from Feb. 8 to July 13, doing 
submarine patrol work at Westgate, Portland, and Felixstowe. He 
was ordered back to Paris on July 13, and joined the U.S.N.A.S. at 
St.-Trojan. From July 28 to Oct. 25 he served as submarine patrol 
and convoy. From Oct. 28 to Dec. 2 he was with the U.S.N.A.S. at 
Arcachon, in submarine patrol and convoy work as Chief Pilot. He 
was recommended Lieut, (j.g.) in July, 1918; Lieut., Oct., 1918. On 
Dec. 11, 1918, he was commissioned Lieut.; sailed from Bordeaux on 
Dec. 24, 1918, arriving in New York on Jan. 3, 1919. He was placed 
on inactive duty at Bay Shore, N.Y. 



[ 354 ] 



ALBION KEITH EATON 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F.C., Squadrons 1, 3, 15, 16 

Son of Albion Horace and Annie (Whidden) Eaton; was born at 
Calais, Me., June 14, 1891. He was educated at the Calais High 
School, Phillips Exeter Academy, 1911, and Bowdoin College, B.S. 
1915. At Exeter, he played on the hockey and golf teams; at Bow- 
doin, on the hockey, tennis, and baseball teams; he was captain of 
the baseball team, and won the Maine intercollegiate champion- 
ship in tennis. 

He enlisted at Boston, Mass., on July 14, 1917, and trained at the 
M.I.T. Ground School; and at Pensacola, Fla., where he acted as 
Gunnery Pilot in advanced work. He spent six months as Instruct 
tor in Flying, and was Division Commander at Squantum. He was 
commissioned Ensign on March 8, 1918. At Pensacola he was Divi- 
sion Commander and Stunt Instructor; and Squadron Commander 
of Squadron 15, at San Diego, Cal. He was commissioned Lieut, 
(j.g.), dating from Dec, 1918, and on April 15, 1919, was honorably 
discharged at San Diego, Cal. 

During his Service Lieut. Eaton made patrol flights along the 
Atlantic and Pacific coasts, totalling 400 hours solo work. 

Married, Oct. 3, 1918, Mary E. Campbell. 

Brothers in Service — 

Carleton W. Eaton, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.C. 
Horace E. Eaton, Lieut., U.S.A., Field Artillery; Judge Advo- 
cate at Brest, France. 



[ 356 ] 



PAUL FROST IVES 



Lieutenant, U.S.N.R.F., Casual Officer 

Son of Archer Ward and Pauline (Frost) Ives; was born at Brook- 
line, Mass., Aug. 12, 1893. He was educated at the R. G. Shaw 
School, West Roxbury High School, and Berkeley Preparatory 
School. 

On May 5, 1917, he enlisted at Dedham, Mass., in U.S.N.R.F., 
Class 445. He attended Ground School, and Flying School, at Pen- 
sacola, Fla., from July 10 to Dec. 20, 1917. He sailed overseas on 
Jan. 13, 1918; was detailed to R.N. A. Station, Calshot, Eng., for 
advanced patrol training, Feb. 7, 1918. He was assigned to R.N.A. 
Station, Portland, for patrol duty, Feb. 13, 1918; and was trans- 
ferred to Felixstowe, May 7, 1918, for reconnaissance work. On 
July 30, 1918, he was ordered to the U.S.N.A. Station at Killing- 
holme, Eng., where he served as Pilot and Flight Commander until 
the Armistice. He sailed for America on Nov. 24, 1918. He was com- 
missioned Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Dec. 21, 1917; Lieut, (j.g.), April 
24, 1918. He was detached from active duty, Jan. 17, 1919, having 
been previously commissioned Lieut. 

The following is an extract from a report issued by the Navy 
Department at Washington, and signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt, 
relative to the services of Ensign Ives, U.S.N.R.F., attached to the 
Royal Navy Air Station, Calshot: 

. . . The Department quotes below for your information the report of 
Vice-Admiral Sims, relative to your operations while on scout duty against 
enemy submarines, under orders from the Commanding Officer of the 
Royal Navy Air Station, Portland, England: "The attached correspond- 
ence relative to the performance of duty of Ensign Paul F. Ives . . . 
U.S.N.R.F., reflects credit on both these officers. It is recommended that 
adequate recognition of their services be granted." The Department wishes 
to avail itself of this opportunity to express to you the very high appre- 
ciation felt upon receipt of reports similar to the above. It is strong evi- 
dence of the fact that earnest cooperation exists between the armed forces 
of our Allies and the United States Armed Forces. It is work of this char- 
acter that will impress our enemies with the realization that the United 
States is a power very much to be considered. Accordingly, you are hereby 
highly commended for your valiant and earnest efforts on this particular 
occasion. It is to be hoped that a continuance of such work will be main- 
tained in the future. . . . 

Married, Dec. 16, 1918, Ruth Merrill. 



[ 358 ] 



HENRY SWIFT 



Lieutenant, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Dr. and Mrs. William N. Swift; was born at New Bedford, 
Mass., in 1893. He attended the Friends' Academy, New Bedford; 
Milton Academy; and St. George's School, Newport, R.I. He grad- 
uated from Harvard College in 1915. 

In April, 1917, he volunteered for the Naval Aviation Service 
and was sent to Squantum, Mass., for training, then, in July, to 
the Ground School at Toronto University, Toronto, Can., and 
later to the flying school at Camp Rathbun; receiving final training 
at Camp Borden, Can. He was commissioned Ensign, in Dec, 
1917, and sent to Hampton Roads, Va.; from there he was trans- 
ferred to Pensacola, Fla., in Jan., 1918. 

He was made Superintendent of Aviation Mechanics' Schools, 
and commissioned Lieut, (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F., Class 5, in Aug., 1918. 
In April, 1919, he was commissioned Lieut., and was at last ac- 
counts still in the Service, and stationed at Great Lakes, 111., where 
he was Superintending Instructor of Miscellaneous Maintenance 
Force at the Navy Aviation Mechanics' School. 

Married, in 1914, Josephine Ranlet, of Boston. 



[ 360 ] 



JOSEPH C. HALLETT 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 




Son of Nelson A. and Mary E. Hallett, of Newton ville, Mass.; was 
born at Lynn, Mass., Aug. 5, 1894. He was educated at the Newton 
High School, the Stone School, and at Dartmouth College, A.B. 



He attended the Plattsburg Training Camp in 1916, and enlisted 
at Boston, Mass., April 4, 1917. He was first stationed at Common- 
wealth Pier, Boston, then at Bumkin's Island. He was then trained 
as a night bomber at the M.I.T., N.A. School; and at the Naval 
Air Station, Pensacola, Fla. He sailed overseas, expecting to be 
transferred to the Marine Aviation Service, and used for bombing 
enemy cities and towns, but on account of lack of planes, he was 
sent to N.A.S., at Moutchic-Lacanau, France, for further training 
in coast patrol work. After a short period of instruction, he was de- 
tached for service at the Naval Station at St.-Trojan, on an island 
off the French coast, where he remained until the Armistice. He was 
commissioned Ensign, on July 8, 1918. He returned to the U.S. and 
was relieved from active duty Jan. 2, 1919, at New York. 

Relatives in Service — 

Grandfather: Nelson A. Hallett, Artificer, with the U.S. En- 
gineers, Civil War. 

Uncle: James H. Hallett, Sergeant, Heavy Artillery, Spanish- 
American War. 



1917. 



[ 362 ] 



HOWARD JOHN ROWEN 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Edward George and Annie Matina (McNeil) Bo wen; was 
born at Jamaica Plain, Mass., July 22, 1895. He attended the 
public schools of Jamaica Plain, and graduated from Boston Col- 
lege in 1916. At college he was for two years captain of the track 
team, and one year manager of the football team. 

He enlisted in the U.S.N.R.F., May 5, 1917, at the Boston Navy 
Yard, and trained at the M.I.T., from July 21 to Sept. 16. He was 
then sent to Pensacola, Fla., where he trained until Dec. 21, 1917, 
when he was commissioned Ensign. He sailed overseas Jan. 15, 
1918, and after being stationed at London for a month, was trans- 
ferred to the Bombing School at Moutchic-Lacanau, France, 
where he remained until April 15, when he was ordered to the 
Naval Air Station at lie Tudy. He was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.),; 
and made Chief Pilot at this station about May 25, 1918. He was 
stationed there on duty until the end of the war. 

On July 5, 1918, Lieut. Rowen received a submarine warning 
from some twenty-five miles distant, and he and his observer, in 
company with another plane, at once started out; finding traces of 
the enemy they let go their bombs and succeeded in destroying a 
submarine which was known to have been doing much damage in 
that vicinity. The destruction of this submarine was officially 
credited to Lieut. Rowen and his observer, and they also destroyed 
a number of mines in that vicinity. The station at lie Tudy was 
especially commended as a model for its excellent work and 
efficiency. 

Lieut. Rowen returned to the U.S., Dec. 1, 1918, and was as- 
signed to the N.A. Station at Key West, Fla., as Squadron Com- 
mander. In connection with recruiting, he did considerable "movie" 
work for the Government, and before his return from France was 
selected to be sent home as Instructor in Patrol Work, which plan 
was given up on account of the Armistice. He was placed on in- 
active duty at Key West, June 20, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Edward Joseph Rowen, U.S.N.R.F., Engineer Officer at 
Pauillac, France. 



[ 364 ] 



RICHARD A. MARSCHAT 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Albert and Karoline (Vicital) Marschat, of Ashley Falls, 
Mass.; was bora at New York City, June 15, 1894. He was edu- 
cated at the Morris High School, New York City, at Mercersburg 
Academy, and at Dartmouth College. In both preparatory school 
and college he was a member of the track and cross-country teams. 

He enlisted as Seaman, 1st class, May 18, 1917, in the Naval 
Reserve Force at New York, and was in training at Pelham Bay, 
until Dec. 13, 1917. He entered the Naval Aviation Detachment 
at M.I.T., Feb. 18, 1918, and was transferred to Pensacola, Fla., 
as Student Naval Aviator, training from May 18 to Aug. 20, 1918. 
He was commissioned Ensign, Aug. 20, 1918. 

Ensign Marschat was detailed to the U.S. Naval Station at 
Chatham, Mass., Sept. 6, 1918, for active duty as Coast Sub- 
marine Patrol. 

Brothers in Service — 

Albert J. Marschat, Private, Signal Corps, A.E.F. 
Arthur G. Marschat, Private, Signal Corps, A.E.F. 
Lawrence Marschat, Midshipman, Junior Naval Reserve. 



[ 366 ] 



PHILLIPS WARD PAGE 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 
Killed in airplane accident, Dec, 1917 
Son of Cyrus Andrew and Anna M. (Phillips) Page; was born 
Nov. 28, 1885. He graduated from Harvard College in 1909. In 
April, 1917, he enlisted in the Aviation Service, and was stationed at 
Squantum, Mass., during the summer of 1917. In Nov. he was sent 
overseas to France. He was commissioned Ensign in 1917. During 
a trial flight off the English coast, he was killed in an airplane acci- 
dent in Dec, 1917. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

PHILIP THAYER STONEMETZ 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Harry M. and Flora Cooley Stonemetz; was born at Newton, 
Mass., April 8, 1899. He was educated at the Newton High School, 
and at Williams College, class of 1921. In the high school he was a 
member of the hockey team. In 1916 he attended the Officers' Train- 
ing Camp at Plattsburg. He enlisted, May 26, 1918, and trained at 
the M.I.T. Naval Aviation School until Aug. 16, 1918. He was then 
assigned to the Naval Air Station, at Miami, Fla., where he re- 
mained until Oct. 20, 1918. He was then transferred to the Air 
Station at Pensacola, Fla.; there he was commissioned Ensign, 
Jan, 14, 1919, and placed on inactive duty, Feb. 11, 1919. 



[ 368 ] 



MICHAEL JOSEPH DELEHANTY 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 
Killed in airplane accident, March 25, 1918 

Born at Boston, Mass., Jan. 17, 1896. He was educated at the Eng- 
lish High School and at Bowdoin College. He entered the Naval 
Aviation Service, and attended the M.I.T. Naval Aviation Ground 
School. He continued his training at Norfolk, Va., and at Pensacola, 
Fla. On March 25, 1918, he was killed in an accident at Pensacola. 
(Portrait on opposite page.) 

JOHN M. PETTI NGELL 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Capt. John Mason and Caroline (Fowler) Pettingell, of 
Cambridge, Mass.; was born at Newburyport, Mass., May 26, 1890. 
He graduated from the Newburyport High School in 1908, and 
from the Mass. Institute of Technology in 1912. He enlisted at 
Chicago, 111., Sept. 27, 1917. On Dec. 29, 1917, he graduated from 
Squadron 25, at the School of Military Aeronautics, Austin, Tex., 
and was assigned to the 3d Cadet Squadron at Ellington Field, 
Houston, Tex. He was subsequently Acrobatic and Cadet Flying 
Instructor at Payne Field, West Point, Miss. He was commissioned 
2d Lieut., April 20, 1918, and completed final training at the 
3d A.I.C., Issoudun, France, as Pursuit Pilot. He returned to 
the U.S., and was honorably discharged on Feb. 24, 1919, at 
Camp Dix, N.J. 

Father in Service — 

John Mason Pettingell, Capt., 8th Mass. Inf., Spanish-Amer- 
ican War. 



[ 370 ] 



HAROLD COBB HARRIS 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Samuel Tibbets and Caroline S. (Cobb) Harris, of Dedham, 
Mass.; was born at Somerville, Mass., Dec. 16, 1895. He was edu- 
cated at the Powder Point School and at Dartmouth College. 

He attended the Plattsburg Training Camp in June, 1916. He 
enlisted at Boston, Mass., on April 3, 1917, and was attached to the 
U.S. Naval Aeronautical Detachment, at Akron, Ohio, from Oct. 8, 
1917, to Jan. 15, 1918. He was trained at the Naval Air Station, 
Rockaway, N.Y., from Jan. 16 to Jan. 30, 1918. He sailed overseas, 
and was attached to the U.S. Naval Air Station, Queenstown, Ire- 
land, from March 9 to March 19, 1918. He was subsequently sta- 
tioned at the R.N.A.S. School, Rockampton, Eng., from March 20 
to April 20, 1918; U.S. Naval Air Station, Wexford, Ireland, 
April 25 to July 3, 1918; U.S. Naval Air Station, La Trinite, France, 
July 11 to Aug. 17, and Sept. 27 to Nov. 25, 1918; U.S. Naval Air 
Station, Brest, France, Aug. 18 to Sept. 26, 1918; U.S. Naval Air 
Station, Cape May, N.J., from Jan. 25, 1919, to date. He was 
commissioned Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Jan. 24, 1918; and Lieut, (j.g.), 
U.S.N.R.F., Oct. 1, 1918. Lieut. Harris was a member of the first 
class of naval kite balloon pilots to be instructed and graduated, as 
a class, in this branch of Naval Aviation. At last accounts he had 
qualified as a dirigible pilot at Cape May, N.J. 



[ 372 ] 



HENRY COMYN CLAYTON 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Naval Air Station, Chatham, Mass. 
Northern Bombing Group, Squadron 1 

Son of Henry Helm and Fawn (Comyn) Clayton; was born at Mil- 
ton, Mass., April 29, 1894. He was educated at the Canton High 
School, and at the Mass. Institute of Technology, where he took 
a three-year course in electro-chemistry before his entry into the 
Naval Service. He attended the Plattsburg Training Camp in 1915 
and in 1916. 

On May 10, 1917, he enlisted at Boston, in the U.S. Naval Re- 
serve Flying Corps. From July 23 to Sept. 15, 1917, he trained at 
the M.I.T. Ground School. From Sept. 15 to Jan. 9, 1918, he was 
attached to the U.S. Naval Air Station, Hampton Roads, Va., and 
from Jan. 11 to Feb. 24, to the N.A. Station, Pensacola, Fla. He 
was commissioned Ensign, Feb. 18, 1918. Receiving overseas or- 
ders, he trained from April 3 to June 10, at the U.S.N. Air Station, 
Moutchic-Lacanau, France. He was then transferred to the Italian 
Army School of Aviation, at Malpensa, Italy, where he remained 
from June 19 to July 22, 1918. From the latter date until Oct. 26, he 
acted as Ferry Pilot from Milan, a fortnight of this time being 
spent at Gioia del Colle, Italy. From Oct. 30, 1918, to Jan. 15, 1919, 
he was a member of the Northern Bombing Group, Squadron 1. 
Early in 1919, Ensign Clayton returned to America and was sta- 
tioned, from Feb. 28, 1919, at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Chatham, 
Mass. 

Married, June 23, 1917, Augusta Frances Capen. 



[ 374 ] 



ALDRED K WARREN, Jr. 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Born July 2, 1897, at Staten Island, N.Y. He graduated from the 
Salem High School in 1916. He served for five months on the Mex- 
ican Border, at Fort Bliss, El Paso, Tex., with the 1st Mass. 
F.A., N.G., from June to Nov., 1916. He enrolled in the Naval 
Reserve Flying Corps, in April, 1917; was called to active service 
in July, and was assigned to the Naval Aviation Ground School at 
the M.I.T. In Sept., 1917, he was sent to Pensacola, Fla., for flight 
training, and in Nov. qualified as a Naval Aviator. He was com- 
missioned Ensign, in Nov., 1917, and ordered to San Diego, Cal., 
as a Flight Instructor, in Dec, 1917. There he remained, fulfilling 
the duties of a Division Commander until ordered to Pensacola, 
Fla., for advanced training in Dec, 1918. (Portrait on opposite 
page.) 

GEORGE LINWOOD HALL 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of George W. and Effie B. Hall; was born at Mansfield, Mass., 
May 2, 1898. He was educated in the Mansfield public schools, 
and at the M.I.T. He enlisted at Boston, on Nov. 12, 1917. He 
trained successively at Princeton Ground School, Dec. 8, 1917, to 
Feb. 16, 1918; Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., Feb. 21 to March 12; 
Taliaferro Field, Ft. Worth, Tex., March 13, to June 13. He was 
commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S., June 5, 1918. He was on duty at 
Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., June 13 to July 28; Armorers' School, 
Wilbur Wright Field, Fairfield, O., Aug. 1 to Aug. 28, 1918. On 
Sept. 15 he sailed for France, and was stationed from Oct. 13, 1918, 
to Jan. 20, 1919, at 3d A.I.C., Issoudun, France. He completed 
his training as pursuit pilot late in Nov., 1918. He returned to the ' 
U.S. on Feb. 17, 1919, and was honorably discharged Feb. 20, 1919, 
at Garden City, N.Y. 



[ 376 ] 



GORDON C. PRINCE 



Captain, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Gordon and Lillian (Chickering) Prince; was born at Bos- 
ton, Mass. He graduated from Harvard College in 1910. Before 
the declaration of war by the U.S. he volunteered for the Aviation 
Service, passed his examinations as an aviator, and began training 
at Newport News, Va. He attended the M.I.T. Ground School and 
sailed for Italy in Aug., 1917. He continued his training at Foggia, 
and was commissioned 1st Lieut, in Oct., 1917. In the spring of 
1918 he was sent to France, where he was ill with malaria all 
summer; upon recovery, he was made Instructor at Issoudun, his 
health not permitting him to fly in high altitudes. Lieut. Prince 
returned to the U.S. and was honorably discharged in March, 1919. 
He subsequently received notice of his promotion to Captain. 
(Portrait on opposite page.) 

CHESTER I. CHASE 
Cadet, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of George Burton and Maud A. (Ingalls) Chase, of Melrose, 
Mass.; was born at Maiden, Mass., Dec. 10, 1896. He was educated 
in the public schools of Melrose, and at the Mass. Agricultural 
College. At college he was a member of the Cadet Battalion. He 
enlisted in the Air Service at Boston, Mass., Dec. 31, 1917. From 
May 18, 1918, to Aug. 14, 1918, he received ground school train- 
ing at M.I.T. He was then transferred to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., 
where he remained from Aug. 17 to Sept. 21, 1918. He was subse- 
quently stationed at Barron Field, Everman, Tex., from Sept. 21 
to Nov. 27, when he received his honorable discharge from the 
Air Service. 



[ 378 ] 



LISPENARD BATHE PH1STER 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Son of Walter Bell and Elizabeth J. Phister, of Hartford, Conn.; 
was born at Chicago, 111., Sept. 27, 1896. He was educated in the 
public schools of Chicago, at Williams College, and at Trinity 
College. He enlisted at Cambridge, Mass., July 26, 1917, and 
graduated from the M.I.T. Ground School, Nov. 10, 1917. On 
Nov. 23, 1917, he sailed overseas, and continued his training at 
St.-Maixent, France, until May 15, 1918. He was commissioned 
2d Lieut., S.O.R.C., May 18, 1918; placed on active duty and com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., A.S.A., dating from June 13, 1918. He re- 
ceived flying training at Voves, and at Avord, and served as staff- 
pilot at Observers' School at Tours, from Sept. 24, 1918, to Feb. 8, 
1919. Received Brevet d'Aviateur Militaire, July 22, 1918, and 
civilian brevet from the Aero Club of France. He arrived in N.Y., 
May 6, 1919, and was honorably discharged at Camp Dodge, la., 
May 22, 1919. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

LEO J. LEEBURN 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 
Son of Samuel A. and Catherine E. Leeburn; was born at Paw- 
tucket, R.I., Nov. 28, 1890. He was educated at the Pawtucket 
High School. He enlisted in the Air Service at Providence, R.I., 
Nov. 30, 1917, and was assigned to the M.I.T. Ground School, 
where he remained from Dec. 1 to Dec. 22, 1917. He was trans- 
ferred to Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., where he finished the 
course, Feb. 9, 1918, and was then stationed at Camp Dick, 
Dallas, Tex., until April 11. He was subsequently ordered to 
Eberts Field, Lonoke, Ark., where he trained from April 12 to 
July 19, 1918. On July 20, 1918, he was commissioned 2d Lieut., 
and detailed to Eberts Field, as Flying Instructor, from July 20, 

1918, to Feb. 8, 1919. He was then assigned to Love Field, Dallas, 
Tex., as Flying Instructor, and served from Feb. 12 to April 1, 

1919, when he was honorably discharged. 

Brother in Service — 

William J. Leeburn, Ambulance Driver, 42d Sanitary Train. 
[ 380 ] 



JAMES ALLAN HODDER 



Cadet, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Alfred LeRoy and Jessie D. Hodder, of Framingham, Mass. ; 
was born at Rosemont, Pa., May 29, 1897. His childhood was spent 
in Neuchatel, Switzerland. He attended the Kent School in Conn., 
graduated from Newton High School in 1915, and entered the 
University of Neuchatel, Switzerland, in 1915. He drove a hospital 
supply ambulance at Paris in the summer of 1916, then returned 
to the U.S. and entered Harvard College, class of 1920. He left 
Harvard after the declaration of war, enlisting in the U.S. Ambu- 
lance Service, and was assigned to the Harvard Unit. He reached 
France in Dec, 1917, and passed examination for transfer to the 
Aviation Division, which Service he entered in France on his 
twenty-first birthday, May 29, 1918. He trained in France at 
Tours and Chateauroux. (Portrait on opposite page.) 

IRAD EDMUNDS WILLIS 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Newton Allen and Clara Isabel (Edmunds) Willis; was born 
at Concord, N.H., July 20, 1887. He was educated at the Concord 
High School, and at Harvard and Cornell Universities. 

He enlisted in the Air Service at Boston, Mass., Jan. 29, 1918, 
and was assigned to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., where he remained 
from June 1 to June 25, 1918. He attended the M.I.T. Ground 
School from June 29 to Sept. 6, and the Ground School at Cornell 
University from Sept. 7 to Sept. 21, 1918. He then trained at 
Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., where he remained from Oct. 4 to Oct. 16. 
He was subsequently ordered to the Coast Artillery School, Fort 
Monroe, Virginia, Oct. 20 to Dec. 6, 1918, and to the School of 
Aerial Observation, Post Field, Fort Sill, Okla., Dec. 10, 1918, to 
Feb. 14, 1919. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., Dec. 6, 1918, and 
applied for discharge at Post Field, Fort Sill, Okla., Feb. 14, 1919. 



[ 382 ] 



GEORGE H. MACKAY, Jr. 



First Lieutenant, R.A.F. 

Son of George H. and Maria Mitchell (Starbuck) Mackay; was 
born at Boston, Mass., Oct. 13, 1885. He attended the Noble and 
Greenough School, and graduated from Harvard College in 1908. 
He served for over nine years in the National Guard, being with 
the 1st Corps of Cadets; the Coast Artillery Corps; and the 1st 
Squadron of Cavalry, with which he served as Sergeant, on the 
Mexican Border. 

On March 17, 1917, he enlisted in the Royal Flying Corps, and 
trained at Camp Borden, Toronto, Can. He was commissioned 
2d Lieut., July 23, 1917, and 1st Lieut. April 1, 1918. While in 
Canada he was badly injured in a "crash." He sailed overseas and 
was stationed at C ran we 11, Eng., where he served as a Flying 
Officer. He was discharged, owing to wounds, Dec. 21, 1918. 

(Portrait on opposite page.) 

MANSON McKOWN DILLAWAY 
Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of George L. and Josephine Dillaway, of Wakefield, Mass.; 
was born at Bath, Me., Sept. 2, 1894. He graduated from Tufts 
College, and was studying at the Boston University Law School at 
the time of his enlistment. He had previously served in the 6th 
Mass. Infantry, N.G., from June, 1916, to Nov. 1, 1917. On the 
latter date he enlisted in the Aviation Service at Boston, and at- 
tended the M.I.T. Ground School from Nov. 3, 1917, to Jan. 4, 
1918. From Jan. 5 to Jan. 12, he trained at the Cornell Ground 
School; then transferred to Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La., 
where he trained from Jan. 19 to May 30. There he was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., May 8, 1918. In June he was stationed at 
Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex.; from June 17 to July 17, at Fort Sill, 
Okla.; from July 17 to Nov. 1, at Hicks Field, Fort Worth, Tex.; 
and later at Garden City, N. Y. Honorably discharged, Dec. 11, 1918. 

Brother in Service — 

George L. D. Dillaway, 6th Mass. Inf., N.G., entered West 
Point, U.S.M.A., June, 1917. 



[ 384 ) 



CHARLES R. MACAULAY 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 
Born at Beverly, Mass., Dec. 16, 1893. He graduated from the 
Beverly High School, and from Pratt Institute in 1915. On Feb. 11, 
1916, he enlisted at Olean, N.Y., in the Infantry, N.Y. National 
Guard. He saw service at the Mexican Border, in 1916, and was 
promoted to Corporal. Following the declaration of war, he was 
chosen from the National Guard to attend the Officers' Training 
Camp, where he was commissioned 1st Lieut., U.S. Infantry, in 
Aug., 1917. He was a member of the "Iron Battalion" under Col. 
Azan at Cambridge, Mass. He was assigned to the 312th Infantry, 
at Camp Dix, where he remained until Jan. , 1 9 1 8 ; he then transferred 
to Aviation, and trained at Austin, Tex., from April 1 to June, 1918, 
and Kelly Field, San Antonio, and was commissioned 1st Lieut., 
A.S., U.S.A., Nov. 1, 1918. On Nov. 28 he was sent to San Diego as 
Instructor in Advanced Flying. Honorably discharged, Jan. 4, 1919. 
Brother in Service — 

A. Vernon Macaulay, 2d Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. 

A. VERNON MACAULAY 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 
Born at Beverly, Mass., April 4, 1891. He graduated from the 
Beverly High School, and was engaged in business with the 
United Shoe Machinery Co., when the U.S. entered the war. He 
enlisted at Boston, Mass., July 15, 1917, in the Aviation Section, 
U.S.A. He attended the M.I.T. Ground School from Oct. 15 to 
Jan. 1, 1918, when he was transferred to the School of Military 
Aeronautics at Princeton, N.J. On Feb. 2, 1918, he was sent to 
Dallas, Tex., for some weeks, continuing his training at Chanute 
Field, Rantoul, 111., where he qualified as a Pursuit Pilot, and was 
commissioned 2d Lieut, on June 8, 1918. Lieut. Macaulay was sent 
to Dallas, Tex., where he took a course in Aerial Navigation, and 
then to Dayton, Ohio. He received overseas orders, and arrived in 
France, Oct. 10, 1918. Had completed training at time of Armistice. 

Brother in Service — 

Charles R. Macaulay, 1st Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. 

[ 386 ] 



WILLIAM PLATT 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Piatt; was born at New York City, 
Feb. 6, 1897. He was educated at St. Mark's School, Southboro, 
Mass., and at Harvard College, class of 1919. At St. Mark's he was 
captain of the football and hockey teams. At Harvard he was a 
member of the freshman football and hockey teams. 

He attended the Plattsburg Training Camps in 1915 and 1916. 
On March 16, 1917, he enlisted in the U.S.N.R.F. at the Charles- 
town Navy Yard, Charlestown, Mass. He was trained successively 
at the Naval Air Stations at Hampton Roads, Va., Pensacola, Fla., 
Marine Field, Miami, Fla.; and was stationed at the Naval Air 
Station, Anacostia, D.C., until he sailed overseas, on Aug. 24, 1918. 
In France he was stationed at the U.S. Naval Air Stations at 
Moutchic-Lacanau, and at Brest. He was commissioned Ensign, 
March 16, 1918. 

STEPHEN PAINE 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Squadron 12 

Son of William A. and Ruth (Felton) Paine; was born in Boston, 
Mass., July 30, 1897- He attended the Country Day School in 
Newton, Mass., from 1907 to 1916, and was manager of the school 
track team. He entered Harvard College with the class of 1920; 
trained with the Harvard R.O.T.C., and enlisted in the U.S.N.R.F. 
at Boston, in April, 1918, in his freshman year. 

He began his training at the Naval Aviation Ground School, 
M.I.T., and was later assigned to Key West, Fla., for flight train- 
ing. In Oct., 1918, he was commissioned Ensign at Key West, Fla., 
and made an Instructor. His designation as a Naval Aviator was 
received Oct. 28, 1918. He remained at Key West until returned to 
inactive duty on Feb. 5, 1919. 



[ 388 ] 



MORRIS HALL BAILEY 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F.C. 
Son of Albert E. and Marion Breed (Hall) Bailey; was born at 
North Scituate, Mass., Oct. 25, 1898. He attended the Newton 
High School and Worcester Academy, and entered Harvard Col- 
lege in 1915. 

He enlisted in Naval Aviation as soon as that branch of the Serv- 
ice was created in June, 1917. He trained at the Naval Aviation 
Ground School, M.I.T., and later at Pensacola, Fla. He was com- 
missioned Ensign, in Feb., 1918, and sailed for France, March 6, 
1918, finishing his training at Moutchic-Lacanau, France. In May, 
1918, he was transferred to Areachon, in the Gironde, and saw ac- 
tive service there, as well as at lie Tudy, Finistere. 

He returned to the U.S. on Dec. 18, 1918, and was placed on 
active duty at Chatham, Mass., where he was made Flight Com- 
mander. He was later stationed at the Naval Air Base, at Norfolk, 
Va. He was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.) in March, 1919. 

WILLIS DUER THOMPSON, Jr. 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Willis Duer and Abby E. (Whiton) Thompson; was born at 
Concord, N.H., May 26, 1895. He was educated at the Concord 
High School, and at Dartmouth College, class of 1917. Previous 
to enlistment he trained with the Dartmouth College Regiment, in 
1917. 

He enlisted at Boston, Mass., on May 4, 1917, and spent two 
months with the M.I.T. Naval Aviation Detachment; then four 
months at the Naval Air Station, Hampton Roads, Va. Following 
this he trained for two months at the Naval Air Station, Pensa- 
cola, Fla. He was commissioned Ensign, March 4, 1918, ordered 
overseas, and stationed at the Naval Air Station, Moutchic- 
Lacanau, France. His permanent assignment was at the U.S. Naval 
Air Station, L'Aber Vrach, Finistere, France. 
Released from active service at Bay Shore, N. Y., on Dec. 20, 1918. 
Brother in Service — 

Raymond M. Thompson, Lieut., U.S.A., 2d Marine Corps; 
died of influenza, Sept. 13, 1918. 

[ 390 ] 



THEODORE PHINNEY GROSVENOR 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of William and Rose D. (Phinney) Grosvenor; was born at 
Providence, R.I., Jan. 3, 1897. He was educated at St. George's 
School, Newport, R.I., and at Harvard College, class of 1920. 

He attended the Plattsburg Training Camp in 1916, and the 
Harvard R.O.T.C. for one year. He enlisted at Squantum, Mass., 
and was attached to the U.S.N.A. Station there from May 10 to 
Oct. 15, 1917. He trained at U.S.N.A.S., Hampton Roads, Va., 
from Oct. 15 to Feb. 5, 1918. He was commissioned Ensign, Jan. 2, 
1918; attended Camp Hicks, Tex., School of Aerial Gunnery, 
R.F.C., from Feb. 5 to March 1, 1918; was attached to Head- 
quarters, Washington, D.C., from March 1 to March 29, 1918. He 
sailed overseas, March 29, and was stationed at U.S.N.A.S., Kil- 
lingholme, Eng., till Dec. 1, 1918. He was commissioned Lieut, 
(j.g.), Oct. 1, 1918. Placed on inactive duty, Jan. 15, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

William Grosvenor, 2d Lieut., A.S.A., U.S.A. 



WILLIAM FORBES MUDGE 

Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F., Northern Bombing Group 

Son of Arthur W. and Alice (Green) Mudge; was born at Jamaica 
Plain, Mass., Sept. 1, 1895..He was educated at Worcester Acad- 
emy, Phillips Andover Academy, and at Princeton University. 

He attended the Plattsburg Training Camp in 1916, and en- 
listed on June 4, 1917, at New York City. He trained with the 
Royal Flying Corps at the School of Military Aeronautics, To- 
ronto, Can.; at Camp Rathbun; Deseronto; and Camp Borden; 
from July 10 to Nov. 9, 1917, when he was commissioned Ensign, 
U.S.N.R.F. He was stationed successively at Bay Shore, N.Y., 
and Pensacola, Fla., until June 25, 1918. He sailed overseas, and 
was attached to the Northern Bombing Group, U.S.N.A. Force 
from July 17 to Nov. 23, 1918. On Dec. 3, 1918, he was commis- 
sioned Lieut, (j.g.). Placed on inactive duty Jan. 1, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Arthur W. Mudge, Jr., Capt., U.S.A., 22d Regiment, Infantry. 
[ 392 ] 



JOSHUA CRANE, Jr. 
Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F.C. 

Son of Joshua and Ethel (Hill) Crane, of Westwood, Mass.; was 
born at Brookline, Mass., Nov. 15, 1897. He was educated at Mil- 
ton Academy and at Harvard College. He enlisted at Boston, Mass., 
in May, 1917. From May to Sept. he trained at Squantum, Mass.; 
from Sept. to Dec, 1917, at Norfolk, Va. In Jan. and Feb. he 
was stationed at Fort Worth, Tex., being commissioned Ensign, 
U.S.N.R.F.C, in Jan., 1918. 

Receiving overseas orders, he sailed for England in March, 1918, 
and was stationed at Killingholme Air Station, near Hull, Eng., 
until Dec. 18, 1918. He was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.), in Nov., 
1918. In Feb., 1919, Lieut. Crane was honorably discharged. 

LAURENCE CURTIS 
Lieutenant, U.S.N.R.C., Naval Air Station, Pensacola 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Louis Curtis; was born at Boston, Mass., 
Sept. 3, 1893. He was educated at Groton School, Groton, Mass., 
and at Harvard College, class of 1916. He won the John Harvard 
Scholarship at college; played on the hockey and tennis teams, 
and was substitute on the 'Varsity football team. 

He enlisted at Washington, D.C., on April 26, 1917, in the U.S. 
Naval Reserve; and was assigned to Aviation duty. While flying 
with an instructor at Newport News he had a severe fall, in May, 
1917, and received injuries which incapacitated him from further 
flying. On Nov. 15, 1917, he was commissioned Ensign, Aviation 
Ground Officer, and was attached to the Naval Air Station, Pensa- 
cola. He was promoted to Lieut, (j.g.), March 23, 1918; and was 
commissioned Lieut. Oct. 1, 1918. He was detached to inactive 
duty, Jan. 27, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 
Louis Curtis, Jr., Capt., U.S.A., F.A., 77th Div., A.E.F. 



[ 394 ] 



WALTER HARMON HELLIER 



Second Lieutenant, R.A.F. 
Son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Hellier; was born at Boston, Mass., 
Aug. 5, 1893. He was educated at St. Mark's School, Southboro' 
Mass., Yale College, B.A. 1916, and at the Harvard Law School. 

He enlisted in the Royal Air Force, at Toronto, Can., in Nov., 
1917. From Nov. 17 to Feb. 18, 1918, he trained at the School of 
Military Aeronautics, at Toronto. He was attached to the 84th 
Canadian Training Squadron at Camp Bembrook, Tex., in Feb. 
and March, 1918, and was stationed at Armour Heights, Can., in 
April, May, and June, 1918. On July 8, he was commissioned 2d 
Lieut. R.A.F., and ordered overseas, to No. 6 T.D.S., Boscombe 
Down, Wilts, Eng., where he remained from Aug., 1918, to Feb., 
1919. 

Lieut. Hellier was demobilized at Boscombe Down, Eng., Feb. 
5, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Edward Whittier Hellier, 1st Lieut., R.A.F. 

EDWARD WHITTIER HELLIER 

First Lieutenant, R.A.F., Cranwell Aerodrome 
Lincolnshire, England 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Hellier; was born at Boston, Mass., 
Dec. 11, 1895. He was educated at St. Mark's School, Southboro, 
the Florida- Adirondack School, and at M.I.T. 

He enlisted in Aug., 1917, in the Royal Air Force, at Toronto, 
Can., and trained at the School of Military Aeronautics, Toronto, 
from Aug. to Nov., 1917. From Nov., 1917, to Jan., 1918, he was 
attached to the Northern Canadian Training Squadron. He was 
commissioned 2d Lieut., R.F.C., in Jan., 1918, and was appointed 
Instructor at the Aerial Fighting School, Camp Hicks, Tex., 
where he remained until April, 1918. He was then commissioned 
1st Lieut., R.A.F., in April, 1918, and ordered overseas to the 
Cranwell Aerodrome, Lincolnshire, Eng., Aug., 1918, where he 
was stationed until the end of the war. 

Brother in Service — 

Walter H. Hellier, 2d Lieut., R.A.F. 

[ 396 ] 



JAMES ARNOLD LOWELL 

Cadet, R.A.F., Eighty-Fifth Canadian Training Squadron 
Son of James and Mary Wharton (Churchill) Lowell, of Chestnut 
Hill, Mass.; was born at Boston, Aug. 15, 1899. He was prepared 
for college at the Country Day School in Newton, Mass., and at 
the Evans School in Mesa, Arizona. He entered Harvard College 
in Sept., 1917, only to leave before the close of his freshman year 
to join the Air Service. Being too young to enter the U.S. Service, 
he enlisted, on May 15, 1918, with the Royal Air Force, in Canada. 
Cadet Lowell received his training at various Canadian camps: 
at the Recruits' Depot in Toronto; the Discipline Camp at Long 
Branch; the School of Aeronautics at Toronto; the School of 
Armament at Hamilton; and at the Flying Camp at Deseronto, 
where he was first attached to a Ground Instruction Section, and 
later to the 85th Canadian Training Squadron. He received his 
honorable discharge from the British Service upon the cessation 
of training for the Royal Air Force in Canada, Dec. 4, 1918. 



ALBERT N. PARKER 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Fiftieth Aero Squadron 
First Observation Group 

Son of Eric W. and Lena N. (Goldsmith) Parker, of Maiden, Mass.; 
was born at Cambridge, Mass., April 8, 1896. He was educated in 
the Maiden public schools and at Huntington School, Boston. 

He enlisted in the Air Service on Aug. 9, 1917, at Cambridge, 
and was trained at the Ground School, M.I.T.; Lower Field, Fort 
Sill ; and at Taliaferro Field, in aerial gunnery. He was commissioned 
2d Lieut, at Lower Field, Texas, on March 16, 1918. Lieut. Parker 
sailed overseas on July 1,1918, and completed training at Issoudun, 
France; after which he was attached to the 50th Aero Squadron, 
1st Observation Group, and saw active service at the front until 
the signing of the Armistice. He was cited in General Orders No. 33: 

Second Lieutenant A. N. Parker, Pilot of the 50th Aero Squadron, has 
exhibited commendable courage and ability in his work over the line dur- 
ing the St.-Mihiel and Argonne-Meuse offensives. 

By order of Colonel Milling 



[ 398 ] 



BENJAMIN M. GREELY, Jr. 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Northern Bombing Group 

Son of Benjamin M. and Helen P. Greely; was born at Boston, 
Mass., Jan. 10, 1897. He was educated at the English High School, 
and at the Mass. Institute of Technology. In 1916 he went on a 
civilian naval cruise. On May 23, 1917, he enlisted at Boston, and 
trained at the M.I.T. Naval Aviation Ground School ("Flight A"). 
From Sept. 15, 1917, to Jan. 10, 1918, he was attached to the U.S. 
Naval Air Station, Hampton Roads, Va.; from Jan. 10 to Feb. 26, 
to the U.S. Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla. He was commis- 
sioned Ensign on Feb. 26, 1918. He was ordered overseas, and 
from April 1 to June 10, 1918, was stationed at Moutchic-Lacanau, 
France. Ensign Greely was then transferred to the U.S. Naval Air 
Forces in Italy, where he served from June 10 to Oct. 25, 1918, and 
qualified as Italian Military Aviator (Brevetto Superiore), July 4, 
1918. From Oct. 25 until Nov. 18 he was attached to the Northern 
Bombing Group, in France. After the signing of the Armistice he 
returned to America, and was placed on inactive duty at Hampton 
Roads, Va., Jan. 17, 1919. 

HENRY TURNER STANLEY 

Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 

Enlisted in March, 1917, and in July he attended the Ground 
School at the M.I.T. In Sept. he was sent to continue his training 
at the Flying School, Pensacola, Fla. He was commissioned En- 
sign, in Dec, 1917, and sailed for England on Jan. 13, 1918. He 
was assigned to the Royal Naval Air Service Station at Newlyn, 
Cornwall, Eng., remaining there for six months, when he was 
transferred to France, Aug., 1918, and stationed at the U.S. Naval 
Air Station at St. -Trojan, where he was at the time of the Armi- 
stice. He was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.), Oct. 1, 1918. 



[ 400 ] 



GEORGE KNOWLTON KEITH 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 
Son of Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Keith, of Boston; was born at Grafton, 
Mass., April 29, 1896. He attended St. George's School, at Newport, 
R.I., and graduated from the Noble and Greenough School, Boston, 
in 1917. In May, 1917, he enlisted in the Naval Reserve, and en- 
tered the Naval Aviation School at the M.I.T., in April, 1918, grad- 
uating in June, 1918. He was later assigned to the Kite Balloon 
Division, at Akron, Ohio. In Oct., 1918, he was commissioned En- 
sign at Rockaway, N.Y. He was subsequently stationed at Nor- 
folk, Va. 

HOWARD CROSBY SARGENT 
Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Born at Maiden, Mass., April 11, 1896. He attended the public 
schools of Maiden; and the Worcester Polytechnic, from Sept., 
1914, to May, 1917. He enlisted in the U.S. Naval Aviation Serv- 
ice, June 28, 1917, and attended the Naval Aviation Ground 
School at the M.I.T. from Sept. 4 to Oct. 27, 1917. He trained at 
Pensacola, Fla., from Oct. 27, 1917, to March 3, 1918, and was 
commissioned Ensign in Feb., 1918. He sailed overseas for France, 
March 29, 1918, and was stationed at Moutchic-Lacanau, France, 
where he trained from April 17 to July 1, 1918. He was stationed, 
as pilot, at St.-Trojan, Isle d'Oleron, France, and engaged in 
patrol, convoy, and anti-submarine warfare, from July 1 until 
the end of the war. 



[ 402 ] 



FRANK HOPEWELL UNDERHILL 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Twenty-Fourth Aero 
Squadron 

Son of William P. and Margaret (Huber) Underbill, of Newton, 
Mass.; was bora at Jersey City, N.J., Dec. 3, 1895. He graduated 
from the Newton High School in 1914, and attended Wesleyan 
University for three years, leaving to enter the Officers' Training 
Camp at Plattsburg in May, 1916. In Sept., 1916, he volunteered 
for the Aviation Service, and trained at Toronto, Can., being later 
sent to Fort Worth, Tex. He sailed overseas in Dec, 1917, and con- 
tinued his training at Issoudun and at Tours, France. He was then 
attached to the 24th Aero Squadron and saw service with this 
Squadron until after the signing of the Armistice, doing observation 
and reconnaissance work. Lieut. Underhill took part in the St.- 
Mihiel and Argonne offensives. He returned to the U.S. early in 
Feb., 1919, and was honorably discharged during the first week in 
March, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 
Donald Prince Underhill, 1st Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. 

DONALD PRINCE UNDERHILL 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of William P. and Margaret (Huber) Underhill, of Newton, 
Mass.; was born at Jersey City, N.J., March 10, 1897. He gradu- 
ated from the Newton High School, in 1916, and attended Norwich 
University for one year before enlisting in the Aviation Service. He 
trained at Taliaferro Field, Fort Worth, Tex., and at Lonoke, 
Ark.; he continued his training at Langley Field, Old Point Comfort, 
Va., and was then transferred to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., where he 
was at the time of the signing of the Armistice. He was honorably 
discharged in Jan., 1919. 

Brother in Service — 
Frank Hopewell Underhill, 1st Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. 



[ 404 ] 



EDWIN BEAUMONT HUBBARD 



Second Lieutenant, R.A.F., Twelfth T.D.S. 
Southwestern Area 

Son of William B. and Carrie N. (Haynes) Hubbard, of Roslindale, 
Mass.; was born in Dedham, IVTass., on Nov. 16, 1896. He was 
educated in the Boston public schools; at the Mitchell Military 
School, Billerica, Mass.; the English High School, Boston; and at 
the Bryant and Stratton Commercial College. He saw service at 
the Mexican Border with Troop A, 1st Mass. Reg., F.A., N.G. 

He enlisted in the Royal Air Force (British), in New York City, 
on Nov. 2, 1917. He was trained at the University of Toronto 
Ground School, and at various Canadian camps: 90 T.D.S., Camp 
Rathbun, Deseronto, Can.; 48 C.T.S., Camp Leaside, Toronto, 
Can.; and the School of Aerial Fighting, Beamsville, Can. After he 
had qualified as a flyer, he was commissioned 2d Lieut., R.A.F., on 
Aug. 8, 1918, and soon after sent overseas. Upon his arrival in 
England, Lieut. Hubbard was taken seriously ill with influenza 
and pneumonia. After a period of convalescence he continued his 
training at Netheravon, Wiltshire. He was discharged from the 
British Air Service at Netheravon, Eng., March 13, 1919. 

APPLETON KING 

Flight Cadet, Class A, Eighty-Fourth Aero Squadron, R.A.F. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Tarrant Putnam King; was born at Milton, 
Mass., March 15, 1899. He was educated at St. Mark's School, 
Southboro, Mass., and at Harvard College, class of 1921. 

He enlisted on April 29, 1918, in the Royal Air Force, at Toronto, 
Can. At the time of enlistment he was below the U.S. draft age, 
and so unable to enlist in the U.S.A. He passed through the Jesse 
Ketchum School (the Recruits Depot at Toronto), on May 4, the 
Camp of Discipline and Instruction at Long Branch, Ontario, on 
June 16. He trained at the School of Aeronautics, at the University 
of Toronto (Aerial Navigation) ; and at the School of Armament, 
at Hamilton, Ont. ; concluding his training at the Flying Camp at 
Lake Mohawk, Deseronto, Ont., where he secured a pilot's certifi- 
cate, and was assigned to the 84th Aero Squadron. He was honor- 
ably discharged with the rank of Flying Cadet, on Dec. 19, 1918. 

[ 406 ] 



CHARLES FRANCIS NASON 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Frederic A. and Susie M. (Tuttle) Nason; was born at 
Ipswich, Mass., Jan. 7, 1896. He was educated at the Ipswich High 
School and at the Boston University Law School. 

He enlisted in the 8th Mass. Infantry Band, on May 18, 1917, 
and was transferred to the Air Service, Feb. 20, 1918. He took his 
ground-school training at Ohio State University, and work in 
primary and advanced flying, at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex. 
Subsequently he attended the San Leon Gunnery School, Dickin- 
son, Tex. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., Oct. 23, 1918, and was 
awaiting assignment to overseas squadron, on Nov. 11, 1918. 

He was honorably discharged at Ellington Field, Jan. 3, 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Myron F. Nason, Musician, 102d F.A. Band, 26th Division. 

THAYER FRANCIS 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Observer 

Son of Dr. George H. and Elaina (Thayer) Francis; was born at 
Brookline, Mass., Aug. 10, 1894. He was educated at the Noble and 
Greenough School, Boston, and at Harvard College, class of 1915. 

He served two years in the Home Guard of Lowell, Mass., and 
attended the Plattsburg Training Camp in 1916 and 1917. He 
enlisted at Plattsburg on May 12, 1917; trained at Fort Sill, 
Okla., Aug. to Sept., 1917 ; was stationed at Camp Devens, Co. A, 
303d Infantry, from Oct., 1917, to April, 1918; he was Statistical 
Range Officer at Still River, Mass., from April to July, 1918. He went 
overseas with the 76th Division, but was transferred to the Aviation 
Service in France in Sept., 1918. He trained at St.-Maixent, Camp 
de Songe, Bordeaux, Tours, and at Chatillon-sur-Seine. He was 
Student Aerial Observer from Sept., 1918, to Jan., 1919; graduated 
from 2d Corps Aeronautical School, A.E.F., Jan. 25, 1919. He was 
commissioned 2d Lieut., Aug. 10, 1918; Military Observer, Feb. 1, 
1919. He was assigned to the Army of Occupation. In April, 
1919, he returned to the U.S., and was honorably discharged May 
2, 1919. 

Brother in Service: Augustine S. Francis, Ensign, U.S. Navy. 
[ 408 ] 



RAY BAXTER BROWN 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Richard Baxter and Ruth Abbie (Emerson) Brown; was 
born at Haverhill, Mass., Feb. 25, 1892. He was educated at the 
Haverhill High School; Phillips Exeter Academy; Brown Univer- 
sity, 1913-14; Harvard College, 1914-17. He trained with the Har- 
vard Regiment in 1916-17, and attended the First Officers' Train- 
ing Camp at Plattsburg. He enlisted on May 8, 1917, and entered 
the Air Service in July, 1917. From Oct. to Dec. 8, 1917, he at- 
tended the Ground School, M.I.T., and was then sent to Park 
Field, Memphis, Tenn., from Dec. 15, 1917, to March 29, 1918. 
He was commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S.A., U.S.A., March 30, 1918. 

From April 15 to May 1, Lieut. Brown was at Camp Dick, Dallas, 
Tex. ; and on May 5 was ordered to Ellington Field, Houston, Tex. 
He attended the Aerial Gunnery School at Taliaferro Field, Fort 
Worth, Tex., from Oct. 11 to Oct. 26, 1918. He received overseas 
orders Nov. 11, 1918, which were at once recalled. He was hon- 
orably discharged at Taliaferro Field, Jan. 9, 1919. 

CHARLES H. ROHRBACH 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Charles L. and Magdalena (Schmid) Rohrbach; was born 
at Bridgeport, Conn., July 15, 1890. He attended the Bridgeport 
High School, and entered Yale College with the class of 1912. He 
left Yale in 1910. He enlisted, Nov. 17, 1917, at Cambridge, Mass., 
and was assigned to the Ground Schools at the M.I.T. and at 
Cornell University. He was then ordered to Ellington Field, 
Houston, Tex., where he was commissioned 2d Lieut., May 9, 
1918. He was subsequently sent to Payne Field, West Point, Miss.; 
and to Mitchel Field, Hempstead, NY., where he was attached 
to the 51st Pursuit Squadron, 1st Prov. Wing. Lieut. Rohrbach 
was honorably discharged at Hazelhurst Field, Mineola, NY., 
Jan. 16, 1919. 

Married, Aug. 13, 1910, Nina Gilbert. 

Grandfather in Service — 

Charles H. Rohrbach, Corp., Conn. Volunteer Regiment, 
Civil War. 

[ 410 ] 



PHILIP BROOKS CRAIGHEAD 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of John and Susie (Brooks) Craighead, of Maiden, Mass. ; was 
born, Jan. 5, 1895. He graduated from the M.I.T., B.S. 1918. 

In Dec., 1917, he enlisted in the U.S. Air Service, but was al- 
lowed to finish his course at Tech., not being called to the colors 
until March 2, 1918. He attended the Ground School, Cornell Uni- 
versity, graduating with honors, first in a class of 90 men. On May 2 
he was ordered to Hazelhurst Field, No. 1, Mineola, N.Y., where 
he graduated as a Solo Pursuit Flyer, and on July 6, 1918, was or- 
dered to Souther Field, Americus, Ga., for acrobatics. He made a 
record for the field in consecutive loops ; also in cross-country flying. 
In Aug. he was commissioned 2d Lieut., and was also made a mem- 
ber of the Aero Club of America. On Sept. 3 he was ordered to Wil- 
bur Wright Field, Fairfield, Ohio, and on Oct. 4 to Payne Field, 
West Point, Miss., where he received overseas orders on Nov. 10, 
which were cancelled after the Armistice. He was honorably dis- 
charged on Dec. 30, 1918. In Feb., 1919, he received a commission 
as 2d Lieut., in the Reserves. 

ROLAND H. KINDER 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of John T. and Minnie F. Kinder; was born at Marlboro, N.H., 
Nov. 14, 1893. He graduated from the New Hampshire State Col- 
lege, B.S. 1915. 

He enlisted at Boston, Mass., Nov. 12, 1917, Aviation Section, 
Sig. E.R.C., and trained at Princeton, N.J., Dec. 10 to Feb. 27, 
1918; and at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., March 2 to April 1. He had 
primary flying at Chanute Field, Rantoul, 111., and was commis- 
sioned 2d Lieut., R.M.A., at Rantoul Field, on May 30, 1918. He 
was stationed for one month at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex. ; then 
ordered to Taliaferro Field, Hicks, Tex., July 9, 1918, where he 
qualified as Corps dArmee Gunnery Pilot. Lieut. Kinder followed 
this training with a Pilot's course at the School of Aerial Observers, 
Langley Field, Hampton, Va., Aug. 14 to Sept. 28, 1918, from 
which he was transferred to the Air Service Depot, Garden City, 
N.Y., and was honorably discharged, Dec. 11, 1918. 

[ 412 ] 



RICHARD SKINNER WHITNEY, Jr. 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Richard Skinner and Mary (Lewis) Whitney, of Dedham, 
Mass.; was born at Brookline, Mass., July 25, 1898. He was edu- 
cated at the Fessenden School, West Newton, Mass., and at the 
Noble and Greenough School, Boston. 

He enlisted at Boston, Dec. 10, 1917; attended first the Prince- 
ton Ground School; was then stationed at Camp Dick, Dallas, 
Tex.; and later at Rockwell Field, San Diego, Cal., where he was 
attached to the 204th Aero Squadron; he continued his training at 
Armorers' School, Wilbur Wright Field, Fairfield, Ohio; and at 
Payne Field, West Point, Miss., where he acted as Instructor; he 
was transferred to the Port of Embarkation, Hoboken, N.J. He 
was commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S.A., U.S.A., July 27, 1918. On 
Dec. 4, 1918, he was transferred to the Reserves, at Hoboken, N.J. 

Brother in Service : Holyoke Lewis Whitney, 2d Lieut., Co. H, 
109th Infantry, 28th Division; died in service, Nov. 25, 1918. 

CARL A. SARGENT 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of George A. and Luella F. (Gates) Sargent; was born at 
Westminster, Mass., July 23, 1896. He attended the Fitchburg 
High School, Fitchburg, Mass., and entered the University of 
Maine, class of 1920. 

In Sept., 1917, he enlisted at Cambridge, Mass., and entered 
the Ground School, M.I.T., Nov. 3, 1917. He was sent to Princeton 
University, Jan. 6, 1918, and upon graduation was ordered to 
Park Field, Memphis, Tenn. Here he passed R.M.A. tests and 
was commissioned 2d Lieut., March 20, 1918. He trained at 
Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La., from June 28, 1918, to Aug. 10. 
He was then assigned to Rockwell Field, San Diego, Cal. He was 
ordered overseas on Nov. 1, 1918, but the order was recalled be- 
cause of the Armistice. He was transferred to the Officers' Reserve 
Corps at Hoboken, N.J., Dec. 13, 1918. 

Brother in Service : Chester E. Sargent, 1st Lieut., 21st F.A., 
A.E.F. 

[ 414 ] 



HORACE G. HAWKS 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Son of Horatio C. and Annie G. Hawks; was born at Newton 
Centre, Mass., July 31, 1897. He was educated at the Newton High 
School and at Dartmouth College, class of 1919. He enlisted at 
Boston, April 6, 1917, in the Naval Reserve, and served in the 
Navy from April 6 to Sept. 25, 1917, when he transferred to Avi- 
ation. He attended the Ground School at Princeton University; 
and was stationed at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., from Feb. 14 to 
March 4, 1918. From March 5 to Dec. 28, 1918, he was at Kelly 
Field, San Antonio, Tex., where he was commissioned as 2d Lieut., 
May 27, 1918, and acted as Instructor. He was honorably dis- 
charged at Kelly Field, on Dec. 28, 1918, to return to Dartmouth 
College. 

THOMAS C. QUINN 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., 

Son of Joseph Francis and Elizabeth Ellsworth (Peart) Quinn; 
was born at Salem, Mass., March 30, 1889. He fitted for college 
at Dummer Academy, South Byfield, Mass., and graduated from 
Harvard College in 1910. 

He enlisted at Plattsburg, May 12, 1917, and attended the 
Officers' Training Camp until he transferred to the Air Service, 
S.C., Aug. 14, 1917. He graduated from the School of Military 
Aeronautics, M.I.T., Dec. 15, 1917, and trained at Ellington Field, 
Houston, Tex. He was commissioned 2d Lieut, at Ellington Field, 
April 22, 1918, graduating from the Bombing Course on June 25. 
Subsequently he graduated from the Aerial Gunnery School, Talia- 
ferro Field, Hicks, Tex., Aug. 24, 1918. 

He sailed overseas, arriving at Liverpool, Oct. 17, 1918; and at 
Havre, Oct. 19. After five days at St.-Maixent, he was ordered to 
Clermont-Ferrand, 7th A.I.C., graduating there Dec. 6, 1918. He 
was then sent to Colombey-les-Belles, and assigned to the 20th 
Aero Squadron, on Dec. 9. On Dec. 24, 1918, he was ordered to the 
2d A.I.C. at Tours. He returned to America and was honorably 
discharged at Garden City, N.Y., Feb. 11, 1919. 

Married, Aug. 25, 1917, Elizabeth M. Conway. 

[ 416 ] 



RAYMOND W. T. RICKER 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Son of Leslie W. and Wendella (Tash) Ricker; was born at New 
Durham, N.H., Sept. 21, 1895. He attended the Rochester High 
School, Rochester, N.H.; the Farmington High School, Farming- 
ton, N.H.; and graduated from the Worcester Polytechnic In- 
stitute in 1916. At college he made records in the 220- and the 
440-yard dash. 

He enlisted at Essington, Pa., July 19, 1917, and sailed overseas, 
where he received his entire training for the Air Service. He at- 
tended flying schools at Foggia, Italy; at Tours, France; and at 
Galluate, Italy. Subsequently, he was attached to the U.S. Air 
Squadron 1111; and to the Italian Bombing Squadron 6, as Mil- 
itary Pilot in the Royal Italian Air Service, flying a Caproni 
bombing-biplane of 600 H.P. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., 
May 18, 1918. He was awarded the Italian War Service Ribbon 
by the Italian Director of Military Aeronautics, Nov. 18, 1918. 
He was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., Jan. 6, 1919. 

RALPH S. ROWE 

First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Attached to R.A.F. 

Son of Jonathan N. and Margary M. (Kenty) Rowe; was born at 
New Haven, Conn., Sept. 27, 1894. He attended the public schools 
in New Haven, and graduated from the S.S.S. of Yale, with the 
degree Ph.B. in 1914; he received the degree of Met. E. from Yale 
in 1916. 

He enlisted, May 1, 1917, at New Haven, and was sent to New- 
port News, Va., where he remained until May 25. He was trained 
at the M.I.T. Ground School, Cambridge, Mass.; at Chandler 
Field, Essington, Pa.; at Selfridge Field, Mount Clemens, Mich.; 
and at Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La. He was commissioned 
1st Lieut., March 1, 1918, and was transferred to Hicks Field, 
Fort Worth, Tex.; then to Hazelhurst Field, Mineola, N.Y.; and 
to Babylon, N.Y. He sailed overseas Aug. 17, 1918, and continued 
training in England. From Sept. 20 to Dec. 20, 1918, he was 
assigned to the Pursuit Group, C.F.S., at Upavon, Wiltshire, 
attached to the R.A.F. He was honorably discharged at Garden 
City, N.Y. 

[ 418 ] 



RICHARD H. GOULD 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of John A. and Frances T. (Sabin) Gould; was born at Newton 
Upper Falls, Mass., June 14, 1889. He attended the public schools 
of Newton, and graduated from the Mass. Institute of Technology, 
B.S. 1911. He won 'Varsity letter in track and hockey, and was 
captain of the hockey team. 

On Sept. 10, 1917, he enlisted, and entered the Ground School at 
Cornell University, graduating with the class of Dec. 1, 1917. 
From Dec. 6 to April 4, 1918, he trained at Love Field, Dallas, 
Tex. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., Sig. R.C.A.S., March 24, 
1918, when he was transferred to Camp Dick for one month, and 
to Hoboken and Camp Merritt. He was then sent to Payne Field, 
West Point, Miss., where he completed the course, Sept. 10, 1918, 
and sailed for France. He finished his training at St.-Maixent 
and Issoudun, and was assigned to A.S. Casual Co. No. 1, Dec. 
7, 1918, for transportation to the U.S. He sailed on April 18, for 
New York, and was honorably discharged, April 27, 1919. 

Married Anna C. Spencer. 

ALLAN NICHOLS DAVIS 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Arthur Eugene and Alice L. (Nichols) Davis, of Brookline, 
Mass.; was born at Worcester, Mass., Nov. 25, 1887. He attended 
the Classical High School, Worcester. At the time of enlistment 
he was manager of the Worcester branch of the Packard Motor 
Car Company of Boston. 

He enlisted at Boston, Mass., Dec. 12, 1917; reported at Ithaca, 
N.Y., Feb. 16, 1918, and trained there at the U.S.S.M.A. until 
April 20, 1918. On May 1 he was ordered to Camp Dick, Dallas, 
Tex., remaining there until May 21. He was sent to Dorr Field, 
Arcadia, Fla., for primary flying, from May 24 to Aug. 24; then 
to Barron Field, Fort Worth, Tex., from Aug. 27 to Dec. 12, 1918. 
He passed all requirements for a commission on Nov. 13, 1918, 
and received his commission as 2d Lieut., A.S., O.R.C., Dec. 12, 
1918, when he was honorably discharged. 



[ 420 ] 



THOMAS EMERSON PROCTOR RICE 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Charles G. and Anne (Proctor) Rice; was born in Boston, 
Mass., Dec. 10, 1894. He attended St. Paul's School, Concord, 
N.H. On Feb. 19, 1917, he enlisted, as Sergeant, A.S., S.E.R.C., 
and started flying at Curtiss Aviation School, Newport News, Va. 
He was injured in accident, April 26, and ordered home to recover. 
On May 28 he entered the M.I.T. Ground School, and, July 22, 
continued his training at Essington, Pa., where, Sept. 24, 1917, he 
was commissioned 1st Lieut. He sailed overseas, Oct. 27, 1917, in 
charge of 93 cadets, and trained at Issoudun from Nov. 28 to Jan., 
1918, when he was made Instructor of Nieuports. On April 9 he 
was transferred to Clermont-Ferrand, where he trained for two 
months. From June until the middle of Oct. he was in active serv- 
ice at the front engaged in night bombing. After leaving the front 
he was prepared to return to the U.S. as a night bombardment 
instructor. He reported to Washington, D.C., Nov. 20, 1918, and 
was honorably discharged on Nov. 30. 

Croix de Guerre 

February 11, 1918 
Le Lieutenant Bombardier Rice, Thomas E. P. 
Bombardier plein d'allant, a fait preuve dans l'attaque de nuit des 
arrieres lignes ennemies de belles qualites d'audace et de sang-froid. 

(SignS) T. Villome 

WILLIAM BADGER LAWRENCE, Jr. 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Squadron E (A) 

Son of William Badger and Alice (May) Lawrence; was born at 
Medford, Mass., Oct. 3, 1896. He was educated at the Medford 
High School, the Volkmann School, Phillips Exeter Academy, 
and Harvard College. At the Volkmann School he was captain of 
the track team, and played on the football team. At Exeter he was 
captain of the baseball team, and was on the track team. At 
Harvard he played on the freshman football team. He enlisted at 
Savannah, Ga., on April 5, 1918, and trained at the M.I.T. Ground 
School; at Key West, Fla.; Miami (patrol); and Pensacola, acting 
as H 16, Chief Instructor. He was commissioned Ensign, R.F., on 
Nov. 2, 1918. 

[ 422 ] 



CHAUNCEY A. GALLOUPE 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Francis Ellis and Lilian Baker (Clark) Galloupe; was born 
at Lynn, Mass., Nov. 24, 1891. He attended Worcester Academy, 
and Exeter Academy; entered West Point with the class of 1916, 
attending for two terms. He enlisted in the U.S. Naval Aviation 
Service at Squantum, Mass., April 26, 1917. He trained at Squan- 
tum, from May 24 to the breaking-up of the camp there on Oct. 
22, 1917. He was then stationed at Hampton Roads, Va., until 
April 10, 1918, and on Feb. 15, 1918, was commissioned Ensign. 
He was assigned to Pensacola, Fla., from April 22 to June 28, and 
sailed overseas, July 30, 1918. Ensign Galloupe was stationed at 
Killingholme, Eng., Aug. 15 to Dec. 11, on patrol duty over the 
North Sea. He was then ordered to the U.S., and detailed to 
Chatham, Mass., Jan. 23, 1919. He was placed on inactive duty 
at Chatham, Feb. 28, 1919. 
Grandfather in Service — 

Isaac Francis Galloupe, Bvt. Col., Surg., Army Medical Corps, 
during Civil War; prisoner of war at Libby Prison. 

FRANK WEYMAN CROCKER 
Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of George H. and Helen W. Crocker; was born at Fitchburg, 
Mass., Oct. 20, 1897. He was educated at the Groton School, and 
at Harvard College, class of 1922. He played for two years on the 
Groton football and baseball teams and was captain of baseball 
team in 1918. He was a member of the Harvard freshman baseball 
team. He enlisted at Washington, D.C., June 6, 1918, in Naval 
Aviation. He was called to M.I.T. Ground School, June 24, and on 
Sept. 28 was ordered to the Flying School at Bay Shore, N.Y. On 
Dec. 2, 1918, after completing the flying course, he was commis- 
sioned Ensign, with Naval Aviator's Designation, and was ap- 
pointed Instructor in heavier-than-air seaplanes. On Dec. 2, 1918, 
he was ordered to the Naval Air Station, at Brunswick, Ga. There 
he received orders for inactive duty, Feb. 11, 1919. 
Brother in Service — 

George H. Crocker, Jr., 2d Lieut., U.S. Marine A.S. 
[ 424 ] 



JOHN LEWIS MURPHY 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.C. 

Son of Charles A. and Martha J. (Miller) Murphy; was born at 
Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 4, 1896. He was educated at the John A. 
Andrew School in South Boston, the Mechanic Arts High School, 
Boston, and the Lowell Institute. He enlisted at Boston, Mass., 
May 9, 1917, and attended the Naval Aviation Ground School, 
M.I.T., July 23 to Sept. 17, 1917. He was assigned to the Air Sta- 
tion, Hampton Roads, Va., Sept. 19, 1917, to Jan. 9, 1918. He was 
transferred to Pensacola, Fla., where he remained from Jan. 11 to 
March 2, 1918. He was commissioned Ensign, Feb. 25, 1918. He 
received overseas orders, March 2, 1918, but while home on a 
furlough was sent to the U.S. Naval Hospital, Chelsea, Mass., 
March 13, ill with pneumonia. Upon his discharge from the hos- 
pital, July 30, 1918, his foreign orders were cancelled, and he was 
sent to Pensacola for advanced training. He subsequently became 
Instructor in H 16 Boat-Flying at Pensacola. 

HERMAN J. JESSE 

First Lieutenant, Squadron D, First Marine Aviation 
Force, Northern Bombing Group 

Son of August E. and Annie M. (Beales) Jesse; was born at Rock- 
land, Mass., June 27, 1894. He was educated in the public schools of 
Brockton and Weymouth, and graduated from the Lowell Insti- 
tute, M.I.T., in 1916. 

He enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps at Philadelphia, Pa., 
June 7,1917, and was sent to League Island, Philadelphia, for training, 
June 7 to Sept. 18, 1917; then assigned to the Army Aviation Sta- 
tion at Mineola, N.Y., where he remained until Jan. 1, 1918. There 
he qualified as R.M.A., and was commissioned 2d Lieut., U.S. Ma- 
rine Flying Corps, Dec. 17, 1917. From Jan. 1 to April 1, 1918, he 
trained at Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La., and was appointed 
Instructor at the Marine Flying Field, Miami, Fla., April 1 to 
July, 1918. He qualified as Naval Aviator, April 17, 1918, and was 
commissioned 1st Lieut., U.S. Marine Flying Corps, June 7, 1918. 
He sailed for France and was attached to the Northern Bombing 
Group. Placed on inactive duty, June 3, 1919. 

[ 426 ] 



RICHARD S. TOWNSEND 



Lieutenant, U.S.N.R.F., Naval Aviation Corps 

Son of Edward B. and Grace (Appleton) Townsend; was born at 
Roxbury, Mass., July 27, 1885. He was educated in the Brookline 
public schools, and at Harvard College, A.B. 1907. He was a mem- 
ber of the 'Varsity hockey team four years, and captain in his 
senior year. He enlisted at Washington, D.C., May 9, 1917, as 
Seaman, 2d class, U.S.N. He trained at the Naval Air Detachment, 
Curtiss Flying School, Newport News, Va., until Aug., 1917; fin- 
ished training at the Naval Air Station, Hampton Roads, Va., 
Oct. 26, 1917, when he was commissioned Ensign. He was com- 
missioned Lieut, (j.g.), March 21, 1918, and served at Hampton 
Roads until Sept. 15, 1918, as Construction Officer and Patrol Pilot. 
He was transferred to New London, Conn., and detailed as Officer 
in Charge of Flying and Experimental Work in connection with 
anti-submarine devices. Promoted to Lieut., Oct. 1, 1918. On 
Dec. 15 he received orders for inactive duty. 

Married, Sept. 29, 1914, Edith Reed. 

Brothers in Service — 

Wendell Townsend, Ground Naval Aviation, U.S.N.R.F. 
Prescott Townsend, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

LEWIS A. BURLEIGH, Jr. 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Lewis A. and Caddie H. Burleigh; was born at Augusta, Me., 
July 20, 1897. He was educated in the public schools of Augusta, 
and at Bowdoin College, where he played on his class football team; 
was member of Bowdoin rifle and fencing teams, and Phi Beta 
Kappa. On April 6, 1917, he enlisted at Bath, Me., as Radio Opera- 
tor, U.S.N.R.F. He was sent to the Harvard Radio School in May, 
1917, and served on U.S.S. Alacrity, Malay, and Machigonne as 
wireless operator; entered M.I.T. Naval Aviation Ground School, 
March 25, 1918; had preliminary training in flying at Bay Shore, 
N.Y., where he received his "wings." He was commissioned Ensign, 
Sept. 21, 1918; took advanced training at Pensacola, Fla; sailed 
overseas Oct. 20, 1918; was stationed at Queenstown, Ire.; relieved 
from active duty, Jan. 15, 1919, at Bay Shore, N.Y. 

[ 428 ] 



ARTHUR R. HOLT 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Warren R. and Mary Elizabeth (Ratcliffe) Holt; was born 
at Newton Centre, Mass., Dec. 20, 1895. He was educated at the 
Newton High School, and at Amherst College. He enlisted on 
April 3, 1917, at Boston, Mass., and trained at Squantum, Mass., 
and at the M.I.T. Naval Aviation Ground School. He continued 
his training at Akron, Ohio, and at Hampton Roads, Va. He was 
then stationed at Akron, Ohio, until the end of the war, and was 
placed on inactive duty there, Feb. 12, 1919. 

ADDISON C. BURNHAM, Jr. 
Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Addison C. and Emily Hudson (Bright) Burnham, of 
Newton Centre, Mass.; was born at Cambridge, Mass., Oct. 28, 
1896. He was educated at the Newton High School; Phillips An- 
dover Academy; and Harvard College, class of 1919. 

He trained with the Harvard R.O.T.C., and enlisted at the 
Boston Navy Yard, June 27, 1917. He attended the Naval Avi- 
ation Ground School at the M.I.T. He was ordered overseas and 
continued his training at the Royal Air Stations at Roehampton, 
Cranwell, and at Polegate, Eng. He was commissioned Ensign, 
May 4, 1918, and was ordered to France and stationed at the U.S. 
Air Station at Paimbceuf. In regard to this station he wrote: 

This was the foremost dirigible station on the French coast. It was 
taken over from the French, early in 1918, and its patrol area extended 
from Brest to Rochefort. It was not until April, or May, that it became 
an efficient operating unit. Large incoming convoys, both troop-ships and 
cargo-ships, used Belle lie, some forty miles above our station, as a land- 
fall. They would split there and proceed both up and down the coast to 
Brest, St.-Nazaire, and the southern bases. These large convoys, coming 
once or twice a week, were of course our first task, and subject to weather 
conditions, we met them from ten to ninety miles out. 

Next in importance were the daily convoys, eight to twenty or thirty 
ships, passing up and down the coast. 

Ensign Burnham was released from active service, Feb. 3, 1919. 
Brother in Service : John B. Burnham, Lieut, (j.g.), U.S.N. 
[ 430 ] 



GEORGE F. BAKER 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Dr. George T. and Marienne (Johnson) Baker, of Belmont, 
Mass.; was born at Boston Jan. 25, 1896. He graduated from the 
Winchester High School in 1912, from Phillips Andover Academy 
in 1913, and from Harvard College, A.B. 1917. Prior to enlistment 
he trained with the Harvard R.O.T.C. On June 25, 1917, he en- 
listed in the Naval Aviation Service at Boston, and trained at the 
M.I.T. Ground School, and U.S.N.A. Station, Pensacola, Fla. On 
Feb. 13, 1918, he was commissioned Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Naval 
Aviation. The following month he sailed overseas, and was sta- 
tioned at Moutchic-Lacanau, Gironde, France, where he was In- 
structor in Bombing. In Oct., 1918, he was transferred to the U.S. 
Naval Dirigible Station at Guipavas, Finistere, France. After 
the Armistice he returned to the U.S., and was placed on the in- 
active list at New York City Jan. 8, 1919. 

WALDO HAYWARD BROWN 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Harry Hosmer Brown; was born at Salem, 
Mass., June 27, 1896. He was educated at Phillips Andover Acad- 
emy, class of 1916, and at the M.I.T., class of 1920. At Andover 
he was a member of the 'Varsity track team. At M.I.T. he took 
a course in Military Science; left to enter Service at end of first 
year. He enlisted in U.S.N.R.F.C. at Washington, D.C., on Aug. 
29, 1917; attended the Ground School at M.I.T., Nov. 12, 1917, 
to Feb. 2, 1918. He was stationed at the Naval Air Station, Key 
West, Fla., Feb. 7 to April 2, 1918. On March 19 he was com- 
missioned Ensign, and on April 9 was ordered to the Naval Air 
Station at Chatham, Mass., where he was on patrol duty until 
Oct. 20, acting as Navigation Officer, and one of the Flying Staff. 
From Oct. 20, 1918, to Jan. 6, 1919, he was on sick-leave, as a 
result of influenza and pneumonia, contracted while flying. He 
was relieved from all active duty on Jan. 6, 1919. 
Married, Jan. 15, 1919, Frances Martine Gray. 



[ 432 ] 



WALLACE J. FALVEY 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Timothy James and Mary Elizabeth (Cosgrove) Falvey 
of Brookline, Mass.; was born at Norwich, Conn., on May 1, 1894. 
He attended the Brookline High and Boston Latin Schools; en- 
tered Harvard College with the class of 1918, completing his course 
in three and one half years. Member of the Institute of 1770, 
the D.K.E., and the Delta Upsilon fraternities. He enlisted in 
April, 1917, and was enrolled in the Flying School at Squantum, 
Mass., where illness disqualified him from continuing the course. 
Upon his recovery in July, 1917, he applied for admission to the 
Naval Reserve Flying Corps, and after twice being rejected, re- 
gained normal physical condition and was accepted at Washing- 
ton, D.C., Oct. 28, 1917. He was called into Service in Feb., 1918, 
and was sent to M.I.T. for a ten weeks' Ground-School course, 
then assigned to Pensacola, Fla., for flight training. There he 
qualified as pilot, was commissioned Ensign on Aug. 13, 1918, and 
made Instructor. In Sept., 1918, he was transferred to the Experi- 
mental Station at Anacostia, D.C., where he served as Experimental 
Pilot, and was commissioned Lieut, (j.g.) on Jan. 1, 1919. He was 
honorably discharged at Anacostia in April, 1919. 

ROBERT J. MUNKITTRICK 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

He enlisted in the U.S.N.R.F. and was stationed at the U.S. Naval 
Aviation Operations Base, at Norfolk, Va. He was commissioned 
Ensign and was in Service for eighteen months. He had to his 
credit one hundred hours of active service, air patrol. 



[ 434 ] 



CLARENDON WAITE SMITH 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. George Arthur Smith; was born at Worcester, 
Mass., May 16, 1893. He was educated in the public schools of 
Worcester and at the University of Michigan. He enlisted in the 
NavaJ Aviation Service April 10, 1918, and attended the M.I.T. 
Naval Aviation Ground School; he had preliminary flying training 
at Miami, Fla., and advanced flying at Pensacola. On Nov. 15, 
1918, he was commissioned Ensign, and designated Naval Aviator, 
U.S.N.R.F.; he was ordered to Miami as an Instructor, and at- 
tached to the 17th Squadron. On Dec. 17, 1918, he was assigned 
to inactive duty. 

Married, April 10, 1917, Margaret Deming. 

Brothers in Service — 

Paul S. Smith, 2d Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. 

George Arthur Smith, Jr., Private, U.S. Coast Artillery. 

David H. Smith, Private, S.A.T.C. 

RALPH A. LEHAN 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. D. F. Lehan, of Taunton, Mass.; was born in 
1894. He enlisted in the U.S.N.R.F., June 12, 1917. On Dec. 23, 
1917, he was commissioned Ensign. He sailed overseas, and was 
attached to the U.S. Naval Air Station, at Wexford, Ireland. 



[ 436 ] 



ROBERT WINTHROP KNOWLES 



Lieutenant, U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of Dr. Henry M. and Helen L. (Dykes) Knowles; was born 
at New Bedford, Mass., May 22, 1891. He was educated at Milton 
Academy, and Harvard College, class of 1912. He enlisted in 
N.R.F.C. at Washington, D.C., Dec. 19, 1917, and was com- 
missioned Ensign. He trained at Naval Air Station, Pensacola, 
Fla., reporting there for duty Jan. 5, 1918. He was stationed suc- 
cessively at Pensacola; for temporary duty at Naval Air Station, 
Miami, and at Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. He received 
Naval Aviator's designation, Aug. 7, 1918, and was commissioned 
Lieut, (j.g.) Oct. 1, 1918. On Oct. 7, 1918, he was detached from 
Key West and reported for duty at the Office of Naval Operations 
(Aviation) in Washington, D.C., where he remained until after 
the Armistice. He was commissioned Lieut., Jan. 1, 1919, and 
was placed on inactive duty April 1, 1919. 
Married, Oct. 25, 1913, Amy Thorp. 

WILLIAM GALLUP LASKEY 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 

Born Jan. 2, 1895, at Chicago, 111. He graduated from the M.I.T. 
as an electrical engineer in June, 1917. He enlisted, Dec. 10, 1917, 
in the U.S.N.R.F., and was called to Service on Jan. 2, 1918. He 
trained at New London, Conn., and at Norfolk, Va. On Aug. 15, 
1918, he was commissioned Ensign, and assigned to the Aviation 
Service as Instructor. He sailed from New York on Sept. 16, 1918, 
and was attached to the U.S. Naval Air Stations at Killingholme, 
England. 



[ 438 ] 



RALPH A. POWERS 



Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 

He was educated at the Volkmann School, and at Harvard College, 
class of 1914. He enlisted in the U.S.N.R.F., and attended the 
M.I.T. Naval Aviation Ground School. He was stationed at Pen- 
sacola, Fla., where he was commissioned. 

HAROLD SANFORD DOLE 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Nathan Haskell and Helen (Bennett) Dole; was born at 
Jamaica Plain, Mass., March 30, 1893. He was educated at the 
Roxbury Latin and the Stone Schools, and at Harvard College, 
class of 1917 (one year). He then took up the study of music, 
which he relinquished to enter the Service. He trained with the 
Harvard R.O.T.C. and graduated from the M.I.T. Ground School 
on Oct. 1, 1917. He sailed overseas in Nov., 1917, and after train- 
ing at Tours and at Issoudun, was commissioned 1st Lieut., May 1, 
1918. He had completed his training and was ready to go to the 
front when the Armistice was signed. He returned to the U.S. in 
Jan., 1919, and was honorably discharged. 

Married, Oct., 1917, Thalia H. Smith, of New York. 



[ 440 ] 



WILDER CRAWFORD CLARK 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Son of Murdock Merrill and May (Crawford) Clark; was born at 
Winchendon, Mass., March 17, 1897. He was educated at the 
Cambridge Latin School, and at Harvard College. He attended 
the Plattsburg Camp in July and Aug., 1916, and trained with 
the Harvard R.O.T.C., Feb. to Aug., 1917. He enlisted Oct. 8, 
1917, and attended the M.I.T. Ground School; Ground School 
at Princeton, N.J.; School at Dallas, Tex.; and received flying 
training at Scott Field, Belleville, 111., April to June, 1918. On 
July 3, 1918, he was commissioned 2d Lieut., Air Service (Aero- 
nautics). From July to Nov. he took the Gossport Instructor 
Course, and acted as Instructor. He was transferred to Langley 
Field, Hampton, Va., on Nov. 5; he completed his Army Corps 
Pilot's course on Dec. 1, and was honorably discharged on Dec. 
7, 1918, at Langley Field. 

LINCOLN ALVORD 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.SA. 

Son of Ralph F. and Harriet Woodbury (Lincoln) Alvord; was 
born at Newton, Mass., Jan. 31, 1896. He was educated at the 
Newton High School, and at Harvard College, class of 1918. He 
trained with the Harvard R.O.T.C. He enlisted at Boston Nov. 3, 

1917, in U.S. Army Aviation, and trained from Nov. 3 to Jan. 12, 

1918, at M.I.T. Ground School. From Jan. 12 to April 8, 1918, he 
was at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex. He was commissioned 2d 
Lieut. April 8, 1918, and was stationed from April 8 to May 13, 
at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex.; May 13 to Sept. 29, 1918, at Ellington 
Field, Houston, Tex.; and Sept. 29, 1918, to Jan. 7, 1919, at Talia- 
ferro Field, Fort Worth, Tex. He graduated as a bombing-pilot. 
He was honorably discharged at Taliaferro Field, Tex., on Jan. 7, 
1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Clark Alvord, Section 604, U.S. Army Ambulance Service, 
A.E.F. 



[ 442 ] 



THOMAS CARSON CURTIS 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Harley B. and Susan D. (Carson) Curtis; was born at New- 
tonville, Mass., May 6, 1894. He was educated at St. George's 
School, Newport, R.I. He enlisted Dec. 1, 1917, at Cambridge, 
Mass., and began training at once at M.I.T., finishing Dec. 21. 
From Jan. 5 to Feb. 9, 1918, he trained at U.S.A.S.M.A., Ithaca, 
N.Y., and from Feb. 28 to April 12, at Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex. 
From April 13 to July 27, Flying Cadet at Eberts Field, Lonoke, 
Ark. He was commissioned 2d Lieut., R.M.A., A.S.A., July 27, 

1918. He was Flying Instructor at Eberts Field, July 27 to Dec. 
24, 1918. Honorably discharged at Eberts Field, Dec. 24, 1918. 
Dec. 6, 1918, Lieut. Curtis was put in charge of a flight of three 
ships, proceeding from Eberts Field, Lonoke, Ark., to Scott Field, 
Belleville, 111.; returning Dec. 21. The object of the flight was to 
further public interest in flying and to look over the country as a 
possible air route between Little Rock, Ark., and St. Louis, Mo. 

WILLIAM J. FITZ GERALD 

Second Lieutenant. A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Michael J. and Annie M. (O'Neil) Fitz Gerald; was born 
at Boston, Mass., Oct. 28, 1894. He was educated at the High 
School of Commerce, at Chauncy Hall School, Boston; and at 
the M.I.T. He enlisted in the Air Service in Boston, Dec. 1, 1917, 
and was assigned to Cornell, for ground-school training. He was 
transferred to Dallas, Tex., and from there to Taylor Field, Mont- 
gomery, Ala., for flying instruction. He was subsequently ordered 
to Dayton, O., for a course in Aerial Gunnery, at the completion 
of which he was assigned to Payne Field, West Point, Miss. He 
was commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S.A., Sept. 12, 1918. On Jan. 7, 

1919, he was honorably discharged at Payne Field, Miss., to re- 
sume his studies. 



[ 444 ] 



CHARLES F. WEEDEN, Jr. 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Charles F. and Mary Emma (Bassett) Weeden, of Newton 
Centre, Mass.; was born at Colchester, Conn., April 23, 1894. He 
was educated at Dorchester High School, and Amherst College, 
A.B. 1916. He enlisted in U.S. Army, May 15, 1917, at Plattsburg, 
N.Y., where he trained for Artillery Service. He was commissioned 
2d Lieut, in Nov., 1917. He was transferred to Camp Dix, N.J.; and 
later to Princeton Ground School for Aviation work. In May, 1918, 
he won his "wings" at Mineola, N.Y. While at Mineola he made 
a flight to Camp Devens, 225 miles, in two hours and ten minutes. 
Later, he was stationed with the 280th Aero Squadron at Brindley 
Field, Cornmack, N.Y., under overseas orders which were recalled 
when the Armistice was signed. He was honorably discharged on 
Jan. 9, 1919. Lieut. Weeden was chosen as one of the assistants 
on the Near East Belief Commission, and sailed from New York 
on Jan. 25, 1919, for Constantinople. 

Grandfather in Service: Chauncy J. Bassett, Col., U.S.A., Civil 
War, 1861-65. Killed in action leading colored troops. 

JOHN A. LANGLEY 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of John William and Annie Josephine (Dow) Langley; was 
born at Melrose, Mass., June 25, 1896. He graduated from the 
Melrose High School. After a year's work at the Junior Military 
Training Camp at Plattsburg, N.Y., he joined the 1st Prov. Offi- 
cers' Training Regiment at Plattsburg. He enlisted at Boston, 
Mass., April, 1917; was ordered to Plattsburg in May, and later 
transferred to the Ground School at M.I.T., graduating Dec. 3, 
1917; he was sent to the Primary Flying School at Waco, Tex., 
where he completed the course qualifying him for pursuit work, 
and was commissioned 2d Lieut., March 9, 1918. He was assigned 
to the Pursuit School, Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La., and on 
completing the course was made Flying Instructor. He was trans- 
ferred to Carlstrom Field, Fla., as Stage Commander and In- 
structor. Later was Instructor at Dorr Field, Arcadia, Fla., and 
was engaged in making special cross-country flights. 

[ 446 ] 



CHARLES CLARK MARSHALL 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A, U.SA. 

Son of John Knox and Sabina (Adamson) Marshall; was born at 
Brookline, Mass., Jan. 21, 1889. He attended the University Pre- 
paratory School, Ithaca, N.Y., and graduated from Cornell in 1911. 
Prior to the declaration of war, he served for five months in 1916 
as a first-class private in Battery A, 1st Mass. Reg't F.A., N.G., 
and went to the Mexican Border. He enlisted at Boston, Mass., 
Nov. 1, 1917, in the Aviation Section, Signal Enlisted Reserve 
Corps. He attended the Army School of Military Aeronautics at 
Princeton, Dec. 8, 1917, to Feb. 16, 1918. March 13, 1918, he was 
assigned to Taliaferro Field, Fort Worth, Tex., for a course in 
primary flying, from which he graduated May 8, 1918, qualified 
to act as a gunnery pilot. He was classified Pursuit Pilot and com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., R.M.A., May 23, 1918. He was ordered to 
Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La., for an Advanced Pursuit 
course, July 20, 1918, and transferred to Rockwell Field, San 
Diego, Cal., for an Aerial Gunnery course which he completed 
Sept. 18, 1918. Lieut. Marshall was at Garden City, N.Y., await- 
ing assignment overseas when the Armistice was signed. He was 
honorably discharged at Garden City, Dec. 9, 1918. 

THEODORE EDWARD BAKER 

First Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Irving H. and Jennie M. (Cleveland) Baker; was born at 
Somerville, Mass., Nov. 11, 1895. He was educated at the Somer- 
ville High School, and at Tufts College. He enlisted at Cambridge, 
Mass., Nov. 11, 1917, and trained at the M.I.T. Ground School; 
Cornell; and at the Flying School at Ellington Field, Tex., where 
he was commissioned 2d Lieut., Sig. R.C.A.S., May 3, 1918. He 
was Flying Instructor in Accuracy for six months; Assistant O.I.C., 
Accuracy Instructor in Formation; O.I.C. Formation, for three 
months; Assistant O.I.C, Primary Training, at Ellington Field, 
Tex. He was commissioned 1st Lieut., A.S., S.O.R.C., March 1, 
1919. He was honorably discharged at Ellington Field, Tex., Jan. 
9, 1919. 



[ 448 ] 



ALDEN S. FOSS 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Squadron 356 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Granville E. Foss; was born at Boston, May 
21, 1896. Educated at the Noble and Greenough School, and at 
Harvard College, graduating in 1917. He attended the Plattsburg 
Training Camp in July, 1916, and the Harvard R.O.T.C. 1916-17. 
In the spring of 1917 he enlisted with the American Ambulance 
Field Service for six months. He sailed for France May 19, 1917, 
and during his stay served as a camion driver in the French Army. 
Returning to the U.S., he enlisted in the Air Service in Boston, 
Dec. 14, 1917. After a ground course at Cornell, he was ordered to 
Mineola, N.Y., where he passed the R.M.A. tests, and was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut. July 18, 1918. He was attached to the 1st 
Provisional Wing, Hazelhurst Plateau, July 18 to Aug. 12, 1918. 
He was assigned to Camp Dick, Tex., for a short time, then trans- 
ferred to the Bombing School at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., 
for advanced training, Sept. 4 to Nov. 11, 1918. He was honorably 
discharged at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., Jan. 6, 1919. 

JOHN STETSON ALLARD, Je. 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of John Stetson and Alice (Buckner) Allard; was born at 
Boston, Mass., Jan. 16, 1897. He attended the Medford High 
School, where he played left tackle on the football team. He en- 
listed at Boston in Nov., 1917, for the U.S. Air Service, and 
trained at the M.I.T. Ground School, and at Princeton. He was 
stationed at Dallas, Tex., and at Houston, Tex., where he was 
commissioned 2d Lieut, in June, 1918. He was transferred to Lake 
Charles, La., and later was made Instructor in Flying and Aerial 
Gunnery at Rockwell Field, San Diego, Cal. He was honorably 
discharged at San Diego, Cal., in Jan., 1919. 

Brother in Service — 

Norman B. Allard, U.S. Marine Corps. 



[ 450 ] 



CHARLES BURTON AMES 



Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Flying Corps 

Son of Charles Henry and Henrietta Burton (Hunt) Ames; born 
at Newton ville, Mass., Sept. 11, 1892. He attended the Fessenden 
School, Thacher, Cal., and the Newton High School; he grad- 
uated from Amherst College, A.B. 1916. Member of swimming and 
track teams; captain track team. He trained at Plattsburg in 1915, 
and served from Sept. 2, 1916, to April, 1917, with the American 
Ambulance Field Service, Section 8, France; Lorraine, Somme, 
Argonne, and Verdun sectors. Returning to the U.S. he enlisted 
April 6, 1917, as Quartermaster, 1st class, in Naval Reserve Flying 
Corps. Trained at Pensacola, Fla., June to Dec, 1917. Commis- 
sioned Ensign, U.S.N.R.F., Dec. 7, 1917; stationed at San Diego, 
Cal., as Instructor in Flying, and Ground School Division Com- 
mander, Jan. to Aug., 1918. Stationed at Naval Aviation Head- 
quarters, Washington, D.C., Aug. to Oct., 1918. Commissioned 
2d Lieut., U.S.M.C.R., Nov. 1, 1918; transferred to Marine Corps, 
R.F.C., and sent to Marine Flying Field, Miami. He was Officer 
in Charge of Discharges, Flying Instructor, and Tester at Miami. 
Returned to inactive duty on request, at Miami, Fla., April 1, 1919. 

LAWRENCE COFFIN AMES 
Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of Charles Henry and Henrietta Burton Hunt Ames; born 
at West Newton, Mass., Feb. 9, 1897. He attended the New- 
ton High School, and Berkshire School, Sheffield, Mass.; en- 
tered Amherst College, class of 1919. From June to Oct., 1917, he 
served in France with the American Ambulance Field Service; 
Oct., 1917, to April, 1918, he served with the Red Cross, operating 
just behind the lines in the Somme district. On April 29, 1918, he 
enlisted at Tours, France, in the Aviation Service. Trained in the 
16th Foreign Detachment at St.-Maixent; breveted on Farman 
machine, at Voves, July 24, 1918. Continued training at Avord, 
France, and at the American School at Issoudun, on Nieuport 
machine, Sept., 1918. Commissioned 2d Lieut. Aug. 30, 1918. 
Stationed at 3d A.I.C. until the signing of the Armistice. Honor- 
ably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., Feb. 15, 1919. 



[ 452 ] 



CHANDLER BREWER GARDINER 



Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 

Son of George C. and Mabel (Brewer) Gardiner; was born at 
Melrose, Mass., Feb. 22, 1894. He graduated from the Everett 
High School, receiving the Harvard Club Scholarship, and grad- 
uated from Harvard College in 1916. During his high school and 
part of his college course he played football; he was a charter 
member of the 1st Harvard Regiment. He was accepted by the 
American Aviation Service in Aug., 1917; taken by Draft to Camp 
Devens, in Oct., 1917. On Jan. 5, 1918, was transferred to Prince- 
ton, N.J., for training in Aviation; was later assigned to Dallas, 
Tex., Wichita Falls, Tex., and Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, 0. 
He was commissioned 2d Lieut., July 9, 1918, and sailed overseas, 
Oct. 16, 1918. He received further training as pilot in scout and 
pursuit work with French machines at the 3d A.I.C., Issoudun, 
France. 

CHARLES MORRIS GARDINER 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.S. 

Son of George C. and Mabel (Brewer) Gardiner; was born 
at Everett, Mass., Sept. 16, 1897. He graduated from the public 
schools of Everett, and was awarded a scholarship for Am- 
herst College; entered Amherst with the class of 1919. He left 
college in his sophomore year, and enlisted in the U.S. Naval 
Aviation Service in March, 1917, at Everett, Mass. He was as- 
signed to Marblehead, and to Bumkin Island, Boston Harbor, 
for training. In Aug., 1917, he was made Quartermaster on U.S.S. 
Whitecap. He was transferred to M.I.T., Cambridge, for aviation 
training in Jan., 1918, and was sent to Pensacola, Fla., on March 
30, 1918. Subsequently he was ordered to the Naval Air Station, 
Coco Solo, Canal Zone, Panama, where he served as Flight Officer. 
He was commissioned Ensign, N.A.S., June 17, 1918. 



[ 454 ] 



RIDGLEY GARRETSON SHEPHERD 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Joseph H. and Fanny G. (Van Reypen) Shepherd, of Hollis- 
ton, Mass. ; was born at Jersey City, N. J., Aug. 22, 1893. He was 
educated at the Ashland High School, the Franklin Union, and at 
the M.I.T. He enlisted at Boston, Mass., Dec. 14, 1917, and trained 
at the M.I.T. Ground School, and at Cornell University, where he 
graduated March 9, 1918. He trained for eight weeks at Camp 
Dick, Dallas, Tex., and was then sent to Kelly Field, San Antonio, 
Tex., where he was commissioned 2d Lieut., Aug. 28, 1918. On 
Sept. 10 he was transferred to Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, 
and on Oct. 22, to Payne Field, West Point, Miss. On Nov. 10, 
1918, he was ordered to Carlstrom Field, Arcadia, Fla., where he 
was honorably discharged on Jan. 6, 1919. 
Married, Oct. 15, 1918, Muriel V. Scott. 

Brother in Service — 

Joseph V. R. Shepherd, 2d Lieut., 101st Engineers, 26th Di- 
vision, A.E.F. 

RALPH E. FORSYTH 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Born at Newton, Mass., Nov. 5, 1894. He was educated in the 
public schools of Newton, and at the M.I.T. (one year). He en- 
listed in the Aviation Service, and on Feb. 2, 1918, went to Cornell 
University, where he passed his examinations as Military Aviator. 
He was commissioned 2d Lieut, at Eberts Field, Ark., and from 
there was transferred to Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, 
where he completed a course in gunnery. He was then sent to an 
advanced flying school at Carlstrom Field, Arcadia, Fla. 



[ 456 ] 



HORACE SCHERMERHORN 

Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F., Northern Bombing Group 
NA 208 

Son of Edgar O. and Laura M. Schermerhorn, of Newton, Mass.; 
was born at Jersey City, N.J., Dec. 29, 1894. He was educated in 
the Newton public schools, and graduated from the Newton High 
School. He enlisted at the Charlestown Navy Yard, on April 23, 
1917, and was sent to Squantum, Mass., for preliminary training. 
Later he was transferred to Hampton Roads, Va. He then proceeded 
overseas, and attended the French schools at Moutchic-Lacanau, 
Gironde, and Clermont-Ferrand. He was later stationed at Dun- 
kirk, France. He was commissioned Ensign, Dec. 26, 1917, and 
Lieut, (j.g.), Oct 1, 1918. He was placed on inactive duty at Boston, 
Mass., Feb. 12, 1919. 

CHARLES WHITE GREENOUGH 

Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S.N.R.F. 

Son of James M. and Katharine (Noble) Greenough; was born at 
Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 19, 1897. He was educated at the Noble 
and Greenough School, Boston, and at Harvard College, class of 
1919. 

He enlisted in the U.S.N.R.F. on May 21, 1917, at the Boston 
Navy Yard. He was trained at U.S.N.A. Station, Pensacola, Fla., 
where he was sent in June, 1917. He was commissioned Ensign, 
Dec. 21, 1917. With six others he was loaned to England and did 
patrol duty in various stations on the English coast. He sailed 
overseas in Jan., 1918, and was attached to the Royal Naval Air 
Service Seaplane Stations at Dover, and Newhaven, Eng., from 
Feb. 6 to June 1, 1918. He trained at R.A.F. Stations on Salisbury 
Plain, Eng., to Aug. 25, 1918, when he was attached to the U.S. 
Naval Northern Bombing Group, France, to Dec. 13, 1918. He was 
commissioned Lieut, (j.g.), Oct. 1, 1918. He was placed on inactive 
duty list, on Feb. 17, 1919, at Boston, Mass. 



[ 458 ] 



DONALD MacDONALD 



First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Norman D. and Sophie (MacDonald) MacDonald, of Bos- 
ton; was born June 30, 1894. He attended the public schools of 
Dorchester, and graduated from the English High School, Boston. 
In May, 1917, he enlisted in the Aviation Service and trained at 
the M.I.T. and at Mineola, N.Y. He was commissioned 1st Lieut., 
at Mineola, in Oct., 1917, and sailed immediately overseas to 
France. He served as Instructor at Issoudun, until the end of the 
war. In April, 1919, he returned to the U.S. and was honorably 
discharged at Garden City, N.Y. 

Brothers in Service — 

Neal C. MacDonald, 2d Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. 
Murdock MacDonald, Bandmaster, U.S.N. 
John Thompson MacDonald, 101st F.A., A.E.F. 

NEAL C. MacDONALD 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Norman D. and Sophie (MacDonald) MacDonald; was born 
Jan. 18, 1890. He attended the public schools of Dorchester, and 
the English High School, Boston. In May, 1917, he enlisted in the 
Aviation Service, and entered the M.I.T. Ground School. There, 
after completing the course, he remained as Instructor until the 
fall of 1917, when he was ordered to Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex. 
He was commissioned 2d Lieut., at Kelly Field, and was subse- 
quently transferred to Washington, D.C., where he was made 
Inspector of Liberty Motors. He is still at Washington, and as 
Chief Engineer, is doing Inspection work. 

Brothers in Service — 

Donald MacDonald, 1st Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. 
Murdock MacDonald, Bandmaster, U.S.N. 
John Thompson MacDonald, 101st F.A., A.E.F. 



[ 460 ] 



WILLIAM SCOTT KEITH 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A. 
Son of Charles H. and Elizabeth C. (Allen) Keith; was born at 
Greenfield, Mass., Jan. 26, 1898. He was educated at the Salisbury 
School, Salisbury, Conn., 1911-15, and at Williams College, Wil- 
liamstown, Mass., class of 1919. At Salisbury he was captain of the 
baseball team one year, and a member of the track, football, and 
baseball teams. At Williams he was a member of the track team. 
Prior to enlistment he attended Williams R.O.T.C. in the summer 
of 1917. He enlisted at Boston, Mass., Dec. 6, 1917, and attended 
the Military School of Aeronautics, at Cornell University, Ithaca, 
N.Y., from Feb. 2, 1918, to March 30, 1918. He was commissioned 
2d Lieut., A.S.A., Pursuit Pilot, at Taliaferro Field, Hicks, Tex., 
July 18, 1918. Lieut. Keith was ordered to Garden City, N.Y., 
Oct. 1, 1918, and honorably discharged at Garden City, Dec. 7, 
1918. 

C. VINCENT DAIGER 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles V. Daiger, of Newton, Mass. ; was 
born at Baltimore, Md., Aug. 11, 1892. He attended the Newton 
High School, graduating in 1911. On Oct. 26, 1917, he enlisted for 
the Air Service, at Boston, Mass. He reported for active duty at 
Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., Nov. 24, 1917, and was commis- 
sioned 2d Lieut., S.R.C.A.S., Jan. 20, 1918. In March, 1918, he 
was assigned as student to the Aerial Gunnery School, at Ellington 
Field, Houston, Tex., afterwards becoming a member of the staff 
of that school. Lieut. Daiger was ordered to Rockwell Field, 
San Diego, Cal, in May, 1918. Served as Instructor in Advanced 
Aerial Gunnery, and as Adjutant at Ream Field, Oneonta, Cal. 
In Oct., 1918, was awarded "wings," and rated as Reserve Military 
Aviator, being classed as "Pursuit Pilot." He was honorably dis- 
charged, Jan. 13, 1919. Afterwards he received commission as 
Flyer in Reserve Corps. 



[ 462 ] 



MAHLON COOK BUNDY 



Second Lieutenant, Royal Air Force 
Son of William H. and Marion C. Bundy, of Cambridge, Mass.; 
was born at Rice Lake, Wis., June 6, 1897. He was educated at the 
Newton High School, Phillips Exeter Academy, and at Wesleyan 
University, class of 1921 ; at college he was president of his fresh- 
man class, member of college Senate, and D.K.E. Fraternity. He 
attended the Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg in 1916, and 
then served in France from Feb. 19 to Sept. 4, 1917, with the 
American Ambulance Field Service, Verdun sector. On April 12, 
1918, he enlisted in the R.A.F. at Toronto, Can., and trained at 
the Toronto University, School of Armament, at Hamilton, Ont. 
(204 T.D.S.). He sailed for England, Aug. 31, 1918, and was sta- 
tioned at East Church, Kent, from Sept., 1918, to April, 1919, 
when he was assigned to the Denham Repatriation Camp, and 
then to the Shorncliffe Repatriation Camp, where he was honor- 
ably discharged, for Repatriation, June 28, 1919. He was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., R.A.F., dating from Oct. 29, 1918. 

JAMES E. KILEY 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., One Hundred Sixty-Third 
Aero Squadron 

Son of Mr. and Mrs. Kiley, of Concord, N.H. He attended the 
Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg, completing his training 
there, Aug. 14, 1917. He was assigned to Princeton University, and 
graduated from the School of Military Aeronautics, Jan. 12, 1918. 
He was commissioned 2d Lieut., April 20, 1918, at Park Field, 
Memphis, Tenn., where he was stationed until he was ordered 
overseas. He sailed for France, and was attached to the 163d Aero 
Squadron. 



[ 464 ] 



JAMES WALLACE GIBSON 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Charles Ellsworth and Helen (Knowlton) Gibson; was born 
at West Newton, Mass., Aug. 30, 1897. He attended the public 
schools of Newton, Chauncy Hall School, Boston, and the M.I.T., 
for two years, leaving to enter the Service. He attended the Officers' 
Training Camp at Plattsburg in 1917, and was there commissioned, 
on May 15, 1st Lieut., U.S. Infantry. He was on duty with the 
310th Infantry at Camp Dix, N.J., until March, 1918, when he 
transferred to the Aviation Service. He trained at the Ground 
School, Austin, Tex.; and on Oct. 8, 1918, qualified as R.M.A., at 
Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex. At Post Field, Fort Sill, Okla., he 
received training as Army Corps Pilot; and in aerial gunnery, at 
Taliaferro Field, Fort Worth, Tex., where he was honorably dis- 
charged, Jan. 6, 1919. 

GEORGE B. CUTTS 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

He attended the First Officers' Training Camp at Plattsburg. He 
was commissioned 2d Lieut., Field Artillery; resigned his com- 
mission to enter the Aviation Service, and attended the M.I.T. 
Ground School for three months. He continued his training at 
Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., where he was commissioned 
2d Lieut., A.S.M.A. He was transferred to Taylor Field, Mont- 
gomery, Ala., and served as Instructor for seven months. He was 
ordered to Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La., where he spent a 
month training at the advanced bombing school. He was prepared 
to go overseas when the Armistice was signed. 



[ 466 ] 



WILLIAM FRANK BAKER, Jr. 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A., Ninety-First Squadron 

Son of William Frank and Mary T. Baker, of Dorchester, Mass. ; 
was born March 7, 1889. He was educated in the public schools of 
Dorchester, and at the Missouri School of Mines; at college he 
played baseball and football. On May 28, 1917, he enlisted at 
Cambridge, Mass., and entered the M.I.T. Ground School, June 2, 
graduating July 29, when he was ordered to Mineola, N.Y. On 
completing his training there, he was commissioned 1st Lieut., 
Dec. 17, 1917. In Jan., 1918, he sailed overseas with the 153d 
Squadron, and trained in France at Issoudun and at ToUrs. On 
Aug. 15, 1918, he was attached to the 91st Squadron, and took an 
active part in the St.-Mihiel and Argonne offensives. Lieut. Baker's 
duties, as a long-distance reconnaissance pilot and observer, were 
to secure information of enemy fortifications, ammunition dumps, 
troop movements, airdromes, and artillery activity, and also to 
photograph the same; such missions often extended 100 miles over 
the enemy lines. Lieut. Baker sailed for the U.S. in Dec, 1918, and 
was honorably discharged at Garden City, N.Y., Jan. 10, 1918. 

*JOSEPH GERARD MURPHY 

Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 
Died, Oct. 18, 1918 

Born Jan. 29, 1897. He was educated at the Somerville High 
School and at Boston College. He enlisted in the U.S.N.R.F.; was 
commissioned Ensign. Died in Service, Oct. 18, 1918. 



[ 468 ] 



GEORGE LOWELL ASPINWALL 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of William Henry and Susan (Lowell) Aspinwall; was born at 
Chestnut Hill, Mass., Oct. 9, 1891. He attended the Volkmann 
School, and graduated from Harvard College in 1914. He then 
engaged in the banking business. He attended the Officers' Train- 
ing Camp at Plattsburg in 1915 and 1916, and was there com- 
missioned Capt., U.S. Infantry. Illness obliged him to retire from 
the Service, but upon recovery he enlisted in the Aviation Service, 
Feb. 15, 1918. On March 8 he began training at Princeton, N.J., 
where he graduated June 8, 1918. On June 10 he continued his 
training at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex., where he remained 
until after the signing of the Armistice. He was commissioned 
2d Lieut., A.S., U.S.A., Nov. 12, 1918, and was honorably dis- 
charged in Jan., 1919. 

Brother in Service — 
Augustus Aspinwall, 2d Lieut., 110th Infantry, 28th Division; 
killed in action, Aug. 26, 1918. 

HAROLD WAYNE PARKER 

Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Born in 1895. He received ground school training at M.I.T., and 
graduated from the U.S. School of Military Aeronautics, at Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N.Y., Jan. 19, 1918. He was commissioned 
2d Lieut., A.S., U.S.A., at Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, La., 
May 18, 1918, and was appointed Instructor of Gunnery at that 
field. Lieut. Parker was transferred to Rockwell Field, San Diego, 
Cal., Aug. 22, 1918, where he completed his combat course. He 
reported for overseas service at Garden City, N.Y., on Nov. 1, 
1918, but did not sail, owing to the Armistice. 



[ 470 ] 



FRANK H. MAHONEY 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.SA. 

Son of Andrew J. and Josephine (Dowling) Mahoney; was born at 
Dorchester, Mass., Sept. 8, 1891. He attended the public schools 
of Dorchester, and graduated from the M.I.T. in 1913. He was a 
member of the 1st Corps of Cadets, M.V.M., and was with them 
mustered into the 101st Engineers. He transferred to the Aviation 
Service, and after training at the M.I.T., at Princeton, N.J., and 
at Dallas, Tex., he was stationed at Ellington Field, Houston, Tex., 
where he was commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. He sailed over- 
seas in Sept., 1918, and was in training in France at the time of the 
signing of the Armistice. He returned to the U.S. in the spring of 
1919, and was honorably discharged from the Service. 

* MARBEL LESTER DUNHAM 

Second Lieutenant, A.S.A., U.S.A., Ninety-First Aero 
Squadron 
Killed in airplane accident, June 22, 1918 

Son of Richard B. and Annie (Irving) Dunham, of Cambridge, 
Mass.; was born at Vernon Mines, King's County, N.S., Aug. 29, 
1898. He was educated at the Cambridge High and Latin Schools. 
He left school to enlist in the Royal Air Force at Toronto, Can., 
June 23, 1917. He trained with the Royal Air Force in Toronto, for 
four months, and then at Fort Worth, Tex., for nine weeks. He 
sailed for France, Dec. 29, 1917, but to his disappointment was 
held in Chichester, Eng., for further training. There he was com- 
missioned 2d Lieut., April 1, 1918. On June 22, 1918, while flying 
a scout machine, Lieut. Dunham met with a fatal accident. He 
was buried at Chichester, Eng., with full military honors. 

Brothers in Service — 

Clarence Dunham, Private, U.S.A. ; killed in action at Battle 
of the Marne. 

Gordon Dunham, Private, U.S.A. ; wounded at Verdun. 



[ 472 ] 



RICHARD de GOZZALDI 



Second Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Silvio M. and Mary I. (James) Gozzaldi, of Cambridge, 
Mass.; was born in Switzerland in 1889. He was educated in the 
public schools of Cambridge, and at Harvard College, graduating 
in 1913. He served with Battery A, 1st Mass. F.A., N.G., in 1916, 
at the Mexican Border. In the fall of 1917, he attended the 2d 
Officers' Training Camp, at Plattsburg, where he was recom- 
mended for the Aviation Service. He trained at the Ground School 
at Princeton, N.J., graduating March 16, 1918. He was then 
ordered to Camp Dick, Dallas, Tex., where he remained for five 
weeks; he was then transferred to Love Field. On May 1, 1918, he 
made his first flight, and continued to fly as Cadet, until Aug. 14, 
1918, when he was commissioned 2d Lieut., A.S., U.S.A. He re- 
mained at Love Field, Dallas, Tex., until Nov., 1918, when he was 
sent to Garden City, N.Y., to await transport overseas, but did 
not sail, owing to the signing of the Armistice. He was honorably 
discharged at Garden City, N.Y., in Dec, 1918. 

DANIEL W. POWDERLY 

First Lieutenant, A.S., U.S.A. 

He enlisted in the Aviation Service, in Dec, 1917, and trained at 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; at Chanute Field, Rantoul, 111.; 
and at Payne Field, West Point, Miss. He was then sent to a con- 
centration camp at Long Island, preparatory to sailing for France. 
He sailed overseas on Oct. 26, 1918. 



[ 474 ] 



* WILLIAM G. SPRAGUE 



Ensign, U.S.N.R.F. 
Killed in seaplane accident, Oct. 26, 1918 

Born at Chicago, 111., July 13, 1893. He attended the University 
of Michigan for two years, and graduated from the M.I.T. in 1916. 
He joined the Naval Aviation Detachment at the M.I.T. ; Motor 
Inspection Division, Jan. 11, 1917. He was transferred to the 
Naval Air Station at Pensacola, Fla., and trained there until May, 
1917. He was commissioned Ensign, sent overseas, and stationed 
at Paris in Feb., 1918. He was ordered to the Moutchic-Lacanau 
Training School, and then to the U.S. Naval Air Station, lie Tudy, 
France, in Oct. On Oct. 26, 1918, he was killed in a seaplane acci- 
dent at lie Tudy. 

He was awarded the Croix de Guerre with Gold Star, which was 
presented at his funeral. 



[ 476 ] 



HENRY ALEXANDER MAGNUSON 



Cadet, A.S., U.S.A. 

Son of Axel Birger and Hanna Caroline (Johanson) Magnuson; was 
born at Cambridge, Mass., on Oct. 15, 1895. He was educated at 
the Harvard Grammar School, the Rindge Training School, Cam- 
bridge, and at the Mass. Normal Aft School, Boston. He belonged 
to the Rindge crew in 1914, and won fourth place in the mile run 
at the Rindge track meet. During his freshman year at the Mass. 
Normal Art School, he received first honors, and in sophomore and 
junior years received the highest rank in the architectural course. 

He enlisted in the Air Service at Boston, Mass., on April 23, 1918, 
and entered the School of Military Aeronautics at M.I.T., on 
June 29, leaving on Sept. 7 to complete his ground-school work at 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. He remained at Cornell with 
Squadron 59, until Sept. 21, 1918; then went to Camp Dick, Dal- 
las, Tex., where he remained from Oct. 5 to Nov. 5. He was then 
transferred to Chanute Field, Rantoul, 111., where he was trained 
from Nov. 7 to Dec. 4. Subsequently he was ordered to Camp Call 
Field, Wichita Falls, Tex., where he was stationed from Dec. 6, 
1918, to Jan. 20, 1919; and to Love Field, Dallas, Tex., where he was 
held from Jan. 21 to March 17, 1919. On March 17, 1919, he was 
honorably discharged from the Service at Love Field, Dallas, Tex. 

Brothers in Service — 

Arthur Albert Magnuson, Q.M., Naval Aviation, Co. 4, Hamp- 
ton Roads, Va. 

Adolph Harold Magnuson, Corp., Co. C, 103d Infantry, 26th 
Division. On the evening of Nov. 12, 1918, as Co. C was 
celebrating the Armistice by firing off the rockets which had 
been used during the war as signals, a piece of one of the 
rockets, which had some metal in it, fell and struck Corp. 
Magnuson on the back of the head. He did not recover con- 
sciousness, and died Nov. 24, 1918. 



[ 477 ] 



DAVID PUTNAM 
By Richard D. Ware 

Up from the eyrie the young falcon leapt. 
The fires of his fearless eyes 
Outfacing the fierce flamings of the sun. 
Then in wide circles swept 
Against the skies, 

More free than their own stars to run 
His course in Liberty 
Until, the Earth concealed 
Beneath a cloud, he wheeled 

Free, 

Utterly. 

Freed of all earthly things 
Down through the void he pitched with folded wings 
Piercing the cloud like flashing sword 
Full in the vulture horde. 
Foul beaks and talons tore 
The life from him, but on his spirit bore 
The valiant heart, and back to Earth there sped 
On stiffening pinions set, the falcon, dead, 
To bear the message of his vision in the sky 
Of Liberty. 



[ 478 ] 



ABBREVIATIONS 



A.A.A.P. American Aviation Acceptance Park 

AA.P. Aviation Acceptance Park 

A.E.F. American Expeditionary Forces 

A.D.C. Aide-de-Camp 

A.I.C. Aviation Instruction Centre 

A.S. Air Service; used in A.E.F. 

A.SA. Air Service Aeronaut; used in U.S. to denote flyers only; 

ground officers in Air Service use A.S. only 

A.S.M.A. Air Service, Military Aeronautics 

A.S.S.C.* Aviation Section, Signal Corps 

A. S.S.R.C.* Aviation Section, Signal Reserve Corps 

B. E.F. British Expeditionary Forces. 

C. A.C. Coast Artillery Corps 

C.E.F. Canadian Expeditionary Forces 

CO. Commanding Officer 

C. T.S. Canadian Training Squadron 

D. A.C. Division d'Application de Combat 

D.F.C. Distinguished Flying Cross (British decoration) 

DeH. 4 De Haviland 4 

D.S.C. Distinguished Service Cross 

D.S.M. Distinguished Service Medal 

D.S.O. Distinguished Service Order (British decoration) 

F. A. Field Artillery 

G. D.E. Le Plessis-Belleville, where all French pilots were sent 

before being assigned to an escadrille 

J.M.A. Junior Military Aviator 

M.I.T. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

M.V.M. Massachusetts Volunteer Militia 

N.A.S. Naval Air Station 

N.C.T.S. Northern Canadian Training Squadron 

N.G. National Guard 

N.R.F.C. Naval Reserve Flying Corps 

* Obsolete as far as Aviation is concerned. 

[ 479 ] 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Q.M.C. Quartermaster Corps 

R.A.F. Royal Air Force 

R.F.C. Royal Flying Corps 

R.M.A. Reserve Military Aviator 

R.N.A.S. Royal Naval Air Service 

R.O.T.C. Reserve Officers' Training Corps 

S.E. 5 Type of British single-seater 

S.A.T.C. Students' Army Training Corps 

S.M.A. School of Military Aeronautics 

S.O.S. Service of Supply 

S.E.R.C.* Signal Enlisted Reserve Corps 

S.O.R.C.* Signal Officers' Reserve Corps 

S.R.C.A.S.* Signal Reserve Corps, Air Service 

S.S.U. Section Sanitaire Etats-Unis: official designation of an 
American Ambulance Section serving with the French 
Army 

T.M.U. Transport de matSriel: the Camion Service which carried 
munitions and supplies for the Army 

U.S.A.S. United States Air Service 

U.S.M.C.R. United States Marine Corps Reserve 

U.S.N.A.S. United States Naval Air Service 

U.S.N.R. United States Naval Reserve 

U.S.N.R.F. United States Naval Reserve Force 
U.S.N.R.F.C. United States Naval Reserve Flying Corps 

U.S.N. United States Navy 

U.S.S. United States Steamship 



* Obsolete as far as Aviation is concerned. 



[ 480 ]